The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America


Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199892792

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 9775

The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.

Alice Paul, the National WomanÕs Party and the Vote

The First Civil Rights Struggle of the 20th Century


Author: Bernadette Cahill

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 078646979X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 232

View: 3450

When women picketed the White House demanding the vote on January 10, 1917, they broke new ground in political activism. They petitioned the President and Congress and marched in the streets in the nation's first ever coast to coast campaign for political rights. Women were imprisoned for peaceful protest, went on hunger strikes and were beaten and tortured by authorities. But they won the 19th Amendment, ensuring that the right to vote cannot be denied because of gender. Their successful nonviolent civil rights campaign established a precedent for those that followed, giving them the tools--including the vote--needed to advance their goals. This book chronicles the work of Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party and their influence on American political activism.

The First Lady of Civil Rights

Rosa Parks


Author: Bruce Bednarchuk

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 1632904012

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 24

View: 6178

A song about the U.S. Civil rights activist and icon, Rosa Parks. Includes online music access.

Marshalling Justice

The Early Civil Rights Letters of Thurgood Marshall


Author: Michael G. Long

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062064290

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 448

View: 3567

“[An] important collection….Michael G. Long deserves high praise indeed for unearthing [Marshall’s letters] and bringing them to light.” —Wil Haygood Collected together for the first time in Marshalling Justice, here are selected letters written by one of the most influential and important activists in the American Civil Rights movement: the brilliant legal mind and footsoldier for justice and racial equality, Thurgood Marshall. The correspondences of a rebellious young attorney with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Marshalling Justice paints an eye-opening portrait of Thurgood Marshall before he became the first African American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, during his years as a groundbreaking and vibrant Civil Rights activist in the tradition of Martin Luther King and Julian Bond.

From The Civil Rights Pioneers to The First African American President and Beyond

Forging a More Perfect Union by Eliminating Injustice, Racism, Poverty and Violence


Author: Darryl Lezama, US Navy Retired

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 149690866X

Category: Education

Page: 80

View: 6182

The book “From The Civil Rights Pioneers to The First African American President and Beyond” is a description of some significant events that have impacted our culture in negative and positive ways. The negative aspects of some of the events in the book, is indicative of the kind of destructive behaviors that project some of the worst aspects of our culture people and nation. Nevertheless, as stated by our president regarding race relations, injustice, violence, and crime in general in America, “we are better than this” we must summon our better angels as we interact with each other”. The book in a sense is a challenge for us to examine the negative so that we can change those painful experiences into moments of learning and enhancing our attitudes and treatment of each other regardless of our national heritage, ethnicity, cultural differences, economic status, educational and professional backgrounds, and racial differences. The book is a brief description of experiences that we should not just ignore since many of our great leaders have sacrificed so much to make sure that our nation fulfils its responsibility to all American citizens in terms of Justice, equality, civil rights, and full access to achieving the American dream as we all pursue freedom and the accomplishment of our God ordained dreams. The book is also describing how much progress we have made towards achieving the dream of Dr Martin Luther King’s dream of justice and civil rights for all Americas regardless of race.

African American Civil Rights

Early Activism and the Niagara Movement


Author: Angela Jones

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313393605

Category: History

Page: 281

View: 550

• Primary source documents including the Niagara Movement's "Declaration of Principles" • A chronology of the development of the civil rights movement • Photographs of key players in the Niagara Movement • An expansive bibliography encompassing titles from sociology, political science, and history

Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom


Author: Richard H. King

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 9780820318240

Category: Political Science

Page: 269

View: 9101

Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom is a groundbreaking work, one of the first to show in detail how the civil rights movement crystallized our views of citizenship as a grassroots-level, collective endeavor and of self-respect as a formidable political tool. Drawing on both oral and written sources, Richard H. King shows how rank-and-file movement participants defined and discussed such concepts as rights, equality, justice, and, in particular, freedom, and how such key movement leaders as Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Baker, Stokely Carmichael, and James Forman were attuned to this "freedom talk." The book includes chapters on the concept of freedom in its many varieties, both individual and collective; on self-interest and self-respect; on Martin Luther King's use of the idea of freedom; and on the intellectual evolution of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, especially in light of Frantz Fanon's thought among movement radicals. In demonstrating that self-respect, self-determination, and solidarity were as central to the goals of the movement as the dismantling of the Jim Crow system, King argues that the movement's success should not be measured in terms of tangible, quantifiable advances alone, such as voter registration increases or improved standards of living. Not only has the civil rights movement helped strengthen the meaning and political importance of active citizenship in the contemporary world, says King, but "what was at first a political goal became, in the 1970s and 1980s, the impetus for the academic and intellectual rediscovery and reinterpretation of the Afro-American cultural and historical experience."

