The Geography of Ethnic Violence

Identity, Interests, and the Indivisibility of Territory

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Author: Monica Duffy Toft

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400835747

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 2122

The Geography of Ethnic Violence is the first among numerous distinguished books on ethnic violence to clarify the vital role of territory in explaining such conflict. Monica Toft introduces and tests a theory of ethnic violence, one that provides a compelling general explanation of not only most ethnic violence, civil wars, and terrorism but many interstate wars as well. This understanding can foster new policy initiatives with real potential to make ethnic violence either less likely or less destructive. It can also guide policymakers to solutions that endure. The book offers a distinctively powerful synthesis of comparative politics and international relations theories, as well as a striking blend of statistical and historical case study methodologies. By skillfully combining a statistical analysis of a large number of ethnic conflicts with a focused comparison of historical cases of ethnic violence and nonviolence--including four major conflicts in the former Soviet Union--it achieves a rare balance of general applicability and deep insight. Toft concludes that only by understanding how legitimacy and power interact can we hope to learn why some ethnic conflicts turn violent while others do not. Concentrated groups defending a self-defined homeland often fight to the death, while dispersed or urbanized groups almost never risk violence to redress their grievances. Clearly written and rigorously documented, this book represents a major contribution to an ongoing debate that spans a range of disciplines including international relations, comparative politics, sociology, and history.

Indivisible Territory and the Politics of Legitimacy

Jerusalem and Northern Ireland

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Author: Stacie E. Goddard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Electronic books

Page: 306

View: 4550

This book challenges the conventional wisdom that territorial conflicts in Jerusalem and Northern Ireland were inevitable.

Enduring Territorial Disputes

Strategies of Bargaining, Coercive Diplomacy, and Settlement

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Author: Krista E. Wiegand

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820341908

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 5372

Of all the issues in international relations, disputes over territory are the most salient and most likely to lead to armed conflict. Understanding their endurance is of paramount importance. Although many states have settled their disagreements over territory, seventy-one disputes involving nearly 40 percent of all sovereign states remain unresolved. In this study, Krista E. Wiegand examines why some states are willing and able to settle territorial disputes while others are not. She argues that states may purposely maintain disputes over territory in order to use them as bargaining leverage in negotiations over other important unresolved issues. This dual strategy of issue linkage and coercive diplomacy allows the challenger state to benefit from its territorial claim. Under such conditions, it has strong incentive to pursue diplomatic and militarized threats and very little incentive to settle the dispute over territory. Wiegand tests her theory in four case studies, three representing the major types of territorial disputes: uninhabited islands and territorial waters, as seen in tensions between China and Japan over the Senkaku and Diaoyu Islands; inhabited tracts of territory, such as the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla affecting Morocco and Spain; and border areas, like the Shebaa Farms dispute between Lebanon and Israel. A fourth case study of a dispute between China and Russia represents a combination of all three types; settled in 2008, it serves as a negative example. All these disputes involve areas that have key strategic and economic importance both regionally and globally.

War on Sacred Grounds

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Author: Ron E. Hassner

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801460401

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 4785

Sacred sites offer believers the possibility of communing with the divine and achieving deeper insight into their faith. Yet their spiritual and cultural importance can lead to competition as religious groups seek to exclude rivals from practicing potentially sacrilegious rituals in the hallowed space and wish to assert their own claims. Holy places thus create the potential for military, theological, or political clashes, not only between competing religious groups but also between religious groups and secular actors. In War on Sacred Grounds, Ron E. Hassner investigates the causes and properties of conflicts over sites that are both venerated and contested; he also proposes potential means for managing these disputes. Hassner illustrates a complex and poorly understood political dilemma with accounts of the failures to reach settlement at Temple Mount/Haram el-Sharif, leading to the clashes of 2000, and the competing claims of Hindus and Muslims at Ayodhya, which resulted in the destruction of the mosque there in 1992. He also addresses more successful compromises in Jerusalem in 1967 and Mecca in 1979. Sacred sites, he contends, are particularly prone to conflict because they provide valuable resources for both religious and political actors yet cannot be divided. The management of conflicts over sacred sites requires cooperation, Hassner suggests, between political leaders interested in promoting conflict resolution and religious leaders who can shape the meaning and value that sacred places hold for believers. Because a reconfiguration of sacred space requires a confluence of political will, religious authority, and a window of opportunity, it is relatively rare. Drawing on the study of religion and the study of politics in equal measure, Hassner's account offers insight into the often-violent dynamics that come into play at the places where religion and politics collide.

