The History of Migration in Europe

Perspectives from Economics, Politics and Sociology

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Author: Francesca Fauri

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131767829X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 282

View: 3179

The History of Migration in Europe belies several myths by arguing, for example, that immobility has not been the "normal" condition of people before the modern era. Migration (far from being an income-maximizing choice taken by lone individuals) is often a household strategy, and local wages benefit from migration. This book shows how ssuccesses arise when governments liberalize and accompany the international movements of people with appropriate legislation, while failures take place when the legislation enacted is insufficient, belated or ill shaped. Part I of this book addresses mainly methodological issues. Past and present migration is basically defined as a cross-cultural movement; cultural boundaries need prolonged residence and active integrationist policies to allow cross-fertilization of cultures among migrants and non-migrants. Part II collects chapters that examine the role of public bodies with reference to migratory movements, depicting a series of successes and failures in the migration policies through examples drawn from the European Union or single countries. Part III deals with challenges immigrants face once they have settled in their new countries: Do immigrants seek "integration" in their host culture? Through which channels is such integration achieved, and what roles are played by citizenship and political participation? What is the "identity" of migrants and their children born in the host countries? This text's originality stems from the fact that it explains the complex nature of migratory movements by incorporating a variety of perspectives and using a multi-disciplinary approach, including economic, political and sociological contributions.

Migration in European History

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Author: Klaus Bade

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470754575

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 7702

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, migration has become a major cause for concern in many European countries, but migrations to, from and within Europe are nothing new, as Klaus Bade reminds us in this timely history. A history of migration to, from and within Europe over a range of eras, countries and migration types. Examines the driving forces and currents of migration, their effects on the cultures of both migrants and host populations, including migration policies. Focuses on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, particularly the period from the Second World War to the present. Illuminates concerns about migration in Europe today. Acts as a corrective to the alarmist reactions of host populations in twenty-first century Europe.

The History of the European Migration Regime

Germany's Strategic Hegemony

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Author: Emmanuel Comte

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135167000X

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 4224

After the Second World War, the international migration regime in Europe took a course different from the global migration regime and the migration regimes in other regions of the world. From the bureaucratic and restrictive practices that prevailed in the late 1940s in most parts of Europe, the European migration regime was deeply transformed by the gradual implementation of the free movement of people within the European Community, of European citizenship, and of the Schengen agreements in their internal and external dimensions. They have produced a regional regime in Europe with an unparalleled degree of intra-regional openness and an unparalleled degree of closure towards migrants from outside Europe. On the basis of relevant national and international archives, this book explains how German geopolitical and geo-economic strategies during the Cold War shaped the openness of that original regime. The History of the European Migration Regime highlights how the regime was instrumental for Germany to create a stable international order in Western Europe after the war, conducive to German reunification, the rollback of Russian influence from Central Europe, and German economic expansion. The book embraces a large time frame, mostly between 1947 and 1992, and deals with all types of migration between and towards European countries: the movements of unskilled labourers, skilled professionals, and self-employed workers, along with the migrants’ family members, examining both their access to economic activity and their social and political rights.

A Short History of Migration

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Author: Massimo Livi Bacci

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745681468

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 2625

Translated by Carl Ipsen. This short book provides a succinct and masterly overview of the history of migration, from the earliest movements of human beings out of Africa into Asia and Europe to the present day, exploring along the way those factors that contribute to the successes and failures of migratory groups. Separate chapters deal with the migration flows between Europe and the rest of the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and with the turbulent and complex migratory history of the Americas. Livi Bacci shows that, over the centuries, migration has been a fundamental human prerogative and has been an essential element in economic development and the achievement of improved standards of living. The impact of state policies has been mixed, however, as states have each established their own rules of entry and departure - rules that today accentuate the differences between the interests of the sending countries, the receiving countries, and the migrants themselves. Lacking international agreement on migration rules owing to the refusal of states to surrender any of their sovereignty in this regard, the positive role that migration has always played in social development is at risk. This concise history of migration by one of the world's leading demographers will be an indispensable text for students and for anyone interested in understanding how the movement of people has shaped the modern world.

