The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

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Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199892792

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 7275

The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.

Alice Paul, the National Woman’s Party and the Vote

The First Civil Rights Struggle of the 20th Century

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Author: Bernadette Cahill

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476619786

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 820

When women picketed the White House demanding the vote on January 10, 1917, they broke new ground in political activism. Demanding that President Wilson influence Congress, they marched in the streets in the nation’s first ever coast-to-coast campaign for political rights. Women were imprisoned for peaceful protests, went on hunger strikes and were beaten and tortured by authorities. But they won the 19th Amendment, ensuring that the right to vote could not be denied because of gender. Their successful nonviolent civil rights campaign established a precedent for those that followed, giving them the tools—including the vote—needed to advance their goals. This book chronicles the work of Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party and their influence on American political activism.

The First Lady of Civil Rights

Rosa Parks

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Author: Bruce Bednarchuk

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 1632901668

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 7369

"A song about the U.S. Civil rights activist and icon, Rosa Parks."--Provided by publisher.

From The Civil Rights Pioneers to The First African American President and Beyond

Forging a More Perfect Union by Eliminating Injustice, Racism, Poverty and Violence

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Author: Darryl Lezama, US Navy Retired

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 149690866X

Category: Education

Page: 80

View: 2577

The book “From The Civil Rights Pioneers to The First African American President and Beyond” is a description of some significant events that have impacted our culture in negative and positive ways. The negative aspects of some of the events in the book, is indicative of the kind of destructive behaviors that project some of the worst aspects of our culture people and nation. Nevertheless, as stated by our president regarding race relations, injustice, violence, and crime in general in America, “we are better than this” we must summon our better angels as we interact with each other”. The book in a sense is a challenge for us to examine the negative so that we can change those painful experiences into moments of learning and enhancing our attitudes and treatment of each other regardless of our national heritage, ethnicity, cultural differences, economic status, educational and professional backgrounds, and racial differences. The book is a brief description of experiences that we should not just ignore since many of our great leaders have sacrificed so much to make sure that our nation fulfils its responsibility to all American citizens in terms of Justice, equality, civil rights, and full access to achieving the American dream as we all pursue freedom and the accomplishment of our God ordained dreams. The book is also describing how much progress we have made towards achieving the dream of Dr Martin Luther King’s dream of justice and civil rights for all Americas regardless of race.

Marshalling Justice

The Early Civil Rights Letters of Thurgood Marshall

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Author: Michael G. Long

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062064290

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 448

View: 3284

“[An] important collection….Michael G. Long deserves high praise indeed for unearthing [Marshall’s letters] and bringing them to light.” —Wil Haygood Collected together for the first time in Marshalling Justice, here are selected letters written by one of the most influential and important activists in the American Civil Rights movement: the brilliant legal mind and footsoldier for justice and racial equality, Thurgood Marshall. The correspondences of a rebellious young attorney with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Marshalling Justice paints an eye-opening portrait of Thurgood Marshall before he became the first African American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, during his years as a groundbreaking and vibrant Civil Rights activist in the tradition of Martin Luther King and Julian Bond.

Civil Rights and African Americans

A Documentary History

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Author: Albert P. Blaustein,Robert L. Zangrando

Publisher: Northwestern University Press

ISBN: 9780810109209

Category: Social Science

Page: 671

View: 8976

This volume brings together for the first time all the important primary documents in the history of civil rights in the United States. Beginning in 1619, it contains original texts on slavery, abolition, the Civil War, Reconstruction, desegregation, the NAACP, and the black power movement. A thought-provoking preface provides an overview of the developments in civil rights law and public policy to the present day. Many of the documents included were previously scattered in hard-to-find sources, not readily available to instructors and students. Civil Rights and African Americans is the first collection of all the seminal texts of the civil rights struggle, an invaluable scholarly reference and riveting reading for anyone interested in the history of racial conflict in the United States.

African American Civil Rights

Early Activism and the Niagara Movement

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Author: Angela Jones

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313393605

Category: History

Page: 281

View: 7966

• Primary source documents including the Niagara Movement's "Declaration of Principles" • A chronology of the development of the civil rights movement • Photographs of key players in the Niagara Movement • An expansive bibliography encompassing titles from sociology, political science, and history

The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement

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Author: Susan M. Glisson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742544093

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 350

View: 5835

This engaging collection of biographies explores the greater civil rights movement in America from Reconstruction to the 1970s while emphasizing the importance of grassroots actions and individual agency in the effort to bring about national civil renewal. While focusing on the importance of individuals on the local level working towards civil rights they also explore the influence that this primarily African-American movement had on others including La Raza, the Native American Movement, feminism, and gay rights. By widening the time frame studied, these essays underscore the difficult, often unrewarded and generational nature of social change.