For Kin or Country

Xenophobia, Nationalism, and War

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Author: Stephen M. Saideman,R. William Ayres

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231514492

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6854

The collapse of an empire can result in the division of families and the redrawing of geographical boundaries. New leaders promise the return of people and territories that may have been lost in the past, often advocating aggressive foreign policies that can result in costly and devastating wars. The final years of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, the end of European colonization in Africa and Asia, and the demise of the Soviet Union were all accompanied by war and atrocity. These efforts to reunite lost kin are known as irredentism—territorial claims based on shared ethnic ties made by one state to a minority population residing within another state. For Kin or Country explores this phenomenon, investigating why the collapse of communism prompted more violence in some instances and less violence in others. Despite the tremendous political and economic difficulties facing all former communist states during their transition to a market democracy, only Armenia, Croatia, and Serbia tried to upset existing boundaries. Hungary, Romania, and Russia practiced much more restraint. The authors examine various explanations for the causes of irredentism and for the pursuit of less antagonistic policies, including the efforts by Western Europe to tame Eastern Europe. Ultimately, the authors find that internal forces drive irredentist policy even at the risk of a country's self-destruction and that xenophobia may have actually worked to stabilize many postcommunist states in Eastern Europe. Events in Russia and Eastern Europe in 2014 have again brought irredentism into the headlines. In a new Introduction, the authors address some of the events and dynamics that have developed since the original version of the book was published. By focusing on how nationalist identity interact with the interests of politicians, For Kin or Country explains why some states engage in aggressive irredentism and when others forgo those opportunities that is as relevant to Russia and Ukraine in 2014 as it was for Serbia, Croatia, and Armenia in the 1990s.

Territorial Separatism in Global Politics

Causes, Outcomes and Resolution

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Author: Damien Kingsbury,Costas Laoutides

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317631390

Category: Political Science

Page: 194

View: 6104

This volume examines the various aspects of territorial separatism, focusing on how and why separatist movements arise. Featuring essays by leading scholars from different disciplinary perspectives, the book aims to situate the question of separatism within the broader socio-political context of the international system, arguing that a set of historical events as well as local, regional, and global dynamics have converged to provide the catalysts that often trigger separatist conflicts. In addition, the book marks progress towards a new conceptual framework for the study of territorial separatism, by linking the survival of communities in international politics with the effective control of territory and the consequent creation of new polities. Separatist conflicts challenge conventional wisdom concerning conflict resolution within the context of international relations by unpacking a number of questions with regard to conflict transformation. Through the use of case studies, including Cyprus, the Rakhine state in Myanmar, the Shia separatism in Iraq, the Uighurs in China and the case of East Timor, the volume addresses key issues including the role of democracy, international law, intervention, post-conflict peacebuilding and the creation of new political entities. The book will be of much interest to students of Intra-StateConflict, Conflict Resolution, International Law, Security Studies and International Relations.

The Politics of Transition in Central Asia and the Caucasus

Enduring Legacies and Emerging Challenges

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Author: Amanda E Wooden,Christoph H. Stefes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134207441

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 4819

Most books on the Caucasus and Central Asia are country-by-country studies. This book, on the other hand, fills a gap in Central Eurasian studies as one of the few comparative case study books on Central Eurasia, covering both the Caucasus and Central Asia; it considers key themes right across the two regions highlighting both political change and continuity. Comparative case study chapters, written by regional experts from a variety of methodological backgrounds, provide historical context, and evaluate Soviet political legacies and emerging policy outcomes. Key topics include: the varied types and sources of authoritarianism; political opposition and protest politics; predetermined outcomes of post-Soviet economic choices; social and stability impacts of natural resource wealth; variations in educational reform; international norm influence on gender policy and the power of human rights activists. Overall, the book provides a thorough, up-to-date overview of what is increasingly becoming a significant area of concern.

