The German Law of Unjustified Enrichment and Restitution

A Comparative Introduction

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Author: Gerhard Dannemann

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199533113

Category: Law

Page: 327

View: 3080

This text provides a comprehensive description in the English language of the German law of unjust enrichment, by explaining how this works in the context of German law, and by discussing the implications this would have if the German system were implemented in an English legal environment.

Unjustified Enrichment

Key Issues in Comparative Perspective

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Author: David Johnston,Reinhard Zimmermann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139432634

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 3690

Unjustified enrichment has been one of the most intellectually vital areas of private law. There is, however, still no unanimity among civil-law and common-law legal systems about how to structure this important branch of the law of obligations. Several key issues are considered comparatively in this 2002 book, including grounds for recovery of enrichment, defences, third-party enrichment, as well as proprietary and taxonomic questions. Two contributors deal with each topic, one a representative of a common-law system, the other a representative of a civil-law or mixed system. This approach illuminates not just similarities or differences between systems, but also what different systems can learn from one another. In an area of law whose territory is still partially uncharted and whose borders are contested, such comparative perspectives will be valuable for both academic analysis of the law and its development by the courts.

Unjust Enrichment in South African Law

Rethinking Enrichment by Transfer

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Author: Helen Scott

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1782251391

Category: Law

Page: 250

View: 7395

Conventional thinking teaches that the absence of liability - in particular contractual invalidity - is itself the reason for the restitution of transfers in the South African law of unjustified enrichment. However, this book argues that while the absence of a relationship of indebtedness is a necessary condition for restitution in such cases, it is not a sufficient condition. The book takes as its focus those instances in which the invalidity thesis is strongest, namely, those traditionally classified as instances of the condictio indebiti, the claim to recover undue transfers. It seeks to demonstrate that in all such instances it is necessary for the plaintiff to show not only the absence of his liability to transfer but also a specific reason for restitution, such as mistake, compulsion or incapacity. Furthermore, this book explores the reasons for the rise of unjust factors in South African law, attributing this development in part to the influence of the Roman-Dutch restitutio in integrum, an extraordinary, equitable remedy that has historically operated independently of the established enrichment remedies of the civilian tradition, and which even now remains imperfectly integrated into the substantive law of enrichment. Finally, the book seeks to defend in principled terms the mixed approach to enrichment by transfer (an approach based both on unjust factors and on the absence of a legal ground) which appears to characterise modern South African law. It advocates the rationalisation of the causes of action comprised within the condictio indebiti, many of which are subject to additional historically-determined requirements, in light of this mixed analysis.

Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, Second Edition

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Author: J. M. Smits

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1781006105

Category: Law

Page: 1000

View: 2142

Acclaim for the first edition: ïThis is a very important and immense book. . . The Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law is a treasure-trove of honed knowledge of the laws of many countries. It is a reference book for dipping into, time and time again. It is worth every penny and there is not another as comprehensive in its coverage as ElgarÍs. I highly recommend the Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law to all English chambers. This is a very important book that should be sitting in every university law school library.Í _ Sally Ramage, The Criminal Lawyer Containing newly updated versions of existing entries and adding several important new entries, this second edition of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Comparative Law takes stock of present-day comparative law scholarship. Written by leading authorities in their respective fields, the contributions in this accessible book cover and combine not only questions regarding the methodology of comparative law, but also specific areas of law (such as administrative law and criminal law) and specific topics (such as accident compensation and consideration). In addition, the Encyclopedia contains reports on a selected set of countriesÍ legal systems and, as a whole, presents an overview of the current state of affairs. Providing its readers with a unique point of reference, as well as stimulus for further research, this volume is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in comparative law, especially academics, students and practitioners.

The Restatement Third: Restitution and Unjust Enrichment

Critical and Comparative Essays

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Author: Charles Mitchell,William Swadling

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1782251375

Category: Law

Page: 338

View: 771

The publication of the Restatement Third: Unjust Enrichment and Restitution by the American Law Institute in July 2010 was an event of major importance, not only for the development of the law of unjust enrichment in the US, but also for global scholarship relating to this area of private law. The Restatement First appeared in 1937, and the Restatement Second was abandoned; hence the Restatement Third is the most significant survey of the American law on this topic for over 70 years. Private law has been a comparatively neglected area of study in US law schools for several decades, and this is particularly true of the law of unjust enrichment. However, the appearance of the Restatement Third has prompted a renewal of interest in the subject among US scholars, and it is hoped that the present volume of essays will contribute to this revival, while reflecting on the lessons to be learned from the Restatement by other legal systems. Featuring the work of leading scholars from the UK, Germany, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, the essays undertake critical and comparative analysis of the Restatement, and offer fresh insights into the rules that it articulates.