Civil Rights Journey

The Story of a White Southerner Coming of Age During the Civil Rights Revolution

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Author: Joseph Howell

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1456762079

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 200

View: 4923

Civil Rights Journey recounts the coming of age of a young man shaped early by the crucibles of polio and segregation (both by decree and by custom) and later by that of the civil rights movement. Joe Howell's story depicts the effects of human vulnerability and of human cruelty. The lingering effects of polio made him at times the object of bullying and derision, perhaps thus increasing his sensitivity to such cruelties manifested in the system of segregation. The reader shares the hopes, doubts, and at times despair that form Joe as he tries to wrest meaning from his experiences and determine what his path in life should be. Civil Rights Journey offers the reader a multilayered account of a young man born in the pre-civil rights South, sheltered by a code of customs that privileged the white middle class at the expense of blacks and poor whites, and of his formation and moral development shaped by his civil rights journey. (From the foreword by Janet Hampton) Joseph Howell has written a remarkable memoir. He takes us on a journey to rural Georgia at the height of the civil rights movement and the rise of black power. His account of his struggles to work with black activists to make change in communities deeply marred by entrenched issues of racism and social injustice is honest and passionate. Through Howell's fresh and complex narrative, we come to a rich understanding of the vital role white people can play in racial justice movements and the complex terrain they enter as they struggle to build new kinds of relationships with black activists and with "regular folks." These issues remain compelling today and contemporary readers will be profoundly moved as they accompany Howell through his struggles to make sense of the world and of his life in a time of historic racial change. Mark R. Warren Harvard University Author of Fire in the Heart: How White Activists Embrace Racial Justice Civil Rights Journey by Joseph Howell is a truly wonderful piece of writing. Joe Howell's personal story in the first section of the book is deeply moving and provides a beautiful frame for their Albany journal. As the Howells work with black SNCC workers in Albany, Georgia, they offer the reader a rare view of the civil rights movement during this important time. His powerful, honest book will be read and loved by many. William Ferris University of North Carolina Former chair, National Endowment for the Humanities

Civil Rights Movement

People and Perspectives

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Author: Michael Ezra

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1598840371

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 3193

Presents a collection of essays about the history of the civil rights movement, focusing on the efforts of clergy, student activists, black nationalists, and such organizations as the NCAAP and Core to bring about racial equality.

The Civil Rights Movement

Striving for Justice

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Author: Tim McNeese

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 1438106319

Category: African Americans

Page: 157

View: 8549

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka case of 1954, declared that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional, the civil rights movement began to gain momentum. This book spotlights the rise of the civil rights movement, offering a look at one of the remarkable and influential movements in US history.

Howard University: the First Hundred Years, 1867-1967

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Author: Rayford W. Logan

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814702635

Category: Education

Page: 658

View: 6231

I would have climbed up a mountain to get on the list [to serve overseas]. We were going to do our duty. Despite all the bad things that happened, America was our home. This is where I was born. It was where my mother and father were. There was a feeling of wanting to do your part. --Gladys Carter, member of the 6888th To Serve My Country, to Serve my Raceis the story of the historic 6888th, the first United States Women's Army Corps unit composed of African-American women to serve overseas. While African-American men and white women were invited, if belatedly, to serve their country abroad, African-American women were excluded for overseas duty throughout most of WWII. Under political pressure from legislators like Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., the NAACP, the black press, and even President Roosevelt, the U.S. War Department was forced to deploy African-American women to the European theater in 1945. African-American women, having succeeded, through their own activism and political ties, in their quest to shape their own lives, answered the call from all over the country, from every socioeconomic stratum. Stationed in France and England at the end of World War II, the 6888th brought together women like Mary Daniel Williams, a cook in the 6888th who signed up for the Army to escape the slums of Cleveland and to improve her ninth-grade education, and Margaret Barnes Jones, a public relations officer of the 6888th, who grew up in a comfortable household with a politically active mother who encouraged her to challenge the system. Despite the social, political, and economic restrictions imposed upon these African-American women in their own country, they were eager to serve, not only out of patriotism but out of a desire to uplift their race and dispell bigoted preconceptions about their abilities. Elaine Bennett, a First Sergeant in the 6888th, joined because "I wanted to prove to myself and maybe to the world that we would give what we had back to the United States as a confirmation that we were full- fledged citizens." Filled with compelling personal testimony based on extensive interviews,To Serve My Countryis the first book to document the lives of these courageous pioneers. It reveals how their Army experience affected them for the rest of their lives and how they, in turn, transformed the U.S. military forever.

Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement

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Author: Dennis Chong

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226104416

Category: Social Science

Page: 261

View: 5991

Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement is a theoretical study of the dynamics of public-spirited collective action as well as a substantial study of the American civil rights movement and the local and national politics that surrounded it. In this major historical application of rational choice theory to a social movement, Dennis Chong reexamines the problem of organizing collective action by focusing on the social, psychological, and moral incentives of political activism that are often neglected by rational choice theorists. Using game theoretic concepts as well as dynamic models, he explores how rational individuals decide to participate in social movements and how these individual decisions translate into collective outcomes. In addition to applying formal modeling to the puzzling and important social phenomenon of collective action, he offers persuasive insights into the political and psychological dynamics that provoke and sustain public activism. This remarkably accessible study demonstrates how the civil rights movement succeeded against difficult odds by mobilizing community resources, resisting powerful opposition, and winning concessions from the government.

Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom

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Author: Richard H. King

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 9780820318240

Category: Political Science

Page: 269

View: 3487

Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom is a groundbreaking work, one of the first to show in detail how the civil rights movement crystallized our views of citizenship as a grassroots-level, collective endeavor and of self-respect as a formidable political tool. Drawing on both oral and written sources, Richard H. King shows how rank-and-file movement participants defined and discussed such concepts as rights, equality, justice, and, in particular, freedom, and how such key movement leaders as Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Baker, Stokely Carmichael, and James Forman were attuned to this "freedom talk." The book includes chapters on the concept of freedom in its many varieties, both individual and collective; on self-interest and self-respect; on Martin Luther King's use of the idea of freedom; and on the intellectual evolution of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, especially in light of Frantz Fanon's thought among movement radicals. In demonstrating that self-respect, self-determination, and solidarity were as central to the goals of the movement as the dismantling of the Jim Crow system, King argues that the movement's success should not be measured in terms of tangible, quantifiable advances alone, such as voter registration increases or improved standards of living. Not only has the civil rights movement helped strengthen the meaning and political importance of active citizenship in the contemporary world, says King, but "what was at first a political goal became, in the 1970s and 1980s, the impetus for the academic and intellectual rediscovery and reinterpretation of the Afro-American cultural and historical experience."

Politics and Policy

The Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years

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Author: James Sundquist

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815719090

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 9326

Sundquist clearly and engagingly traces the development of many programs in what would become Johnson's Great Society as they developed over three presidential administrations. Education reform, poverty, the environment, social services and more are shown rising from America's post-war boom but taking years, and often much effort, to come into being. This history is more complete than even many individual accounts of given programs as it examines presidential influence, public opinion, changes in Congress, the rise and fall of interest groups, and how each can lead or be led by the others.

Class, Race, and the Civil Rights Movement

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Author: Jack M. Bloom

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253204073

Category: Social Science

Page: 267

View: 7099

A unique sociohistorical analysis of the civil rights movement, analyzing the interaction between the economy and political systems in the South, which led to racial stratification.

Selma to Saigon

The Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War

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Author: Daniel S. Lucks

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813145082

Category: Social Science

Page: 394

View: 1097

The civil rights and anti--Vietnam War movements were the two greatest protests of twentieth-century America. The dramatic escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam in 1965 took precedence over civil rights legislation, which had dominated White House and congressional attention during the first half of the decade. The two issues became intertwined on January 6, 1966, when the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) became the first civil rights organization to formally oppose the war, protesting the injustice of drafting African Americans to fight for the freedom of the South Vietnamese people when they were still denied basic freedoms at home. Selma to Saigon explores the impact of the Vietnam War on the national civil rights movement. Before the war gained widespread attention, the New Left, the SNCC, and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) worked together to create a biracial alliance with the potential to make significant political and social gains in Washington. Contention over the war, however, exacerbated preexisting generational and ideological tensions that undermined the coalition, and Lucks analyzes the causes and consequences of this disintegration. This powerful narrative illuminates the effects of the Vietnam War on the lives of leaders such as Whitney Young Jr., Stokely Carmichael, Roy Wilkins, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King Jr., as well as other activists who faced the threat of the military draft along with race-related discrimination and violence. Providing new insights into the evolution of the civil rights movement, this book fills a significant gap in the literature about one of the most tumultuous periods in American history.

Brown v. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Movement

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Author: Michael J. Klarman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198042006

Category: Law

Page: 296

View: 2845

A splendid account of the Supreme Court's rulings on race in the first half of the twentieth century, From Jim Crow To Civil Rights earned rave reviews and won the Bancroft Prize for History in 2005. Now, in this marvelously abridged, paperback edition, Michael J. Klarman has compressed his acclaimed study into tight focus around one major case--Brown v. Board of Education--making the path-breaking arguments of his original work accessible to a broader audience of general readers and students. In this revised and condensed edition, Klarman illuminates the impact of the momentous Brown v. Board of Education ruling. He offers a richer, more complex understanding of this pivotal decision, going behind the scenes to examine the justices' deliberations and reconstruct why they found the case so difficult to decide. He recaps his famous backlash thesis, arguing that Brown was more important for mobilizing southern white opposition to change than for encouraging civil rights protest, and that it was only the resulting violence that transformed northern opinion and led to the landmark legislation of the 1960s. Klarman also sheds light on broader questions such as how judges decide cases; how much they are influenced by legal, political, and personal considerations; the relationship between Supreme Court decisions and social change; and finally, how much Court decisions simply reflect societal values and how much they shape those values. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the most important decisions in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court. Klarman's brilliant analysis of this landmark case illuminates the course of American race relations as it highlights the relationship between law and social reform. Acclaim for From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: "A major achievement. It bestows upon its fortunate readers prodigious research, nuanced judgment, and intellectual independence." --Randall Kennedy, The New Republic "Magisterial." --The New York Review of Books "A sweeping, erudite, and powerfully argued book...unfailingly interesting." --Wilson Quarterly

Lift Every Voice

Turning a Civil Rights Setback Into a New Vision of Social Justice

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Author: Lani Guinier

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0743253515

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 336

View: 5763

The former nominee for assistant attorney general for civil rights discusses her views.