The Nature of Intractable Conflict

Resolution in the Twenty-First Century

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Author: C. Mitchell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137454156

Category: Political Science

Page: 353

View: 5614

Building upon Mitchell's earlier work, The Structure of International Conflict, this volume surveys the field of conflict analysis and resolution in the twenty-first century, exploring the methods which people have sought to mitigate destructive processes including the creative and innovative new ways of resolving insoluble disputes.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 6909

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Religion and International Relations Theory

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Author: Jack Snyder

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526911

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 7940

Religious concerns stand at the center of international politics, yet key paradigms in international relations, namely realism, liberalism, and constructivism, barely consider religion in their analysis of political subjects. The essays in this collection rectify this. Authored by leading scholars, they introduce models that integrate religion into the study of international politics and connect religion to a rising form of populist politics in the developing world. Contributors identify religion as pervasive and distinctive, forcing a reframing of international relations theory that reinterprets traditional paradigms. One essay draws on both realism and constructivism in the examination of religious discourse and transnational networks. Another positions secularism not as the opposite of religion but as a comparable type of worldview drawing on and competing with religious ideas. With the secular state's perceived failure to address popular needs, religion has become a banner for movements that demand a more responsive government. The contributors to this volume recognize this trend and propose structural and theoretical innovations for future advances in the discipline.

Political Demography

How Population Changes Are Reshaping International Security and National Politics

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Author: Jack A. Goldstone,Eric P. Kaufmann,Monica Duffy Toft

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199945969

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 2808

The field of political demography - the politics of population change - is dramatically underrepresented in political science. At a time when demographic changes - aging in the rich world, youth bulges in the developing world, ethnic and religious shifts, migration, and urbanization - are waxing as never before, this neglect is especially glaring and starkly contrasts with the enormous interest coming from policymakers and the media. "Ten years ago, [demography] was hardly on the radar screen," remarks Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, two contributors to this volume. "Today," they continue, "it dominates almost any discussion of America's long-term fiscal, economic, or foreign-policy direction." Demography is the most predictable of the social sciences: children born in the last five years will be the new workers, voters, soldiers, and potential insurgents of 2025 and the political elites of the 2050s. Whether in the West or the developing world, political scientists urgently need to understand the tectonics of demography in order to grasp the full context of today's political developments. This book begins to fill the gap from a global and historical perspective and with the hope that scholars and policymakers will take its insights on board to develop enlightened policies for our collective future.

Recognition Theory as Social Research

Investigating the Dynamics of Social Conflict

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Author: Shane O'Neill,Nicholas H. Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137262923

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 9353

Presents the case for an exciting new research program in the social sciences based on the theory of recognition developed by Axel Honneth and others in recent years. The theory provides a frame for revealing new insights about conflicts and the potential of recognition theory to guide just resolutions of these conflicts is also explored.

Der Untergang des Morgenlandes

Warum die islamische Welt ihre Vormacht verlor

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Author: Bernard Lewis

Publisher: BASTEI LÜBBE

ISBN: 3838757920

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 9874

Die Probleme der islamischen Welt sind unübersehbar, ebenso deren Folgen für den Westen. Mit dieser provokanten Feststellung analysiert Beranard Lewis die historische Entwicklung des Orients - insbesondere des Osmanischen Reiches und seine Nachfolgestaaten: Die einstige Drehscheibe der Kultur, des Fortschritts und der Kunst verlor im Laufe der Geschichte ihre zivilisatorische Vormachtrolle gegenüber dem Westen und geriet in einen konfliktträchtigen Dualismus zwischen Tradition und Moderne. Das E-Book wendet sich an Leser und Leserinnen, die sich für Lösungsansätze der Krise zwischen der islamischen und der westlichen Welt interessieren: Themenfelder wie Wohlstand und Macht, soziale und kulturelle Schranken, Modernisierung und soziale Gleichheit, Säkularismus und Zivilgesellschaft. Zeit, Raum und Modernität sind die Leitfäden der Darstellung. Die Originalausgabe des Bandes aus der Feder des Princeton-Emeritus Lewis erschien unter dem Titel "What went wrong?".

