Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition

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Author: Jeffrey C. Levy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317351290

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 4245

Adaptive Learning and the Human Condition presents the basic principles of classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (Skinnerian) conditioning in a more coherent and expansive manner than is the case in other textbooks. Learning is defined as an adaptive process through which individuals acquire the ability to predict, and where possible, control the environment. This overarching definition enables integration of traditional Pavlovian and Skinnerian principles and terminology and makes explicit why treatment of the learning process is essentially limited to these two historical research paradigms. Pavlov developed a methodology for studying animals under circumstances where they could predict, but not control, sequences of environmental events. Skinner studied animals under circumstances where their behavior had an effect upon environmental events. Observational learning and symbolic communication (i.e., spoken or written language) are incorporated as indirect learning processes through which individuals can acquire the ability to predict or control. This treatment creates a perspective within which it is possible to consider the fundamental nature of the learning process in understanding the human condition and in addressing significant individual and social concerns. Examples of applications and issues not included in similar textbooks include: The role of classical and instrumental conditioning in language acquisition The administration of rewards and punishers in Baumrind’s parental styles as related to Kohlberg’s stages of moral development Stone-Age hunter-gatherer and technologically-advanced cultures: How did we get from there to here? Self-control and self-actualization While covering traditional technical and theoretical issues, the book is written in a clear, engaging style. The narrative builds across chapters, culminating in the treatment of applications and societal concerns of import and interest to students and faculty alike. Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: explain the significance of human condition through adaptive learning; present the basic principles of classical and instrumental conditioning; and understand the significance of scientific research

Cultural Anthropology

A Perspective on the Human Condition

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Author: Emily A. Schultz,Robert H. Lavenda,Roberta Robin Dods

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780199028528

Category:

Page: 432

View: 2282

Drawing on the authors' fieldwork experience, this text explores how cultural creativity, human agency, and the material conditions of everyday life interact to shape cultural practices. Discussions of ongoing controversies - including tribalism vs. globalization and increasing inequalitybetween "have" and "have not" regions - show how cultural anthropologists can tackle the world's most pressing social problems through their specialized knowledge and skills.

An Introduction to Modern Philosophy

Examining the Human Condition

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Author: Alburey Castell,Donald M. Borchert,Arthur Zucker

Publisher: Simon & Schuster Books For Young Readers

ISBN: 9780023200922

Category: Philosophy

Page: 770

View: 4649

This anthology of modern philosophy covers recent approaches from deconstruction to feminism in a new chapter on the philosophy of science. Topics covered include life after death and free will and determinism.

The Human Condition

Contemplation and Transformation

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Author: Thomas Keating

Publisher: Paulist Press

ISBN: 1616433574

Category: Contemplation

Page: 45

View: 2239

The psychological roots of authentic spiritual life, by one of the great teachers of contemplative prayer.

Schottenfreude

German Words for the Human Condition

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Author: Ben Schott

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 039916670X

Category: HUMOR

Page: 96

View: 5558

"From bestselling author and New York Times columnist Ben Schott comes an entertaining and much-needed German dictionary for the human condition, a gift book for wordsmiths and Deutschophiles alike"--

Working the Room

Essays

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Author: Geoff Dyer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781782115113

Category: Arts, Modern

Page: 416

View: 7909

Alive with insight, wit and Dyer's characteristic irreverence, this collection of essays offers a guide around the cultural maze, mapping a route through the worlds of literature, art, photography and music. Besides exploring what it is that makes great art great, Working the Room ventures into more personal territory with extensive autobiographical pieces - 'On Being an Only Child', 'Sacked' and 'Reader's Block', among other gems. Dyer's breadth of vision and generosity of spirit combine to form a manual for ways of being in - and seeing - the world today.

Between Past and Future

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Author: Hannah Arendt,Jerome Kohn

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101662654

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 3232

From the author of Eichmann in Jerusalem and The Origins of Totalitarianism, “a book to think with through the political impasses and cultural confusions of our day” (Harper’s Magazine) Hannah Arendt’s insightful observations of the modern world, based on a profound knowledge of the past, constitute an impassioned contribution to political philosophy. In Between Past and Future Arendt describes the perplexing crises modern society faces as a result of the loss of meaning of the traditional key words of politics: justice, reason, responsibility, virtue, and glory. Through a series of eight exercises, she shows how we can redistill the vital essence of these concepts and use them to regain a frame of reference for the future. To participate in these exercises is to associate, in action, with one of the most original and fruitful minds of the twentieth century.

