The Evolution of Fieldwork in Anthropology

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Author: Lee Hooper

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783656575801

Category:

Page: 12

View: 4546

Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Pedagogy - Science, Theory, Anthropology, grade: 1, Massey University, New Zealand, course: Kulturanthropologie, language: English, abstract: The use of fieldwork is considered to be fundamental part of anthropological research, with many different methodologies being utilised depending on one's theoretical stance. This essay will look to compare two different anthropologists' approaches - that of Bronis aw Malinowski's (1922) work in New Guinea and Susan Krieger's (1996) work in America. Through giving a general definition of fieldwork first, the two anthropologists' methodologies will be outlined and contrasted. It is found that while there are certain similarities between both approaches, with each having their own distinctive strengths, the differences can be accounted for by historical environments and the goals of the anthropologist.

Fieldwork and Footnotes

Studies in the History of European Anthropology

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Author: Arturo Alvarez Roldan,Han Vermeulen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134843968

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 9053

The history of anthropology has great relevance for current debates within the discipline, offering a foundation from which the professionalisation of anthropology can evolve. The authors explore key issues in the history of social and cultural anthropological approaches in Germany, Great Britain, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Poland, Slovenia and Romania, as well as the influence of Spanish anthropologists in Mexico to provide a comprehensive overview of European anthropological traditions.

Observers Observed

Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork

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Author: George W. Stocking

Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press

ISBN: 9780299094539

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 2172

History of Anthropology is a new series of annual volumes, each of which will treat an important theme in the history of anthropological inquiry. For this initial volume, the editors have chosen to focus on the modern cultural anthropology: intensive fieldwork by "participant observation." Observers Observed includes essays by a distinguished group of historians and anthropologists covering major episodes in the history of ethnographic fieldwork in the American, British, and French traditions since 1880. As the first work to investigate the development of modern fieldwork in a serious historical way, this collection will be of great interest and value to anthropologist, historians of science and the social sciences, and the general readers interested in the way in which modern anthropologists have perceived and described the cultures of "others." Included in this volume are the contributions of Homer G. Barnett, University of Oregon; James Clifford, University of California, Santa Cruz; Douglas Cole, Simon Frazer University; Richard Handler, Lake Forest College; Curtis Hinsley, Colgate University; Joan Larcom, Mount Holyoke College; Paul Rabinow, University of California, Berkeley; and the editor.

The Ethnographer's Magic and Other Essays in the History of Anthropology

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Author: George W. Stocking

Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press

ISBN: 9780299134143

Category: Social Science

Page: 440

View: 7224

According to George Marcus of Rice University, the essays "represent the most informative and insightful writings on Malinowski and Boas and their legacies that are yet available." Beyond their biographical material, the essays here touch upon major themes in the history of anthropology: its powerfully mythic aspect and persistent strain of romantic primitivism; the contradictions of its relationship to the larger sociopolitical sphere; its problematic integration of a variety of natural scientific and humanistic inquiries; and the tension between its scientific aspirations and its subjectively acquired data. To provide an overview against which to read the other essays, Stocking has also included a sketch of the history of anthropology from the ancient Greeks to the present. For this collection, Stocking has written prefatory commentaries for each of the essays, as well as two more extended contextualizing pieces.

Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology

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Author: H. Russell Bernard,Clarence C. Gravlee

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0759120722

Category: Social Science

Page: 822

View: 1143

Draws on both science and humanism to explore the scope of contemporary anthropological fieldwork in practice. This thoroughly revised second edition also features new chapters addressing online ethnography; mixed methods and social survey research; and network and geospatial analysis.

In the Field

Life and Work in Cultural Anthropology

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Author: Prof. George Gmelch,Prof. Sharon Bohn Gmelch

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520964217

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 1479

This book offers students an invaluable look at what cultural anthropologists do when they are in the field. Through fascinating and often entertaining accounts of their lives and work in varied cultural settings, the authors describe the many forms fieldwork can take, the kinds of questions anthropologists ask, and the common problems they encounter. From these accounts and the experiences of the student field workers the authors have mentored over the years, In the Field makes a powerful case for the value of the anthropological approach to knowledge.