Selma to Saigon

The Civil Rights Movement and the Vietnam War


Author: Daniel S. Lucks

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813145082

Category: Social Science

Page: 394

View: 3047

The civil rights and anti--Vietnam War movements were the two greatest protests of twentieth-century America. The dramatic escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam in 1965 took precedence over civil rights legislation, which had dominated White House and congressional attention during the first half of the decade. The two issues became intertwined on January 6, 1966, when the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) became the first civil rights organization to formally oppose the war, protesting the injustice of drafting African Americans to fight for the freedom of the South Vietnamese people when they were still denied basic freedoms at home. Selma to Saigon explores the impact of the Vietnam War on the national civil rights movement. Before the war gained widespread attention, the New Left, the SNCC, and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) worked together to create a biracial alliance with the potential to make significant political and social gains in Washington. Contention over the war, however, exacerbated preexisting generational and ideological tensions that undermined the coalition, and Lucks analyzes the causes and consequences of this disintegration. This powerful narrative illuminates the effects of the Vietnam War on the lives of leaders such as Whitney Young Jr., Stokely Carmichael, Roy Wilkins, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King Jr., as well as other activists who faced the threat of the military draft along with race-related discrimination and violence. Providing new insights into the evolution of the civil rights movement, this book fills a significant gap in the literature about one of the most tumultuous periods in American history.

From Civil Rights to Armalites

Derry and the Birth of the Irish Troubles


Author: Niall Ó Dochartaigh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230006043

Category: Political Science

Page: 332

View: 7653

From Civil Rights to Armalites traces and analyses the escalation of conflict in Northern Ireland from the first civil rights marches to the verge of full-scale civil war in 1972, focusing on the city of Derry. It explains how a peaceful civil rights campaign gave way to increasing violence, how the IRA became a major political force and how the British army became a major party to the conflict. It provides the essential context for understanding the events of Bloody Sunday and a new chapter brings significant new material to the public debate around the Bloody Sunday Inquiry.

The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement


Author: Susan M. Glisson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742544093

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 350

View: 9191

This engaging collection of biographies explores the greater civil rights movement in America from Reconstruction to the 1970s while emphasizing the importance of grassroots actions and individual agency in the effort to bring about national civil renewal. While focusing on the importance of individuals on the local level working towards civil rights they also explore the influence that this primarily African-American movement had on others including La Raza, the Native American Movement, feminism, and gay rights. By widening the time frame studied, these essays underscore the difficult, often unrewarded and generational nature of social change.

How Far the Promised Land?

World Affairs and the American Civil Rights Movement from the First World War to Vietnam


Author: Jonathan Rosenberg

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691007069

Category: History

Page: 316

View: 6402

In examining the link between international developments and the quest for racial justice, Jonathan Rosenberg argues that civil rights leaders were profoundly interested in the world beyond America and incorporated their understanding of overseas matters into their reform program in order to fortify and legitimize the message they presented to their followers, the nation, and the international community."--BOOK JACKET.

From Slave to State Legislator

John W. E. Thomas, Illinois' First African American Lawmaker


Author: David A Joens

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 080933058X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 9639