Migration, Memory, and Diversity

Germany from 1945 to the Present

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Author: Cornelia Wilhelm

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785333283

Category: Social Science

Page: 366

View: 2972

Within Germany, policies and cultural attitudes toward migrants have been profoundly shaped by the difficult legacies of the Second World War and its aftermath. This wide-ranging volume explores the complex history of migration and diversity in Germany from 1945 to today, showing how conceptions of "otherness" developed while memories of the Nazi era were still fresh, and identifying the continuities and transformations they exhibited through the Cold War and reunification. It provides invaluable context for understanding contemporary Germany's unique role within regional politics at a time when an unprecedented influx of immigrants and refugees present the European community with a significant challenge.

Integration Processes and Policies in Europe

Contexts, Levels and Actors

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Author: Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas,Rinus Penninx

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319216740

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 6961

In this open access book, experts on integration processes, integration policies, transnationalism, and the migration and development framework provide an academic assessment of the 2011 European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals, which calls for integration policies in the EU to involve not only immigrants and their society of settlement, but also actors in their country of origin. Moreover, a heuristic model is developed for the non-normative, analytical study of integration processes and policies based on conceptual, demographic, and historical accounts. The volume addresses three interconnected issues: What does research have to say on (the study of) integration processes in general and on the relevance of actors in origin countries in particular? What is the state of the art of the study of integration policies in Europe and the use of the concept of integration in policy formulation and practice? Does the proposal to include actors in origin countries as important players in integration policies find legitimation in empirical research? A few general conclusions are drawn. First, integration policies have developed at many levels of government: nationally, locally, regionally, and at the supra-national level of the EU. Second, a multitude of stakeholders has become involved in integration as policy designers and implementers. Finally, a logic of policymaking—and not an evidence-based scientific argument—can be said to underlie the European Commission’s redefinition of integration as a three-way process. This book will appeal to academics and policymakers at international, European, national, regional, and local levels. It will also be of interest to graduate and master-level students of political science, sociology, social anthropology, international relations, criminology, geography, and history.

Paths of Integration

Migrants in Western Europe (1880-2004)

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Author: Leo Lucassen,David Feldman,Jochen Oltmer

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9053568832

Category: History

Page: 343

View: 1030

Why do some migrants integrate quickly, while others become long-term minorities? What is the role of the state in the settlement process? To what extent are experiences in the past different from the present? Are the recent migrants really integrating in another way than those in the past? Is Islam indeed an obstacle to integration? These are some of the burning questions, which dominate the current politicized debate on immigration in Western Europe. In this book, leading historians and social scientists analyze and compare a variety of settlement processes in past and present migration to Western Europe. Identifying general factors in the process of adaptation of new immigrants, the contributors trace social changes effected by recent European immigration, and the parallels with the great American migration of the 1880s-1920s. The history of migration to Western Europe and the way these migrants found their place in the receiving societies, is not only essential to understand the way nations deal with newcomers in the present, but also constitutes a highly interesting laboratory for different paths of integration now and then. By analyzing and comparing a wealth of settlement processes both in the past and in the present this book is both a bold interdisciplinary endeavor, and at the same time the first attempt to identify general factors underlying the way migrants adapt to their new surroundings, as well as how societies change under the influence of immigration. The chapters in the book both look at specific groups in various periods, but also analyses the structure of the state, churches unions and other important organized actors in Western European nation states. Moreover, the results are embedded in the more theoretical American literature on the comparison of old and new migrants. All chapters have an explicit comparative perspective, either by comparing different groups or different periods, whereas the general conclusion ties together the various outcomes in a systematic way, highlighting the main answers to the central questions about the various outcomes of settlement processes. --Publisher.

Migration Control in the North Atlantic World

The Evolution of State Practices in Europe and the United States from the French Revolution to the Inter-war Period

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Author: Andreas Fahrmeir,Olivier Faron,Patrick Weil

