The Essential Tension

Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022621723X

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 1721

"Kuhn has the unmistakable address of a man, who, so far from wanting to score points, is anxious above all else to get at the truth of matters."—Sir Peter Medawar, Nature

Marxism and Workers' Self-Management

The Essential Tension

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Author: David L. Prychitko

Publisher: Praeger

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 153

View: 5361

Prychitko offers a reinterpretation of Marx's vision of socialism by arguing that Marx's understanding of humankind led him to a utopian goal of decentralized socialism based on the total abolition of market exchange.

The Essential Tension

Competition, Cooperation and Multilevel Selection in Evolution

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Author: Sonya Bahar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402410546

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 7117

'The Essential Tension' explores how agents that naturally compete come to act together as a group. The author argues that the controversial concept of multilevel selection is essential to biological evolution, a proposition set to stimulate new debate. The idea of one collective unit emerging from the cooperative interactions of its constituent (and mutually competitive) parts has its roots in the ancient world. More recently, it has illuminated studies of animal behavior, and played a controversial role in evolutionary biology. In Part I, the author explores the historical development of the idea of a collectivity in biological systems, from early speculations on the sociology of human crowd behavior, through the mid-twentieth century debates over the role of group selection in evolution, to the notion of the selfish gene. Part II investigates the balance between competition and cooperation in a range of contemporary biological problems, from flocking and swarming to experimental evolution and the evolution of multicellularity. Part III addresses experimental studies of cooperation and competition, as well as controversial ideas such as the evolution of evolvability and Stephen Jay Gould’s suggestion that “spandrels” at one level of selection serve as possible sources of variability for the next higher level. Finally, building on the foundation established in the preceding chapters, the author arrives at a provocative new proposition: as a result of the essential tension between competition and cooperation, multiple levels may be essential in order for evolutionary processes to occur at all.

Naturalizing Epistemology

Thomas Kuhn and the ‘Essential Tension’

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Author: F. D'Agostino

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781349316731

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 4064

In identifying that the 'essential tension' is the balance between conservative and innovative approaches in the development of knowledge - tried-and tested or new directions - Kuhn pointed out that these two attitudes are both appropriate. This study adds to this picture the social and psychological dynamics that underpin any such balancing.

The Essential Tension

Competition, Cooperation and Multilevel Selection in Evolution

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Author: Sonya Bahar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402410546

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 9785

'The Essential Tension' explores how agents that naturally compete come to act together as a group. The author argues that the controversial concept of multilevel selection is essential to biological evolution, a proposition set to stimulate new debate. The idea of one collective unit emerging from the cooperative interactions of its constituent (and mutually competitive) parts has its roots in the ancient world. More recently, it has illuminated studies of animal behavior, and played a controversial role in evolutionary biology. In Part I, the author explores the historical development of the idea of a collectivity in biological systems, from early speculations on the sociology of human crowd behavior, through the mid-twentieth century debates over the role of group selection in evolution, to the notion of the selfish gene. Part II investigates the balance between competition and cooperation in a range of contemporary biological problems, from flocking and swarming to experimental evolution and the evolution of multicellularity. Part III addresses experimental studies of cooperation and competition, as well as controversial ideas such as the evolution of evolvability and Stephen Jay Gould’s suggestion that “spandrels” at one level of selection serve as possible sources of variability for the next higher level. Finally, building on the foundation established in the preceding chapters, the author arrives at a provocative new proposition: as a result of the essential tension between competition and cooperation, multiple levels may be essential in order for evolutionary processes to occur at all.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 7682

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity, 1894-1912

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226458007

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 8791

"A masterly assessment of the way the idea of quanta of radiation became part of 20th-century physics. . . . The book not only deals with a topic of importance and interest to all scientists, but is also a polished literary work, described (accurately) by one of its original reviewers as a scientific detective story."—John Gribbin, New Scientist "Every scientist should have this book."—Paul Davies, New Scientist

The Three Tensions

Winning the Struggle to Perform Without Compromise

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Author: Dominic Dodd,Ken Favaro

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780787988944

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 7180

A manager argued that he could either increase his business unit's margins or its sales, but not both. His chief executive reminded him of the time when people lived in mud huts and faced the stark choice between light and heat: punch a hole in the side of your hut and you let the daylight in but also the cold, or block up all the openings and you stay warm but sit in darkness. The invention of glass made it possible to overcome the dilemma—to let in the light but not the cold. How then, he asked his manager, will you resolve your dilemma between no sales or no margin improvement? Where is the glass? —From the Introduction "To win, leaders have to push their companies beyond trade-offs. They must find strong growth at premium returns, not one or the other. They must deliver great results today and build for the future at the same time, not push for earnings that can't be sustained. The Three Tensions is about having both at the same time, more of the time. I recommend it to any manager serious about winning." —James Kilts, former chairman, CEO, and president, The Gillette Company "Leadership can't be just about telling people what you expect of them. The Three Tensions sets out a range of helpful tactics leaders can adopt to really engage their people in the search for good performance on many fronts." —Andrew Cosslett, chief executive, InterContinental Hotels Group PLC "The Three Tensions speaks to fundamental management issues, perhaps the most fundamental. Managers looking for new ideas on how to improve performance will find it very stimulating. I found my own thinking very much influenced by it." —John Roberts, professor of economics, strategic management, and international business, Stanford Business School

The Rationality of Science

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Author: W.H. Newton-Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134930968

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 7865

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions

Thomas S. Kuhn's Philosophy of Science

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Author: Paul Hoyningen-Huene

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226355511

Category: Science

Page: 310

View: 1609

Scholars from disciplines as diverse as political science and art history have offered widely differing interpretations of Kuhn's ideas, appropriating his notions of paradigm shifts and revolutions to fit their own theories, however imperfectly. Destined to become the authoritative philosophical study of Kuhn's work. Bibliography.

