The Essential Tension

Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change


Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022621723X

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 4530

"Kuhn has the unmistakable address of a man, who, so far from wanting to score points, is anxious above all else to get at the truth of matters."—Sir Peter Medawar, Nature

Marxism and Workers' Self-Management

The Essential Tension


Author: David L. Prychitko

Publisher: Praeger


Category: Social Science

Page: 153

View: 8605

Prychitko offers a reinterpretation of Marx's vision of socialism by arguing that Marx's understanding of humankind led him to a utopian goal of decentralized socialism based on the total abolition of market exchange.

The Essential Tension

Competition, Cooperation and Multilevel Selection in Evolution


Author: Sonya Bahar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402410546

Category: Science

Page: 377

View: 7218

'The Essential Tension' explores how agents that naturally compete come to act together as a group. The author argues that the controversial concept of multilevel selection is essential to biological evolution, a proposition set to stimulate new debate. The idea of one collective unit emerging from the cooperative interactions of its constituent (and mutually competitive) parts has its roots in the ancient world. More recently, it has illuminated studies of animal behavior, and played a controversial role in evolutionary biology. In Part I, the author explores the historical development of the idea of a collectivity in biological systems, from early speculations on the sociology of human crowd behavior, through the mid-twentieth century debates over the role of group selection in evolution, to the notion of the selfish gene. Part II investigates the balance between competition and cooperation in a range of contemporary biological problems, from flocking and swarming to experimental evolution and the evolution of multicellularity. Part III addresses experimental studies of cooperation and competition, as well as controversial ideas such as the evolution of evolvability and Stephen Jay Gould’s suggestion that “spandrels” at one level of selection serve as possible sources of variability for the next higher level. Finally, building on the foundation established in the preceding chapters, the author arrives at a provocative new proposition: as a result of the essential tension between competition and cooperation, multiple levels may be essential in order for evolutionary processes to occur at all.

Naturalizing Epistemology

Thomas Kuhn and the 'Essential Tension'


Author: F. D'Agostino

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780230240995

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 4191

In identifying that the 'essential tension' is the balance between conservative and innovative approaches in the development of knowledge - tried-and tested or new directions - Kuhn pointed out that these two attitudes are both appropriate. This study adds to this picture the social and psychological dynamics that underpin any such balancing.

Die Sprache der Chemie


Author: Peter Janich,Nikolaos Psarros

Publisher: Königshausen & Neumann

ISBN: 9783826011801

Category: Chemistry

Page: 202

View: 9120

Toxic Torts

Science, Law and the Possibility of Justice


Author: Carl F. Cranor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458787

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 6639

The relationship between science, law and justice has become a pressing issue with US Supreme Court decisions beginning with Daubert v. Merrell-Dow Pharmaceutical. How courts review scientific testimony and its foundation before trial can substantially affect the possibility of justice for persons wrongfully injured by exposure to toxic substances. If courts do not review scientific testimony, they will deny one of the parties the possibility of justice. Even if courts review evidence well, the fact and perception of greater judicial scrutiny increases litigation costs and attorney screening of clients. Mistaken review of scientific evidence can decrease citizen access to the law, increase unfortunate incentives for firms not to test their products, lower deterrence for wrongful conduct and harmful products, and decrease the possibility of justice for citizens injured by toxic substances. This book introduces these issues, reveals the relationships that pose problems, and shows how justice can be denied.

Conceptual Revolutions

From Cognitive Science to Medicine


Author: Wenceslao J. González

Publisher: Netbiblo

ISBN: 8497459334

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 8218

Contemporary Perspectives in Philosophy and Methodology of Science


Author: Wenceslao J. González

Publisher: Netbiblo

ISBN: 9780972989237

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 1539

Nowadays, philosophy and methodology of science appear as a combination of novelty and continuity. This blend is clear both in the general approaches to science (those thought of as any science) and in the specific perspectives on every science, either formal or empirical. There are new topics for philosophical reflection, such as key issues in philosophy of medicine and central problems raised by neuroscience. Thus, new contents have brought attention to aspects that previously went almost unnoticed. In addition, there are new angles for philosophical study, such as the repercussion of society on scientific activity (in aims, processes, and results). But the background of the main philosophical and methodological trends of the twentieth century is, in many ways, still in place.