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571813282

Category: Social Science

Page: 322

View: 4338

..".we still know surprisingly little about the enforcement of [national migration control laws] and their effects on migration...This book significantly reduces our ignorance...astonishingly, most of the papers...manage to thread a path through the formidable tangle of law, jurisdictions and complexities while maintaining a clear narrative voice and not losing sight of the larger issues." Comparativ In general, this set of essays, in its breadth of contributions and range of topics, is a major value to specialists and advanced students. The essays are argued tightly, et rest on a substantial base of evidence." History: Reviews of New Books "[A] pioneering study ... As well as its empirical strengths, the book also demonstrates Fahrmeir's comfort in dealing with theory ... The rigor with which [he] tackles his subject deserves comment ... A genuine comparative history ... an extremely important monograph ... a major contribution to out understanding of the legal position of aliens in modern European history." American Historical Review The migration movements of the 20th century have led to an increased interest in similarly dramatic population changes in the preceding century. The contributors to this volume - legal scholars, sociologists, political scientist and historians - focus on migration control in the 19th century, concentrating on three areas in particular: the impact of the French Revolution on the development of modern citizenship laws and on the development of new forms of migration control in France and elsewhere; the theory and practice of migration control in various European states is examined, focusing on the control of paupers, emigrants and "ordinary" travelers as well as on the interrelationship between the different administrative levels - local, regional and national - at which migration control was exercised. Finally, on the development of migration control in two countries of immigration: the United States and France. Taken altogether, these essays demonstrate conclusively that the image of the 19th century as a liberal era during which migration was unaffected by state intervention is untenable and in serious need of revision. Andreas Fahrmeir is currently in the History Department at the University of Cologne. Olivier Faron is a researcher at the CNRS, Universite Paris and lecturer at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris. He is secretary general of the Societe de Demographie Historique and deputy secretary general of the Societe Francaise d'Histoire Urbaine. Patrick Weil is Director of Research at CNRS in the Centre for Research on the History of Social Movements and Trade Unionism, Paris I - Sorbonne. He is the author of a report for the French Prime Minister on French nationality and immigration law in 1997 and is a member of the French Consultative Commission on Human Rights."

International Migration in Europe

New Trends and New Methods of Analysis

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Author: Corrado Bonifazi

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9053568948

Category: Social Science

Page: 342

View: 3527

Literaturangaben

The Role of Migration in the History of the Eurasian Steppe

Sedentary Civilization vs. 'Barbarian' and Nomad

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Author: NA NA

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349618373

Category: History

Page: 355

View: 7236

Throughout their entire history, the sedentary civilizations of China and Europe had to deal with nomads and barbarians. This unique volume explores their drastically different responses: China 'chose' containment while Europe 'chose' expansion. Migration played a crucial role in this interaction. Issuing from two population centers, the sedentary one in the West and the nomadic one in the East, two powerful population streams confronted each other in the Eurasian Steppe. This confrontation was a crucial factor in determining patterns of Eurasian history - it destroyed existing states, created new ones, and drastically changed the balance of power. Even today, while Russian populations in Asia contract, the population pressures in China and Central Asia continue to build and are likely to spill over across the border. This book shows how we are witnessing the beginning of a new cycle of the age-old contest.

Migration, Settlement and Belonging in Europe, 1500-1930s

Comparative Perspectives

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Author: Steven King,Anne Winter

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782381465

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 7459

The issues around settlement, belonging, and poor relief have for too long been understood largely from the perspective of England and Wales. This volume offers a pan-European survey that encompasses Switzerland, Prussia, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Britain. It explores how the conception of belonging changed over time and space from the 1500s onwards, how communities dealt with the welfare expectations of an increasingly mobile population that migrated both within and between states, the welfare rights that were attached to those who "belonged," and how ordinary people secured access to welfare resources. What emerged was a sophisticated European settlement system, which on the one hand structured itself to limit the claims of the poor, and yet on the other was peculiarly sensitive to their demands and negotiations.

Alien Policy in Belgium, 1840-1940

The Creation of Guest Workers, Refugees and Illegal Aliens

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Author: Frank Caestecker

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571819864

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 6896

Belgium has a unique place in the history of migration in that it was the first among industrialized nations in Continental Europe to develop into an immigrant society. In the nineteenth century Italians, Jews, Poles, Czechs, and North Africans settled in Belgium to work in industry and commerce. They were followed by Russians in the 1920s and Germans in the 1930s who were seeking a safe haven from persecution by totalitarian regimes. In the nineteenth century immigrants were to a larger extent integrated into Belgian society: they were denied political rights but participated on equal terms with Belgians in social life. This changed radically in the twentieth century; by 1940 the rights of aliens were severely curtailed, while those of Belgian citizens, in particular in the social domain, were extended. While the state evolved into a "welfare state" for its citizens it became more of a police state for immigrants. The state only tolerated immigrants who were prepared to carry out those jobs that were shunned by the Belgians. Under the pressure of public opinion, an exception was made in the cases of thousands of Jewish refugees that had fled from Nazi Germany. However, other immigrants were subjected to harsh regulations and in fact became the outcasts of twentieth-century Belgian liberal society. This remarkable study examines in depth and over a long time span how (anti-) alien policies were transformed, resulting in an illiberal exclusion of foreigners at the same time as democratization and the welfare state expanded. In this respect Belgium is certainly not unique but offers an interesting case study of developments that are characteristic for Europe as a whole. Frank Caesteckeris senior researcher at the University of Ghent, Department of Modern and Contemporary History.

