The Geometry of an Art

The History of the Mathematical Theory of Perspective from Alberti to Monge

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Author: Kirsti Andersen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387489469

Category: Mathematics

Page: 814

View: 8830

This review of literature on perspective constructions from the Renaissance through the 18th century covers 175 authors, emphasizing Peiro della Francesca, Guidobaldo del Monte, Simon Stevin, Brook Taylor, and Johann Heinrich. It treats such topics as the various methods of constructing perspective, the development of theories underlying the constructions, and the communication between mathematicians and artisans in these developments.

Exploring Classical Greek Construction Problems with Interactive Geometry Software

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Author: Ad Meskens,Paul Tytgat

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319428632

Category: Mathematics

Page: 185

View: 7030

In this book the classical Greek construction problems are explored in a didactical, enquiry based fashion using Interactive Geometry Software (IGS). The book traces the history of these problems, stating them in modern terminology. By focusing on constructions and the use of IGS the reader is confronted with the same problems that ancient mathematicians once faced. The reader can step into the footsteps of Euclid, Viète and Cusanus amongst others and then by experimenting and discovering geometric relationships far exceed their accomplishments. Exploring these problems with the neusis-method lets him discover a class of interesting curves. By experimenting he will gain a deeper understanding of how mathematics is created. More than 100 exercises guide him through methods which were developed to try and solve the problems. The exercises are at the level of undergraduate students and only require knowledge of elementary Euclidean geometry and pre-calculus algebra. It is especially well-suited for those students who are thinking of becoming a mathematics teacher and for mathematics teachers.

The Spatial Reformation

Euclid Between Man, Cosmos, and God

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Author: Michael J. Sauter

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812250664

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 2066

In The Spatial Reformation, Michael J. Sauter offers a sweeping history of the way Europeans conceived of three-dimensional space, including the relationship between Earth and the heavens, between 1350 and 1850. He argues that this "spatial reformation" provoked a reorganization of knowledge in the West that was arguably as important as the religious Reformation. Notably, it had its own sacred text, which proved as central and was as ubiquitously embraced: Euclid's Elements. Aside from the Bible, no other work was so frequently reproduced in the early modern era. According to Sauter, its penetration and suffusion throughout European thought and experience call for a deliberate reconsideration not only of what constitutes the intellectual foundation of the early modern era but also of its temporal range. The Spatial Reformation contends that space is a human construct: that is, it is a concept that arises from the human imagination and gets expressed physically in texts and material objects. Sauter begins his examination by demonstrating how Euclidean geometry, when it was applied fully to the cosmos, estranged God from man, enabling the breakthrough to heliocentrism and, by extension, the discovery of the New World. Subsequent chapters provide detailed analyses of the construction of celestial and terrestrial globes, Albrecht Dürer's engraving Melencolia, the secularization of the natural history of the earth and man, and Hobbes's rejection of Euclid's sense of space and its effect on his political theory. Sauter's exploration culminates in the formation of a new anthropology in the eighteenth century that situated humanity in reference to spaces and places that human eyes had not actually seen. The Spatial Reformation illustrates how these disparate advancements can be viewed as resulting expressly from early modernity's embrace of Euclidean geometry.

The Mathematical Works of Leon Battista Alberti

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Author: Kim Williams,Lionel March,Stephen R. Wassell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783034604741

Category: Mathematics

Page: 221

View: 9843

Leon Battista Alberti was an outstanding polymath of the fifteenth century, alongside Piero della Francesca and before Leonardo da Vinci. While his contributions to architecture and the visual arts are well known and available in good English editions, and much of his literary and social writings are also available in English, his mathematical works are not well represented in readily available, accessible English editions have remained accessible only to specialists. The four treatises included here – Ludi matematici, De Componendis Cifris, Elementi di pittura and De lunularum quadratura – are extremely valuable in rounding out the portrait of this multitalented thinker. The treatises are presented in modern English translations, with commentary that is intended to make evident the depths of Alberti’s knowledge as well as address the treatises’ mathematical, historical and cultural context, their classical Greek roots, and their relationship to later works by Renaissance thinkers.