Peripherie

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Developing countries

Page: N.A

View: 2253

Die Verdammten dieser Erde

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Author: Frantz Fanon,Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518371688

Category: Afrika - Entkolonialisierung

Page: 266

View: 950

Die dunkle Seite der Demokratie

eine Theorie der ethnischen Säuberung

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Author: Michael Mann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783936096750

Category:

Page: 861

View: 803

Mörderische ethnische Säuberungen sind, so die zentrale These Michael Manns in diesem Buch, die dunkle Seite der Demokratie. Ethnische Säuberungen haben sich nicht nur gemeinsam mit dem Prozess der Demokratisierung ausgebreitet, vielmehr haftet dem demokratischen Nationalstaat selbst ein organizistischer Nationalismus an, der danach strebt, demos und ethnos, Staatsvolk und Abstammungsgemeinschaft, deckungsgleich zu machen - wenn nötig mit Gewalt. Michael Mann, Professor für Soziologie an der University of California in Los Angeles, hat eine umfassende Studie des Phänomens der ethnischen Säuberung verfasst, die schon als dichte Beschreibung der wichtigsten Fälle - des Siedlerkolonialismus in Nordamerika, des Massenmordes an den Armeniern, der nationalsozialistischen Vernichtungspolitik, der kommunistischen Gewalt unter Stalin, Mao und Pol Pot, des ethnischen Bürgerkriegs in Jugoslawien, des Genozids in Ruanda - beeindruckt. Die historisch-soziologische Analyse zielt darauf ab, anhand dieser empirischen Daten systematische Erkenntnisse und theoretische Erklärungen herauszuarbeiten. So fragt Michael Mann, wann es zu einer mörderischen ethnischen Säuberung kommt und wann nicht. Wo und wann treten organizistische Vorstellungen von Demokratie auf und wo werden sie gefährlich? Wer sind die Täter und was lässt sie zu Tätern werden, wie normal und gewöhnlich sind sie? Michael Mann nutzt die in seiner Geschichte der Macht destillierte Theorie der Entstehung des modernen Nationalstaats, um ethnische Säuberungen als Entwicklungstendenz der Moderne zu deuten. Gegen eine naive Idealisierung der Demokratie stellt er fest, dass demokratisch verfasste Nationalstaaten auf den Gräbern ethnisch gesäuberter Gebiete errichtet worden sind, und prophezeit, dass zumindest auf der Südhalbkugel der Erde dieser Prozess der Errichtung ethnisch homogener Staaten noch nicht abgeschlossen ist. Seine Analyse bietet jedoch auch historische Gegenbeispiele, wie etwa.

Neue Trends in den Sozialwissenschaften

Innovative Techniken für qualitative und quantitative Forschung

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Author: Sebastian Jäckle

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658171898

Category: Social Science

Page: 372

View: 3511

Dieses Buch stellt einige wichtige und zukunftsträchtige neuere Methoden in den Sozialwissenschaften vor. Ziel des Buches ist, einerseits deren Grundlogik zu klären und andererseits zu zeigen, inwiefern sie den klassischen Methodenkatalog sinnvoll ergänzen können. Dazu wird das Spektrum an mit diesen Techniken bearbeitbaren Fragestellungen aufgezeigt, Beispielarbeiten diskutiert, nötige Voraussetzungen z.B. in Bezug auf die Datenqualität angesprochen, und damit insgesamt das Potential dieser Verfahren veranschaulicht. Zudem gibt jeder Beitrag praktische Tipps für die Umsetzung eigener Forschungsarbeiten und anhand kommentierter Literaturempfehlungen Ansatzpunkte für die intensivere Beschäftigung mit den Methoden. Daneben wird (sofern angebracht) kurz diskutiert welche Softwarepakete sich für die Anwendung eignen.