As the first African American elected to the Illinois general assembly, John W. E. Thomas was the recognized leader of the state’s African American community for nearly twenty years and laid the groundwork for the success of future black leaders in Chicago politics. Despite his key role in the passage of Illinois’ first civil rights act and his commitment to improving his community against steep personal and political barriers, Thomas’s life and career have been long forgotten by historians and the public alike. This fascinating full-length biography—the first to address the full influence of Thomas or any black politician from Illinois during the Reconstruction Era—is also a pioneering effort to explain the dynamics of African American politics and divisions within the black community in post–Civil War Chicago.In From Slave to State Legislator, David A. Joens traces Thomas’s trajectory from a slave owned by a doctor’s family in Alabama to a prominent attorney believed to be the wealthiest African American man in Chicago at the time of his death in 1899. Providing one of the few comprehensive looks at African Americans in Chicago during this period, Joens reveals how Thomas’s career represents both the opportunities available to African Americans in the postwar period and the limits still placed on them. When Thomas moved to Chicago in 1869, he started a grocery store, invested in real estate, and founded the first private school for African Americans before becoming involved in politics. From Slave to State Legislator provides detailed coverage of Thomas’s three terms in the legislature during the 1870s and 1880s, his multiple failures to be nominated for reelection, and his loyalty to the Republican Party at great political cost, calling attention to the political differences within a black community often considered small and homogenous. Even after achieving his legislative legacy—the passage of the first state civil rights law—Thomas was plagued by patronage issues and an increasingly bitter split with the African American community frustrated with slow progress toward true equality. Drawing on newspapers and an array of government documents, Joens provides the most thorough review to date of the first civil rights legislation and the two controversial “colored conventions” chaired by Thomas. Joens cements Thomas’s legacy as a committed and conscientious lawmaker amid political and personal struggles. In revealing the complicated rivalries and competing ambitions that shaped black northern politics during the Reconstruction Era, Joens shows the long-term impact of Thomas’s friendship with other burgeoning African American political stars and his work to get more black representatives elected. The volume is enhanced by short biographies of other key Chicago African American politicians of the era. Superior Achievement from the Illinois State Historical Society, 2013

The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America


Author: Kevern Verney

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526128926

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 6280

Once a neglected area, African American history is now the subject of extensive scholarly research. The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America is the first full-length study to examine the changing academic debate on developments in African American history from the 1890s to the present. It provides a critical historiographical review of the very latest thinking and explains how and why research and discourse have evolved in the ways that they have. Individual chapters focus on particular periods in African American history from the spread of racial segregation in the 1890s through to the postwar Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement of the sixties and seventies. The concluding chapters address the modern day black experience and the images of African Americans in popular culture. Appraising both the existing scholarship and the changing philosophy of the historical profession, this work will be invaluable to scholars, students and general readers alike.

The New Jim Crow: African Americans, Civil Rights, And the First Presidential Election of the 21st Century

Disenfranchising African Americans in Florida 2000, Bush V. Gore, And Black America's Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights And Political Equality


Author: Godfrey C. Henry

Publisher: Xlibris Corp

ISBN: 9781599263700

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 451

View: 6933

How the Bush campaign in "Florida 2000" engineered a political and Civil Rights disaster for African Americans, and why. And the parallels of this debacle in American history and constitutional law. --- "Perhaps the most dramatic undercount...was the non-existent ballots of the countless unknown eligible voters who were wrongfully purged from the voter registration rolls...The disenfranchisement of Florida's voters fell most harshly on the shoulders of African Americans." The United States Commission on Civil Rights "The United States Supreme Court was aware of this illegal, massive disenfranchisement of Florida's black citizens... executed by the state's highest ranking electoral officials... "In Gadsen County...the black population is only 11%, but the number of rejected black ballots were 54%." The New Jim Crow "Since Dred Scott v. Sanford...there has been no case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States in recent years that has had a more devastating impact on the fundamental political interests and Civil Rights of African Americans than Bush v. Gore." From the Introduction of The New Jim Crow