Law and Religion

A Critical Anthology


Author: Stephen M. Feldman

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814726785

Category: Law

Page: 483

View: 526

Following landmark trade agreements between Japan and the United States in the 1850s, Tokyo began importing a unique American commodity: Western social activism. As Japan sought to secure its future as a commercial power and American women pursued avenues of political expression, Protestant church-women and, later, members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) traveled to the Asian coast to promote Christian teachings and women's social activism. Rumi Yasutake reveals in Transnational Women's Activism that the resulting American, Japanese, and first generation Japanese-American women's movements came to affect more than alcohol or even religion. While the WCTU employed the language of evangelism and Victorian family values, its members were tactfully expedient in accommodating their traditional causes to suffrage and other feminist goals, in addition to the various political currents flowing through Japan and the United States at the turn of the nineteenth century. Exploring such issues as gender struggles in the American Protestant church and bourgeois Japanese women's attitudes towards the "pleasure class" of geishas and prostitutes, Yasutake illuminates the motivations and experiences of American missionaries, U.S. WCTU workers, and their Japanese protégés. The diverse machinations of WCTU activism offer a compelling lesson in the complexities of cultural imperialism.

The Philosophy of Science


Author: Richard Boyd,Philip Gasper,J. D. Trout

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262521567

Category: Philosophy

Page: 800

View: 1666

Using formal logic, Reconstructing the Past seeks to clarify and resolve themethodological issues that arise when biologists try to answer such questions as whether humanbeings are more closely related to chimps than they are to gorillas. It explores the case forconsidering the philosophical idea of simplicity/parsimony as a useful principle for evaluatingtaxonomic theories of evolutionary relationships. Bringing together philosophy, biology, andstatistics, Sober builds a general framework for understanding the circumstances in which parsimonymakes sense as a tool of phylogenetic inference.Elliott Sober is Professor of Philosophy at theUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison, and the author of The Nature of Selection.

Essential tensions in archaeological method and theory


Author: Todd L. VanPool

Publisher: Univ of Utah Pr


Category: Social Science

Page: 197

View: 8941

One size does not fit all in archaeology Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry James M. Skibo, series editor ARCHAEOLOGICAL THEORY, SOME SAY, seems to have fragmented into a thousand fundamentalisms. By working on a broader set of empirical issues than ever before, archaeologists are indeed applying and refining a variety of perspectives. Yet the editors of this volume make a case that it is appropriate for archaeologists to use a logical variety of theoretical structures to answer different kinds of questions, combining approaches as necessary. In that spirit of plurality, contributors to this volume identify an important theoretical or methodological problem and present an argument regarding its solution. They also provide a critical evaluation of the current state of archaeological method and theory, illustrating that such recurrent issues as the role of agency and the importance of social considerations in the formation of archaeological research dominate current theoretical development. By presenting both the range of important questions and a variety of answers, this volume contributes to the "essential tension" that will further the growth of archaeological theory.

Empirical Justification


Author: P.K. Moser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400945264

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 9952

Broadly speaking, this is a book about truth and the criteria thereof. Thus it is, in a sense, a book about justification and rationality. But it does not purport to be about the notion of justification or the notion of rationality. For the assumption that there is just one notion of justification, or just one notion of rationality, is, as the book explains, very misleading. Justification and rationality come in various kinds. And to that extent, at least, we should recognize a variety of notions of justification and rationality. This, at any rate, is one of the morals of Chapter VI. This book, in Chapters I-V, is mainly concerned with the kind of justification and rationality characteristic of a truth-seeker, specifically a seeker of truth about the world impinging upon the senses: the so-called empirical world. Hence the book's title. But since the prominent contemporary approaches to empirical justification are many and varied, so also are the epistemological issues taken up in the following chapters. For instance, there will be questions about so-called coherence and its role, if any, in empirical justification. And there will be questions about social consensus (whatever it is) and its significance, or the lack thereof, to empirical justification. Furthermore, the perennial question of whether, and if so how, empirical knowledge has so-called founda tions will be given special attention.

Philosophy and the Idea of Freedom


Author: Roy Bhaskar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113696701X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 9516

First published in 2011. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Bevölkerungswissenschaft — Quo vadis?