Viewpoints

Mathematical Perspective and Fractal Geometry in Art

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Author: Marc Frantz,Annalisa Crannell

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839056

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

View: 625

An undergraduate textbook devoted exclusively to relationships between mathematics and art, Viewpoints is ideally suited for math-for-liberal-arts courses and mathematics courses for fine arts majors. The textbook contains a wide variety of classroom-tested activities and problems, a series of essays by contemporary artists written especially for the book, and a plethora of pedagogical and learning opportunities for instructors and students. Viewpoints focuses on two mathematical areas: perspective related to drawing man-made forms and fractal geometry related to drawing natural forms. Investigating facets of the three-dimensional world in order to understand mathematical concepts behind the art, the textbook explores art topics including comic, anamorphic, and classical art, as well as photography, while presenting such mathematical ideas as proportion, ratio, self-similarity, exponents, and logarithms. Straightforward problems and rewarding solutions empower students to make accurate, sophisticated drawings. Personal essays and short biographies by contemporary artists are interspersed between chapters and are accompanied by images of their work. These fine artists--who include mathematicians and scientists--examine how mathematics influences their art. Accessible to students of all levels, Viewpoints encourages experimentation and collaboration, and captures the essence of artistic and mathematical creation and discovery. Classroom-tested activities and problem solving Accessible problems that move beyond regular art school curriculum Multiple solutions of varying difficulty and applicability Appropriate for students of all mathematics and art levels Original and exclusive essays by contemporary artists Forthcoming: Instructor's manual (available only to teachers)

Distinguished Figures in Descriptive Geometry and Its Applications for Mechanism Science

From the Middle Ages to the 17th Century

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Author: Michela Cigola

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319201972

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 248

View: 6140

This book consists of chapters that focus specifically on single figures that worked on Descriptive Geometry and also in Mechanisms Sciences and contain biographical notes, a survey of their work and their achievements, together with a modern interpretation of their legacy. Since Vitruvius in ancient times, and with Brunelleschi in the Renaissance, the two disciplines began to share a common direction which, over the centuries, took shape through less well-known figures until the more recent times in which Gaspard Monge worked. Over the years, a gap has been created between Descriptive Geometry and Mechanism Science, which now appear to belong to different worlds. In reality, however, there is a very close relationship between the two disciplines, with a link based on extremely solid foundations. Without the theoretical foundations of Geometry it would not be possible to draw and design mechanical parts such as gears, while in Kinematics it would be less easy to design and predict the reciprocal movements of parts in a complex mechanical assembly.

Brook Taylor’s Work on Linear Perspective

A Study of Taylor’s Role in the History of Perspective Geometry. Including Facsimiles of Taylor’s Two Books on Perspective

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Author: Kirsti Andersen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461209358

Category: Mathematics

Page: 259

View: 4975

The aim of this book is to make accessible the two important but rare works of Brook Taylor and to describe his role in the history of linear perspective. Taylor's works, Linear Perspective and New Principles on Linear Perspective, are among the most important sources in the history of the theory of perspective. This text focuses on two aspects of this history. The first is the development, starting in the beginning of the 17th century, of a mathematical theory of perspective where gifted mathematicians used their creativity to solve basic problems of perspective and simultaneously were inspired to consider more general problems in the projective geometry. Taylor was one of the key figures in this development. The second aspect concerns the problem of transmitting the knowledge gained by mathematicians to the practitioners. Although Taylor's books were mathematical rather than challenging, he was the first mathematician to succeed in making the practitioners interested in teaching the theoretical foundation of perspective. He became so important in the development that he was named "the father of modern perspective" in England. The English school of Taylor followers contained among others the painter John Kirby and Joseph Highmore and the scientist Joseph Priestley. After its translation to Italian and French in the 1750s, Taylor's work became popular on the continent.

Aesthetics of Interdisciplinarity: Art and Mathematics

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Author: Kristóf Fenyvesi,Tuuli Lähdesmäki

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319572598

Category: Mathematics

Page: 290

View: 4057

This anthology fosters an interdisciplinary dialogue between the mathematical and artistic approaches in the field where mathematical and artistic thinking and practice merge. The articles included highlight the most significant current ideas and phenomena, providing a multifaceted and extensive snapshot of the field and indicating how interdisciplinary approaches are applied in the research of various cultural and artistic phenomena. The discussions are related, for example, to the fields of aesthetics, anthropology, art history, art theory, artistic practice, cultural studies, ethno-mathematics, geometry, mathematics, new physics, philosophy, physics, study of visual illusions, and symmetry studies. Further, the book introduces a new concept: the interdisciplinary aesthetics of mathematical art, which the editors use to explain the manifold nature of the aesthetic principles intertwined in these discussions.