The Change of Position Defence

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Author: Elise Bant

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847315070

Category: Law

Page: 286

View: 3359

This book defines and explains the operation of the defence of change of position in Anglo-Australian law. It is a widely accepted view that the defence is a modern development, the first express recognition of which can be traced in England to the seminal decision of the House of Lords in Lipkin Gorman (a firm) v Karpnale Ltd. Commentators have accordingly tended to focus on post-Lipkin case law in discussing the defence and its many disputed features. This work takes a different stance, arguing that the defence is best understood by placing it within its broader historical and legal context. It explains that the foundations of the defence can be found in the related doctrines of estoppel by representation, the agent's defence of payment over and the law of rescission. The analysis applies crucial insights from those areas, together with the change of position authorities and broader considerations of policy and principle, to develop a rigorous model of the change of position defence. The work not only provides a clear and exhaustive examination of the defence, but demonstrates that, properly understood, the defence operates in a rational and justifiable manner within its broader private law context. In so doing, its analysis meets the oft-expressed concern than the defence may operate in an unprincipled way or by reference to 'that vague jurisprudence which is sometimes attractively styled "justice as between man and man"'.

Understanding Unjust Enrichment

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Author: Jason W. Neyers,Mitchell McInnes,Stephen G. A. Pitel

Publisher: Hart Publishing

ISBN: 1841134236

Category: Law

Page: 415

View: 2918

This book is a collection of articles based on Understanding Unjust Enrichment, a symposium held at the University of Western Ontario in January 2003. The articles, written from the perspective of English, Australian, Canadian, German and Jewish law, deal with numerous theoretical and practical issues that surround restitution and unjust enrichment. The articles outline recent developments across the Commonwealth, explain the unjust enrichment principle and its component parts, and address discrete issues such as tracing, choice of law, disgorgement damages for breach of contract, and the use of unjust enrichment in the cohabitation context. The contributors are Kit Barker, Peter Benson, Jeffrey Berryman, Michael Bryan, Andrew Burrows, Robert Chambers, Gerald Fridman, Peter Jaffey, Dennis Klimchuk, Thomas Krebs, John McCamus, Mitchell McInnes, Stephen Pitel, Stephen Waddams and Ernest Weinrib

Reason and Restitution

A Theory of Unjust Enrichment

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Author: Charlie Webb

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191509329

Category: Law

Page: 380

View: 4213

In law, gains, like losses, don't always lie where they fall. That there exists a body of law dealing with liability for gains is now settled and the circumstances in which the law requires defendants to give up their gains are well documented in the work of unjust enrichment lawyers. The same cannot be said, however, of the reasons for ordering restitution of such gains. It is often suggested that unjust enrichment's existence can be demonstrated without inquiry into these reasons, into the principles of justice it represents and invokes. Yet while we can indeed show that there exists a body of claims dealing with the recovery of mistaken payments and the like without going on to inquire into their rationale, the same cannot be said for unjust enrichment's existence as a distinct ground of such claims. For if unjust enrichment exists as a body of like cases and claims, truly independent of contract and tort, then it does so by virtue of the distinct reasons it identifies and to which these claims respond. Reason and Restitution offers an analysis of the reasons which support and shape claims in unjust enrichment and how these reasons bear on the law's application and development. The identity of these reasons matters since it establishes how, and to what extent, unjust enrichment really is independent of contract and tort, giving us a clearer understanding of unjust enrichment's relationship to these and other concepts and categories. But, more importantly, it matters to those charged with the practical tasks of deciding cases and making laws, for it is these reasons alone which can direct how judges and legislators ought respond to these claims.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law

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Author: Mathias Reimann,Reinhard Zimmermann

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191018872

Category: Law

Page: 1456

View: 7132

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law provides a wide-ranging and highly diverse critical survey of comparative law at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It summarizes and evaluates a discipline that is time-honoured but not easily understood in all its dimensions. In the current era of globalization, this discipline is more relevant than ever, both on the academic and on the practical level. The Handbook is divided into three main sections. Section I surveys how comparative law has developed and where it stands today in various parts of the world. This includes not only traditional model jurisdictions, such as France, Germany, and the United States, but also other regions like Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Latin America. Section II then discusses the major approaches to comparative law - its methods, goals, and its relationship with other fields, such as legal history, economics, and linguistics. Finally, section III deals with the status of comparative studies in over a dozen subject matter areas, including the major categories of private, economic, public, and criminal law. The Handbook contains forty two chapters which are written by experts from around the world. The aim of each chapter is to provide an accessible, original, and critical account of the current state of comparative law in its respective area which will help to shape the agenda in the years to come. Each chapter also includes a short bibliography referencing the definitive works in the field.