Civil Rights Journey

The Story of a White Southerner Coming of Age During the Civil Rights Revolution


Author: Joseph Howell

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1456762079

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 200

View: 4589

Civil Rights Journey recounts the coming of age of a young man shaped early by the crucibles of polio and segregation (both by decree and by custom) and later by that of the civil rights movement. Joe Howell's story depicts the effects of human vulnerability and of human cruelty. The lingering effects of polio made him at times the object of bullying and derision, perhaps thus increasing his sensitivity to such cruelties manifested in the system of segregation. The reader shares the hopes, doubts, and at times despair that form Joe as he tries to wrest meaning from his experiences and determine what his path in life should be. Civil Rights Journey offers the reader a multilayered account of a young man born in the pre-civil rights South, sheltered by a code of customs that privileged the white middle class at the expense of blacks and poor whites, and of his formation and moral development shaped by his civil rights journey. (From the foreword by Janet Hampton) Joseph Howell has written a remarkable memoir. He takes us on a journey to rural Georgia at the height of the civil rights movement and the rise of black power. His account of his struggles to work with black activists to make change in communities deeply marred by entrenched issues of racism and social injustice is honest and passionate. Through Howell's fresh and complex narrative, we come to a rich understanding of the vital role white people can play in racial justice movements and the complex terrain they enter as they struggle to build new kinds of relationships with black activists and with "regular folks." These issues remain compelling today and contemporary readers will be profoundly moved as they accompany Howell through his struggles to make sense of the world and of his life in a time of historic racial change. Mark R. Warren Harvard University Author of Fire in the Heart: How White Activists Embrace Racial Justice Civil Rights Journey by Joseph Howell is a truly wonderful piece of writing. Joe Howell's personal story in the first section of the book is deeply moving and provides a beautiful frame for their Albany journal. As the Howells work with black SNCC workers in Albany, Georgia, they offer the reader a rare view of the civil rights movement during this important time. His powerful, honest book will be read and loved by many. William Ferris University of North Carolina Former chair, National Endowment for the Humanities

Selma and the Liuzzo Murder Trials

The First Modern Civil Rights Convictions


Author: James P. Turner

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 0472053744

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 435

A fascinating examination of the Viola Liuzzo trials, with a foreword by Ari Berman

The Civil Rights Movement in Tennessee

A Narrative History


Author: Bobby L. Lovett

Publisher: Univ. of Tennessee Press

ISBN: 9781572334434

Category: History

Page: 483

View: 883

The civil rights movement in the state of Tennessee is examined in this history that proposes that African Americans have always had a civil rights movement in Tennessee, even during slavery.

Civil Rights Movement

People and Perspectives


Author: Michael Ezra

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1598840371

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 7950

Presents a collection of essays about the history of the civil rights movement, focusing on the efforts of clergy, student activists, black nationalists, and such organizations as the NCAAP and Core to bring about racial equality.

The Civil Rights Movement

Striving for Justice


Author: Tim McNeese

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 1438106319

Category: African Americans

Page: 157

View: 2352

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka case of 1954, declared that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional, the civil rights movement began to gain momentum. This book spotlights the rise of the civil rights movement, offering a look at one of the remarkable and influential movements in US history.

Howard University: the First Hundred Years, 1867-1967


Author: Rayford W. Logan

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814702635

Category: Education

Page: 658

View: 5743

I would have climbed up a mountain to get on the list [to serve overseas]. We were going to do our duty. Despite all the bad things that happened, America was our home. This is where I was born. It was where my mother and father were. There was a feeling of wanting to do your part. --Gladys Carter, member of the 6888th To Serve My Country, to Serve my Raceis the story of the historic 6888th, the first United States Women's Army Corps unit composed of African-American women to serve overseas. While African-American men and white women were invited, if belatedly, to serve their country abroad, African-American women were excluded for overseas duty throughout most of WWII. Under political pressure from legislators like Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., the NAACP, the black press, and even President Roosevelt, the U.S. War Department was forced to deploy African-American women to the European theater in 1945. African-American women, having succeeded, through their own activism and political ties, in their quest to shape their own lives, answered the call from all over the country, from every socioeconomic stratum. Stationed in France and England at the end of World War II, the 6888th brought together women like Mary Daniel Williams, a cook in the 6888th who signed up for the Army to escape the slums of Cleveland and to improve her ninth-grade education, and Margaret Barnes Jones, a public relations officer of the 6888th, who grew up in a comfortable household with a politically active mother who encouraged her to challenge the system. Despite the social, political, and economic restrictions imposed upon these African-American women in their own country, they were eager to serve, not only out of patriotism but out of a desire to uplift their race and dispell bigoted preconceptions about their abilities. Elaine Bennett, a First Sergeant in the 6888th, joined because "I wanted to prove to myself and maybe to the world that we would give what we had back to the United States as a confirmation that we were full- fledged citizens." Filled with compelling personal testimony based on extensive interviews,To Serve My Countryis the first book to document the lives of these courageous pioneers. It reveals how their Army experience affected them for the rest of their lives and how they, in turn, transformed the U.S. military forever.