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

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Author: Donald J. Ortner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080525631

Category: Medical

Page: 645

View: 4794

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Key Features *Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains * More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features * Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years * Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Love and Saint Augustine

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Author: Hannah Arendt

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226025964

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 233

View: 8620

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, as she was completing or reworking her most influential studies of political life, Arendt was simultaneously annotating and revising her dissertation on Augustine, amplifying its argument with terms and concepts she was using in her political works of the same period.

Human Life, Action and Ethics

Essays by G.E.M. Anscombe

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Author: G.E.M. Anscombe

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN: 1845402715

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 1494

A collection of essays by the celebrated philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe. This collection includes papers on human nature and practical philosophy, together with the classic 'Modern Moral Philosophy'

Gardens

An Essay on the Human Condition

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Author: Robert Pogue Harrison

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 1459606264

Category: Gardening

Page: 426

View: 2967

Humans have long turned to gardens - both real and imaginary - for sanctuary from the frenzy and tumult that surrounds them. Those gardens may be as far away from everyday reality as Gilgamesh's garden of the gods or as near as our own backyard, but in their very conception and the marks they bear of human care and cultivation, gardens stand as restorative, nourishing, necessary havens.With Gardens, Robert Pogue Harrison graces readers with a thoughtful, wide-ranging examination of the many ways gardens evoke the human condition. Moving from from the gardens of ancient philosophers to the gardens of homeless people in contemporary New York, he shows how, again and again, the garden has served as a check against the destruction and losses of history. The ancients, explains Harrison, viewed gardens as both a model and a location for the laborious self-cultivation and self-improvement that are essential to serenity and enlightenment, an association that has continued throughout the ages. The Bible and Qur'an; Plato's Academy and Epicurus's Garden School; Zen rock and Islamic carpet gardens; Boccaccio, Rihaku, Capek, Cao Xueqin, Italo Calvino, Ariosto, Michel Tournier, and Hannah Arendt - all come into play as this work explores the ways in which the concept and reality of the garden has informed human thinking about mortality, order, and power. Alive with the echoes and arguments of Western thought, Gardens is a fitting continuation of the intellectual journeys of Harrison's earlier classics, Forests and The Dominion of the Dead. Voltaire famously urged us to cultivate our gardens; with this compelling volume, Robert Pogue Harrison reminds us of the nature of that responsibility - and its enduring importance to humanity.

The Blank Slate

The Modern Denial of Human Nature

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Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141925914

Category: Psychology

Page: 528

View: 5969

'A passionate defence of the enduring power of human nature ... both life-affirming and deeply satisfying' Daily Telegraph Recently many people have assumed that we are blank slates shaped by our environment. But this denies the heart of our being: human nature. Violence is not just a product of society; male and female minds are different; the genes we give our children shape them more than our parenting practices. To acknowledge our innate abilities, Pinker shows, is not to condone inequality, but to understand the very foundations of humanity. 'Brilliant ... enjoyable, informative, clear, humane' New Scientist 'If you think the nature-nurture debate has been resolved, you are wrong ... this book is required reading' Literary Review 'An original and vital contribution to science and also a rattling good read' Matt Ridley, Sunday Telegraph 'Startling ... This is a breath of air for a topic that has been politicized for too long' Economist

Creating Capabilities

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Author: Martha C. Nussbaum

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674061209

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 9700

This is a primer on the Capabilities Approach, Martha Nussbaum’s innovative model for assessing human progress. She argues that much humanitarian policy today violates basic human values; instead, she offers a unique means of redirecting government and development policy toward helping each of us lead a full and creative life.

