The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199892806

Category: Law

Page: 260

View: 9682

"The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their first civil right - physical safety - eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America." -- Publisher's description.

The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199380724

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 8653

The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.

The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199892784

Category: Law

Page: 260

View: 2494

"The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their first civil right - physical safety - eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America." -- Publisher's description.

Civil Rights and the Making of the Modern American State

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Megan Ming Francis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107037107

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 3103

This book extends what we know about the development of civil rights and the role of the NAACP in American politics. Through a sweeping archival analysis of the NAACP's battle against lynching and mob violence from 1909 to 1923, this book examines how the NAACP raised public awareness, won over American presidents, secured the support of Congress, and won a landmark criminal procedure case in front of the Supreme Court.

Before His Time

The Untold Story of Harry T. Moore, America's First Civil Rights Martyr

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Ben Green

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684854538

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 310

View: 1801

Part biography and part detective story, this examination of the life and still unsolved assassination of Harry Moore, a man who fought for racial equality in Florida well before the civil rights movement caught on, reveals two possibly bungled FBI investigations. 20,000 first printing.

Arc of Justice

A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and Murder in the Jazz Age

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Kevin Boyle

Publisher: Henry Holt and Company

ISBN: 9781429900164

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 1692

An electrifying story of the sensational murder trial that divided a city and ignited the civil rights struggle In 1925, Detroit was a smoky swirl of jazz and speakeasies, assembly lines and fistfights. The advent of automobiles had brought workers from around the globe to compete for manufacturing jobs, and tensions often flared with the KKK in ascendance and violence rising. Ossian Sweet, a proud Negro doctor-grandson of a slave-had made the long climb from the ghetto to a home of his own in a previously all-white neighborhood. Yet just after his arrival, a mob gathered outside his house; suddenly, shots rang out: Sweet, or one of his defenders, had accidentally killed one of the whites threatening their lives and homes. And so it began-a chain of events that brought America's greatest attorney, Clarence Darrow, into the fray and transformed Sweet into a controversial symbol of equality. Historian Kevin Boyle weaves the police investigation and courtroom drama of Sweet's murder trial into an unforgettable tapestry of narrative history that documents the volatile America of the 1920s and movingly re-creates the Sweet family's journey from slavery through the Great Migration to the middle class. Ossian Sweet's story, so richly and poignantly captured here, is an epic tale of one man trapped by the battles of his era's changing times. Arc of Justice is the winner of the 2004 National Book Award for Nonfiction.

Sweet Land of Liberty

The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 9781588367563

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 7492

The struggle for racial equality in the North has been a footnote in most books about civil rights in America. Now this monumental new work from one of the most brilliant historians of his generation sets the record straight. Sweet Land of Liberty is an epic, revelatory account of the abiding quest for justice in states from Illinois to New York, and of how the intense northern struggle differed from and was inspired by the fight down South. Thomas Sugrue’s panoramic view sweeps from the 1920s to the present–more than eighty of the most decisive years in American history. He uncovers the forgotten stories of battles to open up lunch counters, beaches, and movie theaters in the North; the untold history of struggles against Jim Crow schools in northern towns; the dramatic story of racial conflict in northern cities and suburbs; and the long and tangled histories of integration and black power. Appearing throughout these tumultuous tales of bigotry and resistance are the people who propelled progress, such as Anna Arnold Hedgeman, a dedicated churchwoman who in the 1930s became both a member of New York’s black elite and an increasingly radical activist; A. Philip Randolph, who as America teetered on the brink of World War II dared to threaten FDR with a march on Washington to protest discrimination–and got the Fair Employment Practices Committee (“the second Emancipation Proclamation”) as a result; Morris Milgram, a white activist who built the Concord Park housing development, the interracial answer to white Levittown; and Herman Ferguson, a mild-mannered New York teacher whose protest of a Queens construction site led him to become a key player in the militant Malcolm X’s movement. Filled with unforgettable characters and riveting incidents, and making use of information and accounts both public and private, such as the writings of obscure African American journalists and the records of civil rights and black power groups, Sweet Land of Liberty creates an indelible history. Thomas Sugrue has written a narrative bound to become the standard source on this essential subject. From the Hardcover edition.