Möglichkeiten und Probleme einer Geschichte der Bevölkerungswissenschaft in Deutschland


Author: Bernhard vom Brocke

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322932893

Category: Social Science

Page: 454

View: 3873

Hermeneutik und Naturalismus


Author: Bernulf Kanitscheider,Franz Josef Wetz,B. Suchan,Berthold Suchan

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161470127

Category: Philosophy

Page: 244

View: 7980

English summary: Communication between science and the humanities is still extremely difficult and the splitting of knowledge into two 'cultures' presents a genuine problem. The boundaries have become increasingly transparent in the meantime, but they are still in existence and it is understandable that each of the two sides does not pay sufficient attention to the successes and the concerns of the other. This makes it all the more necessary to show the possibilities of entering into a dialog without playing down the controversial positions. The volume has been divided into two parts: 'Points of Dispute' and 'Points of View.' The contributors to the first part deal mainly with Hans Albert's Critique of Pure Hermeneutics, in which Heidegger's and Gadamer's neglect of nature and the scientific method are criticized in particular. In the second part an attempt is made to bring the subject matter and the methods of hermeneutics, the analytical philosophy of language and science closer together. German description: Noch immer gestaltet sich die Verstandigung zwischen Geistes- und Naturwissenschaften ausserst schwierig, und die Spaltung des Wissens in zwei 'Kulturen' stellt ein echtes Problem dar. Die Grenzen werden mittlerweile zwar immer durchlassiger, die Fronten aber bestehen weiter. Dabei nehmen die Vertreter beider Denkrichtungen nicht nur oftmals kaum Notiz voneinander, sie dehnen mittlerweile ihre Deutungs- und Erklarungsangebote auch weit in das jeweils angrenzende Arbeitsfeld hinein aus. So neigen Geisteswissenschaftler manchmal dazu, die Welt insgesamt als geschichtlich-sprachliches Kulturphanomen anzusehen, wahrend Naturwissenschaftler selbst die Kultur fur ein Stuck wissenschaftlich erforschbare Natur halten. Bei solcher Betrachtungsweise ist es verstandlich, dass die Erfolge und Anliegen der jeweils anderen Seite nur unzureichend zur Kenntnis genommen werden. Umso notwendiger ist es deshalb, Moglichkeiten des Dialogs aufzuzeigen, ohne die kontroversen Positionen z u verharmlosen.

The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology

Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice


Author: Kirk J. Schneider,James F. T. Bugental,J. Fraser Pierson

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452211809

Category: Psychology

Page: 760

View: 2173

The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology is a landmark in the resurgent field of humanistic psychology and psychotherapy. Their range of topics is far-reaching--from the historical, theoretical, and methodological, to the spiritual, psychotherapeutic, and multicultural. Students and professionals are looking for the fuller, deeper, and more personal psychological orientation that this Handbook promotes.

Thomas Kuhn


Author: Alexander Bird

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317490126

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 6806

Thomas Kuhn (1922-96) transformed the philosophy of science. His seminal 1962 work "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" introduced the term 'paradigm shift' into the vernacular and remains a fundamental text in the study of the history and philosophy of science. This introduction to Kuhn's ideas covers the breadth of his philosophical work, situating "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" within Kuhn's wider thought and drawing attention to the development of his ideas over time. Kuhn's work is assessed within the context of other philosophies of science notably logical empiricism and recent developments in naturalized epistemology. The author argues that Kuhn's thinking betrays a residual commitment to many theses characteristic of the empiricists he set out to challenge. Kuhn's influence on the history and philosophy of science is assessed and where the field may be heading in the wake of Kuhn's ideas is explored.

Texts in Context

Revisionist Methods for Studying the History of Ideas


Author: David Boucher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400950756

Category: Philosophy

Page: 281

View: 9426

The methodology of the study of the history of political thought is an area of study which has occupied my interests for nearly a decade. I was introduced to the subject in University College, Swansea. My teachers there provided me with an excellent grounding in political studies. I am particularly indebted to Bruce Haddock, Peter Nicholson and W. H. Greenleaf. Professor Greenleaf was kind enough to supply me with a copy of his bibliography and copies of two of his unpublished papers. I continued to pursue my interest in methodology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. I am indebted to Ken Minogue and Robert Orr who taught me there. My greatest debt is to Dr. Joseph Femia ofthe University of Liverpool who devoted a great deal of time to considering the arguments presented here. His criticisms and suggestions for improvement proved to be invaluable. I would also like to thank Alan Ryan for his general comments and encouraging advice. It would be remiss of me if I neglected to express my gratitude to Dewi Beynon who was my first teacher of politics. The research for this project was carried out in the following places; The British Library of Political Science, London; The Sidney Jones Library, University of Liverpool; The National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; The Main Library, University of Edinburgh; The Arts and Social Science Library, University College, Cardiff; and the Bodleian Library, Oxford.