A History of Migration from Germany to Canada, 1850-1939

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Author: Jonathan Wagner

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774841540

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 6255

Jonathan Wagner considers why Germans left their home country, why they chose to settle in Canada, who assisted their passage, and how they crossed the ocean to their new home, as well as how the Canadian government perceived and solicited them as immigrants. He examines the German context as closely as developments in Canada, offering a new, more complete approach to German-Canadian immigration.

Refugees From Nazi Germany and the Liberal European States

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Author: Frank Caestecker,Bob Moore

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845457994

Category: History

Page: 358

View: 3343

The exodus of refugees from Nazi Germany in the 1930s has received far more attention from historians, social scientists, and demographers than many other migrations and persecutions in Europe. However, as a result of the overwhelming attention that has been given to the Holocaust within the historiography of Europe and the Second World War, the issues surrounding the flight of people from Nazi Germany prior to 1939 have been seen as Vorgeschichte (pre-history), implicating the Western European democracies and the United States as bystanders only in the impending tragedy. Based on a comparative analysis of national case studies, this volume deals with the challenges that the pre-1939 movement of refugees from Germany and Austria posed to the immigration controls in the countries of interwar Europe. Although Europe takes center-stage, this volume also looks beyond, to the Middle East, Asia and America. This global perspective outlines the constraints under which European policy makers (and the refugees) had to make decisions. By also considering the social implications of policies that became increasingly protectionist and nationalistic, and bringing into focus the similarities and differences between European liberal states in admitting the refugees, it offers an important contribution to the wider field of research on political and administrative practices.

Labor Migration in the Atlantic Economies

The European and North American Working Classes During the Period of Industrialization

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Author: Dirk Hoerder

Publisher: Praeger Pub Text

ISBN: 9780313246371

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 491

View: 6959

This collection of essays revises and broadens scholarly assumptions about the history of migration in search of work. The book begins with a critique of current concepts in migration history and a general survey of European labor migration from the 1820s to the 1920s. The following section discusses important emigration and immigration countries and examines in detail the problems of internal European migration in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The author then focuses on the acculturation of labor migrants on both sides of the Atlantic. The final section of this work tackles the much neglected question of return migration. A bibliographic essay, as well as numerous graphs, maps, and illustrations, supplement this collection of essays.

The Great Departure: Mass Migration from Eastern Europe and the Making of the Free World

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Author: Tara Zahra

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393285596

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 2184

“With a combination of deft historical analysis, sparkling prose, and careful attention to individual stories, both poignant and instructive, The Great Departure is brimming with important and suggestive lessons from the past for thinking about the worldwide dynamics of emigrants and refugees in our own day.”—Norman M. Naimark, Stanford University Between 1846 and 1940, more than 50 million Europeans moved to the Americas, irrevocably changing both their new homes and the ones they left behind. In this groundbreaking study, Tara Zahra explores the deeper story of this astonishing movement of people—one of the largest in human history. The great exodus out of Eastern Europe hollowed out villages with dizzying speed. As villages emptied and the fear of depopulation ran rampant, anxiety over “American fever” prevailed, leading to the scapegoating of Jewish emigration agents. Yet others saw vast opportunity: to seed colonies of migrants like the Polish community in Argentina, to gain economic advantage from an inflow of foreign currency, or to reshape their communities in a new land. In the United States, their migration fostered the notion of the “land of the free.” Globally, the policies that gave shape to this migration provided the precedent for future events such as the Holocaust, the closing of the Iron Curtain, and the tragedies of ethnic cleansing. A sweeping history of the most consequential social phenomenon of the twentieth century, The Great Departure gives poignant attention to the individuals whose lives were transformed by these decades of mass departure, and a keen historical perspective on their continuing legacy.