Naturalizing Epistemology

Thomas Kuhn and the 'Essential Tension'

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Author: F. D'Agostino

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780230240995

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 7175

In identifying that the 'essential tension' is the balance between conservative and innovative approaches in the development of knowledge - tried-and tested or new directions - Kuhn pointed out that these two attitudes are both appropriate. This study adds to this picture the social and psychological dynamics that underpin any such balancing.

Feyerabend

Philosophy, Science and Society

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Author: John Preston

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745668321

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 5846

This book is the first comprehensive critical study of the work of Paul Feyerabend, one of the foremost twentieth-century philosophers of science. The book traces the evolution of Feyerabend's thought, beginning with his early attempt to graft insights from Wittgenstein's conception of meaning onto Popper's falsificationist philosophy. The key elements of Feyerabend's model of the acquisition of knowledge are identified and critically evaluated. Feyerabend's early work emerges as a continuation of Popper's philosophy of science, rather than as a contribution to the historical approach to science with which he is usually associated. In his more notorious later work, Feyerabend claimed that there was, and should be, no such thing as the scientific method. The roots of Feyerabend's 'epistemological anarchism' are exposed and the weaknesses of his cultural relativism are brought out. Throughout the book, Preston discusses the influence of Feyerabend's thought on contemporary philosophers and traces his stimulating but divided legacy. The book will be of interest to students of philosophy, methodology, and the social sciences.

Higher Education and Technological Acceleration

The Disintegration of University Teaching and Research

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Author: Ingrid M. Hoofd

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137514094

Category: Education

Page: 170

View: 8378

This book critically examines the relationship between new media technologies, research ethics, and pedagogical strategies within the contemporary university. It debates whether recent transformations of higher education, rather than an effect of neo-liberalization, are actually an outflow of the technological acceleration of the university's own contradictory ideals around knowledge and democracy. The book sets up this argument by likening the university to a "vision machine" which quest for total scientific and social transparency has recently caved in on itself, negatively affecting staff and student well-being. The book asserts that this situation reveals the essential tension at the heart of the university system, and explores the acceleration of this tension by analyzing a variety of teaching and research advances from Europe and Asia. Examining among other issues the call for creativity and critical thinking in the curriculum, the push for e-learning, and the advent of the digital humanities, this text offers a key analysis of the university's founding ideals and its constitutive relationship to technological acceleration.

Millennials & Management

The Essential Guide to Making it Work at Work

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Author: Lee Carraher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351861263

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 516

As management ages and prepares to work longer than previous generations and Millennials join companies at steady rate, companies are suffering through tension and dissonance between Millennials and Boomers, and realizing that they can't just wait for management to age out to fix it. Finding productive ways to work across the generation gap is essential, and the organizations that do this well will have significant strategic advantages over those that don't. Millennials & Management: The Essential Guide to Making It Work at Work addresses a very real concern of large and small businesses nationwide: how to motivate, collaborate with, and manage the millennial generation, who now make up almost 50% of the American workforce. The key is to change Boomer attitudes from disbelief and derision to acceptance and respect without giving up work standards. Using real world examples, author Lee Caraher gives leaders data-driven steps to take to co-create a productive workplace for today and tomorrow.

The Essential America

Our Founders and the Liberal Tradition

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Author: George Stanley McGovern

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9780743269278

Category: History

Page: 176

View: 6606

Traces the roots of modern liberal ideas to the moral and spiritual foundations of America and its Founding Fathers, explains how liberalism is the right approach to guide America in the future, and proposes policies that emphasize social programs, condemn pre-emptive war and government for the powerful, and promote progress, generosity, tolerance, and more. 50,000 first printing.

Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge: Volume 4

Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science, London, 1965

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Author: Imre Lakatos (ed)

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521096232

Category: Philosophy

Page: 282

View: 7060

This volume arose out of a symposium on Thomas Kuhn's work, with Karl Popper in the chair.

The Essential Acupuncturist Guide to Head and Neck Pain

Effectively Treat Migra

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Author: Brad Whisnant

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781535253970

Category:

Page: 146

View: 5328

I never met a head issue I didn't love to treat! This book is loaded with clinical pearls that are time tested and patient approved. Who doesn't want happier and healthier patients? Better outcomes? Less "poking and praying"? Instant results? All the answers are here. Step by step instructions with points, theory, images, examples and case studies. If you have patients that have headaches or any problem from the neck up? You NEED this book! Master Tung, I Ching, Balance method are interwoven and explained to give you maximum healing ability! This is a clinic changer for you and your patients.

Toxic Torts

Science, Law, and the Possibility of Justice

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Author: Carl F. Cranor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316790991

Category: Law

Page: 409

View: 3020

US tort law, cloaked behind increased judicial review of science, is changing before our eyes yet we cannot see it. While Supreme Court decisions have altered how courts review scientific testimony, the complexity of both science and legal procedures mask the resulting social consequences. Yet these consequences are too important to remain hidden. Mistaken court reviews of scientific evidence can decrease citizen access to the law, decrease incentives for firms to test their products, lower deterrence for harmful products, and decrease the possibility of justice for citizens injured by toxic substances. Even if courts review evidence well, increases in litigation costs and attorney screening of clients can impede access to the law. Newly revised and expanded, Toxic Torts, 2nd edition introduces these issues, reveals the relationships that can deny citizens just restitution for harms suffered, and shows how justice can be improved in toxic tort cases.

Conceptual Revolutions

From Cognitive Science to Medicine

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Author: Wenceslao J. González

Publisher: Netbiblo

ISBN: 8497459334

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 9380