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease

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Author: P. Michael Conn

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124159125

Category: Science

Page: 1108

View: 5883

Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease identifies important animal models and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each model for the study of human disease. The first section addresses how to locate resources, animal alternatives, animal ethics and related issues, much needed information for researchers across the biological sciences and biomedicine.The next sections of the work offers models for disease-oriented topics, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases, aging, infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, neurological diseases, joint diseases, visual disorders, cancer, hypertension, genetic diseases, and diseases of abuse. Organized by disease orientation for ease of searchability Provides information on locating resources, animal alternatives and animal ethics Covers a broad range of animal models used in research for human disease

The Missing Element

Inspiring Compassion for the Human Condition

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Author: Debra Silverman

Publisher: Findhorn Press

ISBN: 9781844096893

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 160

View: 998

Everyone longs to be understood in their essence. In "The Missing Element", author Debra Silverman describes human nature in a compassionate and succinct way, and offers ways for us to get to know ourselves in depth with the wisdom of archetypes. The information in this book stands on the shoulders of our elders, who understood the four directions, the four elements, the four noble truths. Whatever pain you experience is specific to your personality type, based on the four elements. The 'missing element' is twofold: it refers to the Observer inside you – the part of you that can stand outside of judgment and see yourself with a more wise and compassionate approach – much like our elders did. And it also refers to the elements that make up your personality and more specifically, to the element which is your weakest. Your issues will repeat themselves again and again until you can see yourself and others from the compassionate vantage point that unites all of us. You will understand that your life and all its stories were designed by your soul to get your attention right now. It is inviting you to seek the wisdom of the ages to help you grow... that’s why you found this book at this moment in time!

The Dream of Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Philosophy

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Author: Anthony Gottlieb

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 163149208X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 4673

Anthony Gottlieb’s landmark The Dream of Reason and its sequel challenge Bertrand Russell’s classic as the definitive history of Western philosophy. Western philosophy is now two and a half millennia old, but much of it came in just two staccato bursts, each lasting only about 150 years. In his landmark survey of Western philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance, The Dream of Reason, Anthony Gottlieb documented the first burst, which came in the Athens of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Now, in his sequel, The Dream of Enlightenment, Gottlieb expertly navigates a second great explosion of thought, taking us to northern Europe in the wake of its wars of religion and the rise of Galilean science. In a relatively short period—from the early 1640s to the eve of the French Revolution—Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Leibniz, and Hume all made their mark. The Dream of Enlightenment tells their story and that of the birth of modern philosophy. As Gottlieb explains, all these men were amateurs: none had much to do with any university. They tried to fathom the implications of the new science and of religious upheaval, which led them to question traditional teachings and attitudes. What does the advance of science entail for our understanding of ourselves and for our ideas of God? How should a government deal with religious diversity—and what, actually, is government for? Such questions remain our questions, which is why Descartes, Hobbes, and the others are still pondered today. Yet it is because we still want to hear them that we can easily get these philosophers wrong. It is tempting to think they speak our language and live in our world; but to understand them properly, we must step back into their shoes. Gottlieb puts readers in the minds of these frequently misinterpreted figures, elucidating the history of their times and the development of scientific ideas while engagingly explaining their arguments and assessing their legacy in lively prose. With chapters focusing on Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, Pierre Bayle, Leibniz, Hume, Rousseau, and Voltaire—and many walk-on parts—The Dream of Enlightenment creates a sweeping account of what the Enlightenment amounted to, and why we are still in its debt.

Responsibility and Judgment

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Author: Hannah Arendt

Publisher: Schocken

ISBN: 0307544052

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 8172

Each of the books that Hannah Arendt published in her lifetime was unique, and to this day each continues to provoke fresh thought and interpretations. This was never more true than for Eichmann in Jerusalem, her account of the trial of Adolf Eichmann, where she first used the phrase “the banality of evil.” Her consternation over how a man who was neither a monster nor a demon could nevertheless be an agent of the most extreme evil evoked derision, outrage, and misunderstanding. The firestorm of controversy prompted Arendt to readdress fundamental questions and concerns about the nature of evil and the making of moral choices. Responsibility and Judgment gathers together unpublished writings from the last decade of Arendt’s life, as she struggled to explicate the meaning of Eichmann in Jerusalem. At the heart of this book is a profound ethical investigation, “Some Questions of Moral Philosophy”; in it Arendt confronts the inadequacy of traditional moral “truths” as standards to judge what we are capable of doing, and she examines anew our ability to distinguish good from evil and right from wrong. We see how Arendt comes to understand that alongside the radical evil she had addressed in earlier analyses of totalitarianism, there exists a more pernicious evil, independent of political ideology, whose execution is limitless when the perpetrator feels no remorse and can forget his acts as soon as they are committed. Responsibility and Judgment is an essential work for understanding Arendt’s conception of morality; it is also an indispensable investigation into some of the most troubling and important issues of our time. From the Hardcover edition.