5000 Years of Geometry

Mathematics in History and Culture

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Author: Christoph J. Scriba,Peter Schreiber

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034808984

Category: Mathematics

Page: 626

View: 3847

The present volume provides a fascinating overview of geometrical ideas and perceptions from the earliest cultures to the mathematical and artistic concepts of the 20th century. It is the English translation of the 3rd edition of the well-received German book “5000 Jahre Geometrie,” in which geometry is presented as a chain of developments in cultural history and their interaction with architecture, the visual arts, philosophy, science and engineering. Geometry originated in the ancient cultures along the Indus and Nile Rivers and in Mesopotamia, experiencing its first “Golden Age” in Ancient Greece. Inspired by the Greek mathematics, a new germ of geometry blossomed in the Islamic civilizations. Through the Oriental influence on Spain, this knowledge later spread to Western Europe. Here, as part of the medieval Quadrivium, the understanding of geometry was deepened, leading to a revival during the Renaissance. Together with parallel achievements in India, China, Japan and the ancient American cultures, the European approaches formed the ideas and branches of geometry we know in the modern age: coordinate methods, analytical geometry, descriptive and projective geometry in the 17th an 18th centuries, axiom systems, geometry as a theory with multiple structures and geometry in computer sciences in the 19th and 20th centuries. Each chapter of the book starts with a table of key historical and cultural dates and ends with a summary of essential contents of geometr y in the respective era. Compelling examples invite the reader to further explore the problems of geometry in ancient and modern times. The book will appeal to mathematicians interested in Geometry and to all readers with an interest in cultural history. From letters to the authors for the German language edition I hope it gets a translation, as there is no comparable work. Prof. J. Grattan-Guinness (Middlesex University London) "Five Thousand Years of Geometry" - I think it is the most handsome book I have ever seen from Springer and the inclusion of so many color plates really improves its appearance dramatically! Prof. J.W. Dauben (City University of New York) An excellent book in every respect. The authors have successfully combined the history of geometry with the general development of culture and history. ... The graphic design is also excellent. Prof. Z. Nádenik (Czech Technical University in Prague)

Algal Culturing Techniques

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Author: Robert A. Andersen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080456502

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 7593

Algal Culturing Techniques is a comprehensive reference on all aspects of the isolation and cultivation of marine and freshwater algae, including seaweeds. It is divided into seven parts that cover history, media preparation, isolation and purification techniques, mass culturing techniques, cell counting and growth measurement techniques, and reviews on topics and applications of algal culture techniques for environmental investigations. Algal Culturing Techniques was developed to serve as both a new textbook and key reference for phycologists and others studying aquatic systems, aquaculture and environmental sciences. Students of algal ecology, marine botany, marine phycology, and microbial ecology will enjoy the hands-on methodology for culturing a variety of algae from fresh and marine waters. Researchers in industry, such as aquaculture, pharmaceutical, foodstuffs, and biotechnology companies will find an authoritative and comprehensive reference. * Sponsored by the Phycological Society of America * Features color photographs and illustrations throughout * Describes culturing methods ranging from the test tube to outdoor ponds and coastal seaweed farms * Details isolation techniques ranging from traditional micropipette to automated flow cytometeric methods * Includes purification, growth, maintenance, and cryopreservation techniques * Highlights methods for estimating algal populations, growth rates, isolating and measuring algal pigments, and detecting and culturing algal viruses * Features a comprehensive appendix of nearly 50 algal culture medium recipes * Includes a glossary of phycological terms

Cultural Techniques

Grids, Filters, Doors, and Other Articulations of the Real

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Author: Bernhard Siegert

Publisher: Meaning Systems (Fup)

ISBN: 0823263754

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 265

View: 2198

"This volume designates a shift within posthumanistic media studies, that dissolves the concept of media into a network of operations, that reproduce, process and reflect the distinctions that are fundamental for a given culture, e.g. the anthropological difference, the distinctions between natural object and cultural sign, noise and information, eye and gaze"--

Human Accomplishment

The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950

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Author: Charles Murray

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061745677

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 9354

A sweeping cultural survey reminiscent of Barzun's From Dawn to Decadence. "At irregular times and in scattered settings, human beings have achieved great things. Human Accomplishment is about those great things, falling in the domains known as the arts and sciences, and the people who did them.' So begins Charles Murray's unique account of human excellence, from the age of Homer to our own time. Employing techniques that historians have developed over the last century but that have rarely been applied to books written for the general public, Murray compiles inventories of the people who have been essential to the stories of literature, music, art, philosophy, and the sciences—a total of 4,002 men and women from around the world, ranked according to their eminence. The heart of Human Accomplishment is a series of enthralling descriptive chapters: on the giants in the arts and what sets them apart from the merely great; on the differences between great achievement in the arts and in the sciences; on the meta-inventions, 14 crucial leaps in human capacity to create great art and science; and on the patterns and trajectories of accomplishment across time and geography. Straightforwardly and undogmatically, Charles Murray takes on some controversial questions. Why has accomplishment been so concentrated in Europe? Among men? Since 1400? He presents evidence that the rate of great accomplishment has been declining in the last century, asks what it means, and offers a rich framework for thinking about the conditions under which the human spirit has expressed itself most gloriously. Eye-opening and humbling, Human Accomplishment is a fascinating work that describes what humans at their best can achieve, provides tools for exploring its wellsprings, and celebrates the continuing common quest of humans everywhere to discover truths, create beauty, and apprehend the good.