Unjustified Enrichment

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Author: Jack Beatson,E. J. H. Schrage,Barry Nicholas

Publisher: Hart Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 585

View: 3049

This work concerns the law of restitution and contains a wide selection of extracts from the basic texts and commentaries. The materials are chosen and ordered so as to foster comparative study, prefaced by comparative introductions and complemented with annotations.

Unjust Enrichment

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Author: Peter Birks

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191018856

Category: Law

Page: 360

View: 2277

This new edition of Unjust Enrichment by the editor of the Clarendon Law Series, is a fully updated, clear and concise account of the law of unjust enrichment. It attempts to move away from the use of obscure terminology inherited from the past. This text is the first book to insist on the switch from restitution to unjust enrichment, from response to event. It organises modern law around five simple questions: Was the defendant enriched? If so, was it at the claimant's expense? If so, was it unjust? The fourth question is then what kind of right the claimant has, and the fifth is whether the defendant has any defences. This second edition was revised and updated by Peter Birks before his death from cancer on 6 July 2004 at the age of 62. It represents the final thinking of the world's leading authority on the subject.

Mapping the Law

Essays in Memory of Peter Birks

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Author: Peter Birks,Andrew S. Burrows

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199206551

Category: Law

Page: 675

View: 1345

This collection of essays celebrates the life and work of Peter Birks, who was Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls College. Widely known as one of the most prolific legal scholars for over twenty years, his contribution to English obligations lawis legendary. He was Founder of the Clarendon Law Lectures, editor of the Clarendon Law Series, editor of the Oxford English Law Series, and author of several works on the English law of restitution, comparative restitution, and unjust enrichment.This works in this volume cover the English law of unjust enrichment and restitution, comparative perspectives on unjust enrichment and restitution, Roman law, and legal history, reflecting the range on Peter Birks' work and influence.As one of the most distinguished academic lawyers of his generation Peter Birks' contribution to legal scholarship grew to be recognised as one of the most outstanding by a British jurist in the second half of the twentieth century. This collection attempts to acknowledge and pay tribute to PeterBirks' work.

The Restatement Third: Restitution and Unjust Enrichment

Critical and Comparative Essays

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Author: Charles Mitchell,William Swadling

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782251367

Category: Law

Page: 338

View: 954

The publication of the Restatement Third: Unjust Enrichment and Restitution by the American Law Institute in July 2010 was an event of major importance, not only for the development of the law of unjust enrichment in the US, but also for global scholarship relating to this area of private law. The Restatement First appeared in 1937, and the Restatement Second was abandoned; hence the Restatement Third is the most significant survey of the American law on this topic for over 70 years. Private law has been a comparatively neglected area of study in US law schools for several decades, and this is particularly true of the law of unjust enrichment. However, the appearance of the Restatement Third has prompted a renewal of interest in the subject among US scholars, and it is hoped that the present volume of essays will contribute to this revival, while reflecting on the lessons to be learned from the Restatement by other legal systems. Featuring the work of leading scholars from the UK, Germany, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, the essays undertake critical and comparative analysis of the Restatement, and offer fresh insights into the rules that it articulates.

Restitution of Overpaid Tax

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Author: Steven Elliott,Birke Häcker,Charles Mitchell

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1782251227

Category: Law

Page: 366

View: 8869

Since the decision of the House of Lords in Woolwich Equitable Building Society v Inland Revenue Commissioners [1993] AC 70, the law governing claims for restitution of overpaid tax has experienced rapid and profound evolution. This has been so not only in England, but also elsewhere in the common law world as well as on the European plane. The essays in this collection consider the new landscape, and explore from various doctrinal and national perspectives the issues that have confronted, and continue to confront, the courts.

Principles of European law

Unjustified enrichment (PEL unj. enr.). Vol. 8

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Author: Christian von Bar,Stephen Swann,Study Group on a European Civil Code

Publisher: sellier. european law publ.

ISBN: 3935808623

Category: Law

Page: 739

View: 2564

"Unjustified enrichment" is one of the three main non-contractual obligations dealt with in the Draft of a Common Frame of Reference. In recent years, unjustified enrichment has been one of the most intellectually animated areas of private law. In an area of law whose territory is still partially uncharted and whose boundaries are contested, this volume of the series Principles of European Law will be invaluable for academic analysis of the law and its development by the courts. During the drafting process, comparative material from over 25 different EU jurisdictions has been taken into account. The work therefore is not only a presentation of a future model for European rules to come, but provides also a fairly detailed indication of the present legal situation in the Member States.