Centralizing Fieldwork

Critical Perspectives from Primatology, Biological and Social Anthropology

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Author: Jeremy MacClancy,Agustín Fuentes

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845458516

Category: Social Science

Page: 310

View: 4709

Fieldwork is a central method of research throughout anthropology, a much-valued, much-vaunted mode of generating information. But its nature and process have been seriously understudied in biological anthropology and primatology. This book is the first ever comparative investigation, across primatology, biological anthropology, and social anthropology, to look critically at this key research practice. It is also an innovative way to further the comparative project within a broadly conceived anthropology, because it does not focus on common theory but on a common method. The questions asked by contributors are: what in the pursuit of fieldwork is common to all three disciplines, what is unique to each, how much is contingent, how much necessary? Can we generate well-grounded cross-disciplinary generalizations about this mutual research method, and are there are any telling differences? Co-edited by a social anthropologist and a primatologist, the book includes a list of distinguished and well-established contributors from primatology and biological anthropology.

Race, Culture, and Evolution

Essays in the History of Anthropology

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Author: George W. Stocking, Jr,Jr. George W. Stocking

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226774947

Category: Social Science

Page: 380

View: 7747

Essays in the history of anthropology cover such topics as the image of primitive man in evolutionary anthology and a historical analysis of the scientific reaction against cultural anthropology in the early twentieth century.

Holistic Anthropology

Emergence and Convergence

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Author: David J. Parkin,Stanley J. Ulijaszek

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781845453541

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 2160

Given the broad reach of anthropology as the science of humankind, there are times when the subject fragments into specialisms and times when there is rapprochement. Rather than just seeing them as reactions to each other, it is perhaps better to say that both tendencies co-exist and that it is very much a matter of perspective as to which is dominant at any moment. The perspective adopted by the contributors to this volume is that some anthropologists have, over the last decade or so, been paying considerable attention to developments in the study of social and biological evolution and of material culture, and that this has brought social, material cultural and biological anthropologists closer to each other and closer to allied disciplines such as archaeology and psychology. A more eclectic anthropology once characteristic of an earlier age is thus re-emerging. The new holism does not result from the merging of sharply distinguished disciplines but from among anthropologists themselves who see social organization as fundamentally a problem of human ecology, and, from that, of material and mental creativity, human biology, and the co-evolution of society and culture. It is part of a wider interest beyond anthropology in the origins and rationale of human activities, claims and beliefs, and draws on inferential or speculative reasoning as well as 'hard' evidence. The book argues that, while usefully borrowing from other subjects, all such reasoning must be grounded in prolonged, intensive and linguistically-informed fieldwork and comparison.

Hierarchy in the Forest

The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior

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Author: Christopher BOEHM,Christopher Boehm

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674028449

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3869

Are humans by nature hierarchical or egalitarian? Hierarchy in the Forest addresses this question by examining the evolutionary origins of social and political behavior. Christopher Boehm, an anthropologist whose fieldwork has focused on the political arrangements of human and nonhuman primate groups, postulates that egalitarianism is in effect a hierarchy in which the weak combine forces to dominate the strong. The political flexibility of our species is formidable: we can be quite egalitarian, we can be quite despotic. Hierarchy in the Forest traces the roots of these contradictory traits in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, and early human societies. Boehm looks at the loose group structures of hunter-gatherers, then at tribal segmentation, and finally at present-day governments to see how these conflicting tendencies are reflected. Hierarchy in the Forest claims new territory for biological anthropology and evolutionary biology by extending the domain of these sciences into a crucial aspect of human political and social behavior. This book will be a key document in the study of the evolutionary basis of genuine altruism. Table of Contents: The Question of Egalitarian Society Hierarchy and Equality Putting Down Aggressors Equality and Its Causes A Wider View of Egalitarianism The Hominoid Political Spectrum Ancestral Politics The Evolution of Egalitarian Society Paleolithic Politics and Natural Selection Ambivalence and Compromise in Human Nature References Index Reviews of this book: This well-written book, geared toward an audience with background in the behavioral and evolutionary sciences but accessible to a broad readership, raises two general questions: 'What is an egalitarian society?' and 'How have these societies evolved?'...[Christopher Boehm] takes the reader on a journey from the Arctic to the Americas, from Australia to Africa, in search of hunter-gatherer and tribal societies that emanate the egalitarian ethos--one that promotes generosity, altruism and sharing but forbids upstartism, aggression and egoism. Throughout this journey, Boehm tantalizes the reader with vivid anthropological accounts of ridicule, criticism, ostracism and even execution--prevalent tactics used by subordinates in egalitarian societies to level the social playing field...Hierarchy in the Forest is an interesting and thought-provoking book that is surely an important contribution to perspectives on human sociality and politics. --Ryan Earley, American Scientist Reviews of this book: Combing an exhaustive ethnographic survey of human societies from groups of hunter-gatherers to contemporary residents of the Balkans with a detailed analysis of the behavioral attributes of non-human primates (chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos), Boehm focuses on whether humans are hierarchical or egalitarian by nature...[Boehm's hypotheses] are invariably intriguing and well documented...He raises topics of wide interest and his book should get attention. --Publishers Weekly Boehm has been the first to look at egalitarianism with a cold, unromantic eye. He sees it as a victory over hierarchical tendencies, which are equally marked in our species. I would predict that his insightful examination will reverberate within anthropology and the social sciences as well as among biologists interested in the evolution of social systems. --Frans de Waal, Emory University Hierarchy in the Forest is an original and stimulating contribution to thinking about the origins of egalitarianism. I personally find Boehm's ideas convincing, but whether one agrees with him or not, he has formulated his hypotheses in such a way that this book is likely to set the terms of the discussion for the forseeable future. --Barbara Smuts, University of Michigan The most unique and interesting feature of this clear, well written book is the way Boehm links the study of nonhuman primates (particularly chimpanzees) to traditional concepts of political anthropology. As a political scientist, I was intrigued by Boehm's suggestion that democracy, both ancient and modern, could be understood as the expression of the same natural dispositions that support the egalitarianism of nomadic bands and sedentary tribes. I expect that many scholars in biology, anthropology, and the social sciences would learn from this stimulating book. Even those who disagree with Boehm's arguments are likely to be provoked in instructive ways. --Larry Arnhart, Northern Illinois University Chris Boehm boldly and cogently attacks a whole orthodoxy in anthropology which sees hunter-gatherer 'egalitarianism' as somehow the basic form of human society. No praise can be too high for Boehm's brilliant and courageous book. --Robin Fox, Rutgers University