Why Labor Organizing Should be a Civil Right

Rebuilding a Middle-class Democracy by Enhancing Worker Voice

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard D. Kahlenberg,Moshe Zvi Marvit

Publisher: Century Foundation

ISBN: 9780870785238

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 150

View: 4388

The economic gains of American workers after World War II have slowly been eroded - in part because organized labor has gone from encompassing one-third of the private sector workers to less than one-tenth. This title deals with the confines of labor law by amending the Civil Rights Act so that it prohibits discrimination against workers

No Pity

People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Joseph P. Shapiro

Publisher: Broadway Books

ISBN: 0307798321

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 2970

People with disabilities forging the newest and last human rights movement of the century. From the Trade Paperback edition.

From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Elizabeth Hinton

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674737237

Category: History

Page: 449

View: 5786

How did the land of the free become the home of the world’s largest prison system? Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: not the War on Drugs of the Reagan administration but the War on Crime that began during Johnson’s Great Society at the height of the civil rights era.

Cold War Civil Rights

Race and the Image of American Democracy

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Mary L. Dudziak

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400839882

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 6866

In 1958, an African-American handyman named Jimmy Wilson was sentenced to die in Alabama for stealing two dollars. Shocking as this sentence was, it was overturned only after intense international attention and the interference of an embarrassed John Foster Dulles. Soon after the United States' segregated military defeated a racist regime in World War II, American racism was a major concern of U.S. allies, a chief Soviet propaganda theme, and an obstacle to American Cold War goals throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Each lynching harmed foreign relations, and "the Negro problem" became a central issue in every administration from Truman to Johnson. In what may be the best analysis of how international relations affected any domestic issue, Mary Dudziak interprets postwar civil rights as a Cold War feature. She argues that the Cold War helped facilitate key social reforms, including desegregation. Civil rights activists gained tremendous advantage as the government sought to polish its international image. But improving the nation's reputation did not always require real change. This focus on image rather than substance--combined with constraints on McCarthy-era political activism and the triumph of law-and-order rhetoric--limited the nature and extent of progress. Archival information, much of it newly available, supports Dudziak's argument that civil rights was Cold War policy. But the story is also one of people: an African-American veteran of World War II lynched in Georgia; an attorney general flooded by civil rights petitions from abroad; the teenagers who desegregated Little Rock's Central High; African diplomats denied restaurant service; black artists living in Europe and supporting the civil rights movement from overseas; conservative politicians viewing desegregation as a communist plot; and civil rights leaders who saw their struggle eclipsed by Vietnam. Never before has any scholar so directly connected civil rights and the Cold War. Contributing mightily to our understanding of both, Dudziak advances--in clear and lively prose--a new wave of scholarship that corrects isolationist tendencies in American history by applying an international perspective to domestic affairs. In her new preface, Dudziak discusses the way the Cold War figures into civil rights history, and details this book's origins, as one question about civil rights could not be answered without broadening her research from domestic to international influences on American history.

The Civil Rights Movement

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Colin Hynson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780749695347

Category: African Americans

Page: 48

View: 6281

Timelines examines the major conflicts and campaigns of modern history by focusing on 21 key events.