Consequences of Impaired Consent Transfers

A Structural Comparison of English and German Law

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Author: Birke Häcker

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782253653

Category: Law

Page: 408

View: 3387

Legal rules and principles do not exist in isolation, but form part of a system. In this structural comparison between English and German law, Birke Häcker explores the rules and principles governing impaired consent transfers of movable property and their reversal in two- and three-party situations. This book is a re-publication of a work first published by Mohr Siebeck in Germany.

The Common European Sales Law in Context

Interactions with English and German Law

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Author: Gerhard Dannemann,Stefan Vogenauer

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191668184

Category: Law

Page: 856

View: 9736

European Contract Law unification projects have recently advanced from the Draft Common Frame of Reference (2009) to a European Commission proposal for an optional Common European Sales Law (2011) which is to facilitate cross-border marketing. This book investigates for the first time how CESL and DCFR rules would interact with various aspects of domestic law, represented by English and German law. Nineteen chapters, co-authored by British and German scholars, examine such interface issues for eg pre-contractual relationships, notions of contract, formation, interpretation, and remedies, extending to non-discrimination, third parties, transfers or rights, aspects of property law, and collective proceedings. They go beyond a critical analysis of CESL and DCFR rules by demonstrating where and how CESL rules would interact with neighbouring areas of English and German law before English and German courts, how domestic traditions might influence the application, which aspects might motivate sellers and buyers to choose or reject CESL, and which might serve as model for national legislators. The findings are summarized in the final two chapters.

The Foundations of Restitution for Wrongs

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Author: Francesco Giglio

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847313531

Category: Law

Page: 262

View: 8135

'Restitution for wrongs', or 'restitutionary damages', is the judicial award which compels the wrongdoer to give up to the victim the benefit obtained through the perpetration of the wrong, independently of any loss suffered by the victim. The establishment of a civil trial in Roman law, which left compensation as the main response, and a widespread, loss-centred interpretation of the Aristotelian theory of corrective justice explain, but do not justify the difficulties encountered by modern attempts to account for restitutionary damages. Mistakes in the classification of this institution have complicated the picture. To overcome some of these problems, this study considers the basic structure of restitutionary damages from different angles. In part one, the topic is analysed from a comparative perspective. Although the focus remains on English law, the German, the Italian and the Roman jurisdictions provide research data which, in part two, support the development of a theory of restitution for wrongs as corrective justice.

An Introduction to the Law of Restitution

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Author: Peter Birks

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198760740

Category: Law

Page: 455

View: 9520

This new edition of a landmark study of the law of restitution has been substantially revised and updated. Concentrating on structural principles rather than detailed rules, the book is an invaluable guide to this difficult area of law.

Unjust Enrichment and the Law of Contract

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Author: E. J. H. Schrage

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789041116550

Category: Law

Page: 492

View: 4761

Increasingly, in both common law and civil law jurisdictions, lawyers are seeking to formulate a law of restitution that can provide a reliable remedy in unjust enrichment actions. This pursuit has generated renewed interest in how the law of obligations should be divided. The movement can be seen as both a product of the recent calls for, and recognition of, an English law of restitution and a consequence, in civil law jurisdictions (where traditionally taxonomy has been taken far more seriously), of the modern quest for a general remedy which will overcome the widely-felt disadvantages of existing alternatives. This collection of essays is concerned with these modern developments. It identifies what constitutes unjust enrichment at the plaintiff's expense, and its available remedies, in a number of jurisdictions. Authors explore the boundaries between the law of restitution, the law of torts, and the law of contract. Their analyses reveal how the principle of restitution has permeated, hesitatingly at first and then with greater force, on a case-by-case basis, not only private law but also administrative law, criminal law, and other branches of the law. In the final analysis, unjust enrichment proves to be anything but a Trojan horse smuggled into the well-built structure of the law of obligations; it is a fully-fledged cause of action deserving an appropriate and satisfactory remedy. Scholars and jurists from thirteen countries met in Amsterdam on 18-20 October 2000, for a conference commemorating the late Professor Marcel Henri Bregstein (1900-1957). This book, which presents revised versions of the papers read during this conference, greatly clarifies the status and primary trends in this important area of legal theory and practice, and is sure to be of value to legal scholars and practitioners everywhere.