International Mathematical Congresses

An Illustrated History 1893–1986

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Author: Donald J. Albers,Gerald L. Alexanderson,Constance Reid

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468402994

Category: Mathematics

Page: 61

View: 2855

A Cultural History of Physics

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Author: Károly Simonyi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439865116

Category: Mathematics

Page: 636

View: 3288

While the physical sciences are a continuously evolving source of technology and of understanding about our world, they have become so specialized and rely on so much prerequisite knowledge that for many people today the divide between the sciences and the humanities seems even greater than it was when C. P. Snow delivered his famous 1959 lecture, "The Two Cultures." In A Cultural History of Physics, Hungarian scientist and educator Károly Simonyi succeeds in bridging this chasm by describing the experimental methods and theoretical interpretations that created scientific knowledge, from ancient times to the present day, within the cultural environment in which it was formed. Unlike any other work of its kind, Simonyi’s seminal opus explores the interplay of science and the humanities to convey the wonder and excitement of scientific development throughout the ages. These pages contain an abundance of excerpts from original resources, a wide array of clear and straightforward explanations, and an astonishing wealth of insight, revealing the historical progress of science and inviting readers into a dialogue with the great scientific minds that shaped our current understanding of physics. Beautifully illustrated, accurate in its scientific content and broad in its historical and cultural perspective, this book will be a valuable reference for scholars and an inspiration to aspiring scientists and humanists who believe that science is an integral part of our culture.

The Mathematics of Harmony

From Euclid to Contemporary Mathematics and Computer Science

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Author: Alexey Stakhov

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812775838

Category: Computer science

Page: 694

View: 6956

Assisted by Scott Olsen ( Central Florida Community College, USA ). This volume is a result of the author's four decades of research in the field of Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Section and their applications. It provides a broad introduction to the fascinating and beautiful subject of the OC Mathematics of Harmony, OCO a new interdisciplinary direction of modern science. This direction has its origins in OC The ElementsOCO of Euclid and has many unexpected applications in contemporary mathematics (a new approach to a history of mathematics, the generalized Fibonacci numbers and the generalized golden proportions, the OC goldenOCO algebraic equations, the generalized Binet formulas, Fibonacci and OC goldenOCO matrices), theoretical physics (new hyperbolic models of Nature) and computer science (algorithmic measurement theory, number systems with irrational radices, Fibonacci computers, ternary mirror-symmetrical arithmetic, a new theory of coding and cryptography based on the Fibonacci and OC goldenOCO matrices). The book is intended for a wide audience including mathematics teachers of high schools, students of colleges and universities and scientists in the field of mathematics, theoretical physics and computer science. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in mathematics and computer science. Sample Chapter(s). Introduction (503k). Chapter 1: The Golden Section (2,459k). Contents: Classical Golden Mean, Fibonacci Numbers, and Platonic Solids: The Golden Section; Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Regular Polyhedrons; Mathematics of Harmony: Generalizations of Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Mean; Hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas Functions; Fibonacci and Golden Matrices; Application in Computer Science: Algorithmic Measurement Theory; Fibonacci Computers; Codes of the Golden Proportion; Ternary Mirror-Symmetrical Arithmetic; A New Coding Theory Based on a Matrix Approach. Readership: Researchers, teachers and students in mathematics (especially those interested in the Golden Section and Fibonacci numbers), theoretical physics and computer science."

Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science

Their Contributions and Legacies

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Author: marco ceccarelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048123469

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 261

View: 5502

This is the second volume of a series of edited books whose aim is to collect c- tributed papers within a framework that can serve as a collection of persons in MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science). This is a continuation of the first volume that was published in 2008, again combining very ancient and very recent scholars in order to give not only an encyclopaedic character to this project but also to emphasize the significance of MMS over time. This project has the characteristic that the papers illustrate, by recognizing p- sons and their scientific work, mainly technical developments in the historical evolution of the fields that today are grouped in MMS. Thus, emphasis is also given to biographical notes describing efforts and experiences of people who have c- tributed to the technical achievements whose technical survey is the core of each contributed paper. This second volume of the project has been possible thanks to the invited authors who have enthusiastically shared in this initiative and who have spent time and effort in preparing the papers. The stand-alone papers cover the wide field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS. I believe that readers will take advantage of the papers in this book and future ones by supplying further satisfaction and motivation for her or his work (historical or not).