A New Civil Right

Telecommunications Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Americans

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Karen Peltz Strauss

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781563682919

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 430

View: 6573

"More than 300 years ago a physicist, Guillaume Amontons, stood on a hillside in Meudon, France, and, using a series of windmills, sent a message to Belleville and then to Paris. He received a response by similar signals, letters of the alphabet attached to the windmill vanes, which were read with a telescope. This experiment in "tele" (distance) communications, although successful, failed in its attempt to acquire funding from his government. Ironically, Amontons was a deaf man who proposed a system for long-distance communications access for the hearing world. A New Civil Right is a welcomed summary of the last half century's battles and breakthroughs by deaf and hearing people in the United States for local, state, and federal legislation. Strauss, a telecommunications policy advocate, was part of the revolution which changed our lives. She provides firsthand details of the legislative movement toward telephone and television (captioning) and the access. Shift of telephone companies and others from a charitable or "social services" perspective to one that such access is a civil right to which deaf and hard-of-hearing people are entitled. Strauss covers the gamut of the legal movement toward access--from the initial use of modems with teleprinters of the l960s to the current wireless world. As a hearing person with many deaf friends and contacts, she personally experienced the frustrations of using telecommunications access services--and these experiences provided a motivating force for her own involvement in the battles to implement laws. Chapters on the development and implementation of relay services outline comprehensively one of the greatest triumphs for deaf people in the United States. The chapter titled "In Case of Emergency" is particularly moving. It describes personal experiences of deaf persons with medical emergencies, the lack of visual emergency bulletins on television during earthquakes and other severe weather events around the country, and the involvement of deaf and hearing people in the battle to propel the Federal Communications Commission into action. Several chapters cover the history that led to closed captioning on television, a welcomed documentation for scholars and general readers alike. There is also coverage of hearing aid-compatible telephone technology. "A Wireless World" details how digital wireless technologies required still another battle to assure access. Universal Design as it relates to telecommunications is also examined in depth. The book leads the reader up to current developments in videotelephony and the Internet--and the next battle to be fought. Throughout the book, compelling human interest stories are woven into the discussions of the bouts with the government windmills. The book's one shortcoming is the bibliography, which is unusually sparse. The history is easy to read, although somewhat burdened unavoidably with acronyms and abbreviations, but an appendix provides easy reference to them. Photographs, timelines, and footnotes enrich the reading further. In her Introduction, Strauss summarizes that the book is also a "tribute to all of the tireless advocates who achieved these victories against all odds." This review pays tribute to Strauss as a pioneer who had her own dream for civil rights and helped lead us all on the march to federal laws."--Publisher's website.

This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed

How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Charles E. Cobb

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465080952

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1691

Visiting Martin Luther King, Jr. at the peak of the civil rights movement, the journalist William Worthy almost sat on a loaded pistol. “Just for self-defense,” King assured him. One of King's advisors remembered the reverend's home as “an arsenal.” Like King, many nonviolent activists embraced their constitutional right to self-protection—yet this crucial dimension of the civil rights struggle has been long ignored. In This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed, civil rights scholar Charles E. Cobb, Jr. reveals how nonviolent activists and their allies kept the civil rights movement alive by bearing—and, when necessary, using—firearms. Whether patrolling their neighborhoods, garrisoning their homes, or firing back at attackers, these men and women were crucial to the movement's success, as were the weapons they carried. Drawing on his firsthand experiences in the Southern Freedom Movement and interviews with fellow participants, Cobb offers a controversial examination of the vital role guns have played in securing American liberties.

Child of the Civil Rights Movement

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Paula Young Shelton

Publisher: Dragonfly

ISBN: 0385376065

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 7196

The author, the daughter of Andrew Young, describes the participation of Martin Luther King, Jr., along with her father and others, in the civil rights movement and in the historic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, in 1965.

We the Corporations: How American Businesses Won Their Civil Rights

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Adam Winkler

Publisher: Liveright Publishing

ISBN: 0871403846

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 921

We the Corporations chronicles the revelatory story of one of the most successful, yet least known, “civil rights movements” in American history. We the Corporations chronicles the astonishing story of one of the most successful yet least well-known “civil rights movements” in American history. Hardly oppressed like women and minorities, business corporations, too, have fought since the nation’s earliest days to gain equal rights under the Constitution—and today have nearly all the same rights as ordinary people. Exposing the historical origins of Citizens United and Hobby Lobby, Adam Winkler explains how those controversial Supreme Court decisions extending free speech and religious liberty to corporations were the capstone of a centuries-long struggle over corporate personhood and constitutional protections for business. Beginning his account in the colonial era, Winkler reveals the profound influence corporations had on the birth of democracy and on the shape of the Constitution itself. Once the Constitution was ratified, corporations quickly sought to gain the rights it guaranteed. The first Supreme Court case on the rights of corporations was decided in 1809, a half-century before the first comparable cases on the rights of African Americans or women. Ever since, corporations have waged a persistent and remarkably fruitful campaign to win an ever-greater share of individual rights. Although corporations never marched on Washington, they employed many of the same strategies of more familiar civil rights struggles: civil disobedience, test cases, and novel legal claims made in a purposeful effort to reshape the law. Indeed, corporations have often been unheralded innovators in constitutional law, and several of the individual rights Americans hold most dear were first secured in lawsuits brought by businesses. Winkler enlivens his narrative with a flair for storytelling and a colorful cast of characters: among others, Daniel Webster, America’s greatest advocate, who argued some of the earliest corporate rights cases on behalf of his business clients; Roger Taney, the reviled Chief Justice, who surprisingly fought to limit protections for corporations—in part to protect slavery; and Roscoe Conkling, a renowned politician who deceived the Supreme Court in a brazen effort to win for corporations the rights added to the Constitution for the freed slaves. Alexander Hamilton, Teddy Roosevelt, Huey Long, Ralph Nader, Louis Brandeis, and even Thurgood Marshall all played starring roles in the story of the corporate rights movement. In this heated political age, nothing can be timelier than Winkler’s tour de force, which shows how America’s most powerful corporations won our most fundamental rights and turned the Constitution into a weapon to impede the regulation of big business.