How to Think Like an Anthropologist

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Author: Matthew Engelke

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889529

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 2906

From an award-winning anthropologist, a lively accessible, and at times irreverent introduction to the subject What is anthropology? What can it tell us about the world? Why, in short, does it matter? For well over a century, cultural anthropologists have circled the globe, from Papua New Guinea to suburban England and from China to California, uncovering surprising facts and insights about how humans organize their lives and articulate their values. In the process, anthropology has done more than any other discipline to reveal what culture means--and why it matters. By weaving together examples and theories from around the world, Matthew Engelke provides a lively, accessible, and at times irreverent introduction to anthropology, covering a wide range of classic and contemporary approaches, subjects, and practitioners. Presenting a set of memorable cases, he encourages readers to think deeply about some of the key concepts with which anthropology tries to make sense of the world—from culture and nature to authority and blood. Along the way, he shows why anthropology matters: not only because it helps us understand other cultures and points of view but also because, in the process, it reveals something about ourselves and our own cultures, too.

Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age

Second Edition

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Author: Kenneth J Guest

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393265005

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 558

The Second Edition of Ken Guest's Cultural Anthropology: A Toolkit for a Global Age covers the concepts that drive cultural anthropology by showing that now, more than ever, global forces affect local culture and the tools of cultural anthropology are relevant to living in a globalizing world.

The Rise of Anthropological Theory

A History of Theories of Culture

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Author: Marvin Harris

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759101333

Category: Social Science

Page: 806

View: 5721

The best known, most often cited history of anthropological theory is finally available in paperback! First published in 1968, Harris's book has been cited in over 1,000 works and is one of the key documents explaining cultural materialism, the theory associated with Harris's work. This updated edition included the complete 1968 text plus a new introduction by Maxine Margolis, which discusses the impact of the book and highlights some of the major trends in anthropological theory since its original publication. RAT, as it is affectionately known to three decades of graduate students, comprehensively traces the history of anthropology and anthropological theory, culminating in a strong argument for the use of a scientific, behaviorally-based, etic approach to the understanding of human culture known as cultural materialism. Despite its popularity and influence on anthropological thinking, RAT has never been available in paperback_until now. It is an essential volume for the library of all anthropologists, their graduate students, and other theorists in the social sciences.

Mountain Arapesh

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Author: MARGARET. MEAD

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138536920

Category:

Page: 697

View: 4977

For approximately eight months during 1931-1932, anthropologist Margaret Mead lived with and studied the Mountain Arapesh-a segment of the population of the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. She found a culture based on simplicity, sensitivity, and cooperation. In contrast to the aggressive Arapesh who lived on the plains, both the men and the women of the mountain settlements were found to be, in Mead's word, maternal. The Mountain Arapesh exhibited qualities that many might consider feminine: they were, in general, passive, affectionate, and peaceloving. Though Mead partially explains the male's "femininity" as being due to the type of nourishment available to the Arapesh, she maintains social conditioning to be a factor in the type of lifestyle led by both sexes. Mead's study encapsulates all aspects of the Arapesh culture. She discusses betrothal and marriage customs, sexuality, gender roles, diet, religion, arts, agriculture, and rites of passage. In possibly a portent for the breakdown of traditional roles and beliefs in the latter part of the twentieth century, Mead discusses the purpose of rites of passage in maintaining societal values and social control. Mead also discovered that both male and female parents took an active role in raising their children. Furthermore, it was found that there were few conflicts over property: the Arapesh, having no concept of land ownership, maintained a peaceful existence with each other. In his new introduction to The Mountain Arapesh, Paul B. Roscoe assesses the importance of Mead's work in light of modern anthropological and ethnographic research, as well as how it fits into her own canon of writings. Roscoe discusses findings he culled from a trip to Papua New Guinea in 1991 to clarify some ambiguities in Mead's work. His travels also served to help reconstruct what had happened to the Arapesh since Mead's historic visit in the early 1930s.

Fieldwork in South Asia

Memories, Moments, and Experiences

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Author: Sarit K. Chaudhuri,Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 9351501272

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 402

Fieldwork in South Asia is a valuable attempt to listen and learn from the memories and significant moments of fieldwork done by anthropologists, sociologists, and even historians from South Asia. The essays lead towards a deeper understanding of concerns of fieldwork located in various field sites across South Asia without assuming or applying fixed normative rules for the whole region. In the process, the volume allows the reader to have an option to locate or relocate ethnographic or other forms of texts in the context of growing methodological contours and dilemmas in the social science. Above all, this is a book about relationships—multi-layered relationships among people encountered in the field, the ethnographic relationship itself, with all its personal raw edges, and relationship with the land and even non-human realms.

Extraordinary Anthropology

Transformations in the Field

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Author: Jean-Guy Goulet,Bruce Granville Miller

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803206984

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 892

What happens when anthropologists lose themselves during fieldwork while attempting to understand divergent cultures? When they stray from rigorous agendas and are forced to confront radically unexpected or unexplained experiences? In Extraordinary Anthropology leading ethnographers from across the globe discuss the importance of the deeply personal and emotionally volatile ?ecstatic? side of fieldwork. ø Anthropologists who have worked in communities in Central America, North America, Australia, Africa, and Asia share their intimate experiences of tranformations in the field through details of significant dreams, haunting visions, and their own conflicting emotional tensions. Their experiences demonstrate the necessary fluidity of research agendas, the value of going beyond an accepted (and safe) cultural and academic vantage point, and the inevitability of wrestling with tension and unhappiness when faced with irreconcilable cultural and psychological dichotomies. The contributors explore ways in which conventional research methods can be adapted to creatively engage the intellectual, ethical, and practical dimensions of these dislocations and capitalize on them. Unsettling and revealing, Extraordinary Anthropology will spark debate and reflection among anthropologists for years to come.

History of Anthropological Thought

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Author: Vijay S. Upadhyay,Gaya Pandey

Publisher: Concept Publishing Company

ISBN: 9788170224921

Category: Anthropology

Page: 500

View: 9630

A history of anthropology

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Author: Thomas Hylland Eriksen,Finn Sivert Nielsen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781849649193

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 254

View: 9076

Thoroughly updated and revised edition of a popular classic of modern anthropology.

Research Methods in Anthropology

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

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Author: H. Russell Bernard

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 0759112436

Category: Social Science

Page: 680

View: 4834

Research Methods in Anthropology is the standard textbook for methods classes in anthropology. Written in Russ BernardOs unmistakable conversational style, his guide has launched tens of thousands of students into the fieldwork enterprise with a combination of rigorous methodology, wry humor, and commonsense advice. Whether you are coming from a scientific, interpretive, or applied anthropological tradition, you will learn field methods from the best guide in both qualitative and quantitative methods.

On Doing Fieldwork in Palestine

Advice, Fieldnotes, and Other Thoughts

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Author: CELIA E. ROTHENBERG

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: 9783319817019

Category:

Page: 126

View: 9751

This book, based on the author's ethnographic fieldwork in the Palestinian West Bank from 1995 to 1996, aims to provide an honest, authentic, and accurate accounting of the nitty-gritty, day-to-day challenges, rewards, failures, and successes of doing fieldwork in a conservative village setting. By focussing on the intimate, typically obscured aspects of the fieldwork experience this memoir is intended for students planning to do fieldwork in any locale. Celia E. Rothenberg is Associate Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at McMaster University, Canada. She has carried out ethnographic fieldwork with Palestinians in the West Bank village of Artas, Palestinians in Toronto, and with various Jewish groups in North America, focusing on new and evolving forms of Jewish thought and practice.