A Problem Book in Real Analysis

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Author: Asuman G. Aksoy,Mohamed A. Khamsi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441912967

Category: Mathematics

Page: 254

View: 3628

Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing worth knowing can be taught. Oscar Wilde, “The Critic as Artist,” 1890. Analysis is a profound subject; it is neither easy to understand nor summarize. However, Real Analysis can be discovered by solving problems. This book aims to give independent students the opportunity to discover Real Analysis by themselves through problem solving. ThedepthandcomplexityofthetheoryofAnalysiscanbeappreciatedbytakingaglimpseatits developmental history. Although Analysis was conceived in the 17th century during the Scienti?c Revolution, it has taken nearly two hundred years to establish its theoretical basis. Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Fermat, Newton and Leibniz were among those who contributed to its genesis. Deep conceptual changes in Analysis were brought about in the 19th century by Cauchy and Weierstrass. Furthermore, modern concepts such as open and closed sets were introduced in the 1900s. Today nearly every undergraduate mathematics program requires at least one semester of Real Analysis. Often, students consider this course to be the most challenging or even intimidating of all their mathematics major requirements. The primary goal of this book is to alleviate those concerns by systematically solving the problems related to the core concepts of most analysis courses. In doing so, we hope that learning analysis becomes less taxing and thereby more satisfying.

Geometry

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Author: David A. Brannan,Matthew F. Esplen,Jeremy J. Gray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503707

Category: Mathematics

Page: 602

View: 3285

This richly illustrated and clearly written undergraduate textbook captures the excitement and beauty of geometry. The approach is that of Klein in his Erlangen programme: a geometry is a space together with a set of transformations of the space. The authors explore various geometries: affine, projective, inversive, hyperbolic and elliptic. In each case they carefully explain the key results and discuss the relationships between the geometries. New features in this second edition include concise end-of-chapter summaries to aid student revision, a list of further reading and a list of special symbols. The authors have also revised many of the end-of-chapter exercises to make them more challenging and to include some interesting new results. Full solutions to the 200 problems are included in the text, while complete solutions to all of the end-of-chapter exercises are available in a new Instructors' Manual, which can be downloaded from www.cambridge.org/9781107647831.

Axiomatic Method and Category Theory

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Author: Andrei Rodin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319004042

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 4354

This volume explores the many different meanings of the notion of the axiomatic method, offering an insightful historical and philosophical discussion about how these notions changed over the millennia. The author, a well-known philosopher and historian of mathematics, first examines Euclid, who is considered the father of the axiomatic method, before moving onto Hilbert and Lawvere. He then presents a deep textual analysis of each writer and describes how their ideas are different and even how their ideas progressed over time. Next, the book explores category theory and details how it has revolutionized the notion of the axiomatic method. It considers the question of identity/equality in mathematics as well as examines the received theories of mathematical structuralism. In the end, Rodin presents a hypothetical New Axiomatic Method, which establishes closer relationships between mathematics and physics. Lawvere's axiomatization of topos theory and Voevodsky's axiomatization of higher homotopy theory exemplify a new way of axiomatic theory building, which goes beyond the classical Hilbert-style Axiomatic Method. The new notion of Axiomatic Method that emerges in categorical logic opens new possibilities for using this method in physics and other natural sciences. This volume offers readers a coherent look at the past, present and anticipated future of the Axiomatic Method.

Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain

The 17th ICMI Study

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Author: Celia Hoyles,Jean-Baptiste Lagrange

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441901460

Category: Education

Page: 494

View: 5551

Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain revisits the important 1985 ICMI Study on the influence of computers and informatics on mathematics and its teaching. The focus of this book, resulting from the seventeenth Study led by ICMI, is the use of digital technologies in mathematics teaching and learning in countries across the world. Specifically, it focuses on cultural diversity and how this diversity impinges on the use of digital technologies in mathematics teaching and learning. Within this focus, themes such as mathematics and mathematical practices; learning and assessing mathematics with and through digital technologies; teachers and teaching; design of learning environments and curricula; implementation of curricula and classroom practice; access, equity and socio-cultural issues; and connectivity and virtual networks for learning, serve to organize the study and bring it coherence. Providing a state-of-the-art view of the domain with regards to research, innovating practices and technological development, Mathematics Education and Technology-Rethinking the Terrain is of interest to researchers and all those interested in the role that digital technology plays in mathematics education.