Literacy as a Civil Right

Reclaiming Social Justice in Literacy Teaching and Learning

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Stuart Greene

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9780820488684

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 3987

The urgency to create equity in schools has never been greater, especially since legislators are considering the re-authorization of No Child Left Behind as a means to eliminating the achievement gap. Studies continue to show that increased standards, testing, and accountability have simply maintained the status quo. In response, this book proposes alternative ways of addressing these educational inequities, taking an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex historical, social, and global issues that stand in the way of ensuring that all students have access to literacy - issues that policy makers and educators can no longer ignore. "Literacy as a Civil Right "assembles an impressive group of essays that broaden the conversation taking place about school reform, unmasking an ideology that maintains unequal relations of power in school and society. The ideas presented here will help readers re-imagine success in schools by understanding the possibilities that grow from a democratic vision of education. Together, this book provides an alternative framework to increased testing, offering a more humane vision of education that values agency, rigor, civic responsibility, and democracy.

Caught

The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400880815

Category: Political Science

Page: 504

View: 309

The huge prison buildup of the past four decades has few defenders, yet reforms to reduce the numbers of those incarcerated have been remarkably modest. Meanwhile, an ever-widening carceral state has sprouted in the shadows, extending its reach far beyond the prison gate. It sunders families and communities and reworks conceptions of democracy, rights, and citizenship—posing a formidable political and social challenge. In Caught, Marie Gottschalk examines why the carceral state remains so tenacious in the United States. She analyzes the shortcomings of the two dominant penal reform strategies—one focused on addressing racial disparities, the other on seeking bipartisan, race-neutral solutions centered on reentry, justice reinvestment, and reducing recidivism. With a new preface evaluating the effectiveness of recent proposals to reform mass incarceration, Caught offers a bracing appraisal of the politics of penal reform.

Locking Up Our Own

Crime and Punishment in Black America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: James Forman, Jr.

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 0374712905

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7673

In recent years, America’s criminal justice system has become the subject of an increasingly urgent debate. Critics have assailed the rise of mass incarceration, emphasizing its disproportionate impact on people of color. As James Forman, Jr., points out, however, the war on crime that began in the 1970s was supported by many African American leaders in the nation’s urban centers. In Locking Up Our Own, he seeks to understand why. Forman shows us that the first substantial cohort of black mayors, judges, and police chiefs took office amid a surge in crime and drug addiction. Many prominent black officials, including Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry and federal prosecutor Eric Holder, feared that the gains of the civil rights movement were being undermined by lawlessness—and thus embraced tough-on-crime measures, including longer sentences and aggressive police tactics. In the face of skyrocketing murder rates and the proliferation of open-air drug markets, they believed they had no choice. But the policies they adopted would have devastating consequences for residents of poor black neighborhoods. A former D.C. public defender, Forman tells riveting stories of politicians, community activists, police officers, defendants, and crime victims. He writes with compassion about individuals trapped in terrible dilemmas—from the men and women he represented in court to officials struggling to respond to a public safety emergency. Locking Up Our Own enriches our understanding of why our society became so punitive and offers important lessons to anyone concerned about the future of race and the criminal justice system in this country.

Liberal Neutrality

Treating Citizens as Free and Equal

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Alexa Zellentin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110255197

Category: Philosophy

Page: 192

View: 5345

What does it mean to treat citizens as free and equal given their cultural differences? This book argues that the state ought to be neutral. Treating citizens as free requires justificatory neutrality. Treating citizens as equals requires the state to grant its citizens equal political rights and also to ensure that these rights have “fair value”. Given the danger that cultural bias undermines the equal standing of citizens, the state has to ensure procedures of political decision making that are able to take the different values and beliefs of its citizens into account. Only this two-fold understanding of liberal neutrality safeguards that the formally equal political rights of citizens also have fair value.