The Strange Death of Europe

Immigration, Identity, Islam

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Author: Douglas Murray

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472942221

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 3137

The Sunday Times number one bestseller The Strange Death of Europe is a highly personal account of a continent and culture caught in the act of suicide. Declining birth-rates, mass immigration and cultivated self-distrust and self-hatred have come together to make Europeans unable to argue for themselves and incapable of resisting their own comprehensive change as a society. This book is not only an analysis of demographic and political realities, but also an eyewitness account of a continent in self-destruct mode. It includes reporting from across the entire continent, from the places where migrants land to the places they end up, from the people who appear to welcome them in to the places which cannot accept them. Told from this first-hand perspective, and backed with impressive research and evidence, the book addresses the disappointing failure of multiculturalism, Angela Merkel's U-turn on migration, the lack of repatriation and the Western fixation on guilt. Murray travels to Berlin, Paris, Scandinavia, Lampedusa and Greece to uncover the malaise at the very heart of the European culture, and to hear the stories of those who have arrived in Europe from far away. In each chapter he also takes a step back to look at the bigger issues which lie behind a continent's death-wish, answering the question of why anyone, let alone an entire civilisation, would do this to themselves? He ends with two visions of Europe – one hopeful, one pessimistic – which paint a picture of Europe in crisis and offer a choice as to what, if anything, we can do next.

Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe

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Author: David Cesarani,Mary Fulbrook

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134790473

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 4942

Throughout Europe longstanding ideas of what it means to be a citizen are being challenged. The sense of belonging to a nation has never been more in flux. Simultaneously, nationalistic and racist movements are gaining ground and barriers are being erected against immigration. This volume examines how concepts of citizenship have evolved in different countries and varying contexts. It explores the interconnection between ideas of the nation, modes of citizenship and the treatment of migrants. Adopting a multi-disciplinary and international approach, this collection brings together experts from several fields including political studies, history, law and sociology. By juxtaposing four European countries - Britain, France, Germany and Italy - and setting current trends against a historical background, it highlights important differences and exposes similarities in the urgent questions surrounding citizenship and the treatment of minorities in Europe today.

The Human Rights of Migrants in European Law

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Author: Cathryn Costello

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199644748

Category: Law

Page: 350

View: 1972

A critical discussion of EU and ECHR migration and refugee law, this book analyses the law on asylum and immigration of third country-nationals. It focuses on how the EU norms interact with ECHR human rights case law on migration, and the pitfalls of European human rights pluralism.

European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century

Historical Patterns, Actual Trends, and Social Implications

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Author: Heinz Fassmann,Rainer Münz

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 287

View: 4152

The discussions of migration to Switzerland, Italy and Austria give this book a special flavour, since these countries are not often included in studies of foreign migration . . . One important contribution of this book is that the case studies show how migration, in spite of numerous differences, can give rise to similar issues. The historical approach brings the second contribution into perspective: continuity of debate and of policy reactions. Jan van Weesep, European Journal of Population On the whole, the volume has handbook-like qualities and will remain both a reference work and a summary of major issues for a long time. It will do so even if new developments should invalidate some of the well-reasoned analyses of trends. No scholar venturing beyond the limiting confines of mono-country research will be able to do without it. Dirk Hoerder, International Migration Review The chapters on East Europe do an excellent job of laying out what is known about population movements to and from the region, both in the past and since the upheaval in the Communist world in the late eighties. Gary P. Freeman, Journal of Public Policy The migration specialist will probably be most interested in the section on East-Central Europe, and find much of the content on western Europe fairly familiar. The more general reader, coming to the subject fresh, will value this book as a thorough entry into major trends, issues and debates, on both international and national scales. For both, it will provide access to useful statistical material and interpretations in a wide range of foreign languages. . . . a welcome addition to the literature in this important field. Political Geography . . . a good summary of the state of knowledge of aspects of recent migration trends in Europe. Dudley Baines, Population Studies Migration in Europe is a pressing social and political issue for the policy makers of the 1990s. Drawing upon a wide body of knowledge, expertise and analysis, European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century combines an important survey with a series of detailed country studies on migration in Europe. The authoritative overview essay by the editors examines migration to and within Europe. They compare the flows during the last forty years with the present situation, detailing both the magnitude and geography of migration over this period. This is followed by thirteen individual country studies each of which features an historical introduction to emigration and immigration in the featured country, quantitative data sets and a detailed assessment of the social and political implications. These studies specially prepared by leading scholars cover the United Kingdom, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, Israel, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, the former Yugoslavia and the former USSR. This comprehensive and scholarly book will be welcomed by teachers and researchers of social sciences and history for presenting new insights on one of the key political, social and economic issues facing modern Europe.