The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Long-Term Research on the Path to Sustainability

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Author: Stephen K. Hamilton,Julie E. Doll,G. Philip Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266767

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 8093

Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

Ecology in Agriculture

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Author: Louise E. Jackson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080530680

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 1920

Agricultural crops are prominent features of an increasing number of variously perturbed ecosystems and the landscapes occupied by these ecosystems. Yet the ecology of agricultural-dominated landscapes is only now receiving the scientific attention it has long deserved. This attention has been stimulated by the realization that all agriculture must become sustainable year after year while leaving nearby ecosystems unaffected. Ecology in Agriculture focuses exclusively on the ecology of agricultural ecosystems. The book is divided into four major sections. An introduction establishes the unique ties between agricultural and ecological sciences. The second section describes the community ecology of these sorts of ecosystems, while the final section focuses on the processes that operate throughout these agricultural landscapes. Contains an ecological perspective on agricultural production and resource utilization Includes in-depth reviews of major issues in crop ecology by active researchers Covers a range of topics in agricultural ecophysiology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology Provides examples of ecological approaches to solving problems in crop management and environmental quality

The Ecology of Agroecosystems

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Author: John H. Vandermeer

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763771539

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 4789

Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. The Ecology of Agroecosystems highlights a collection of alternative agricultural methodologies and philosophies and provides an interdisciplinary approach that bridges the sociopolitical and historical context of agriculture. It includes the technical issues in a serious and ecological fashion and captures the complex merging of ecology, agriculture, politics and economics in both a historical and contemporary context. Readers will learn not only about the ethical and moral elements related to producing food of questionable quality while possibly impairing the environment, but also about the soil chemistry involved. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management

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Author: Lech Ryszkowski

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420041371

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 1294

Successful management of agricultural landscapes depends on the recognition of the relationships between the processes and the structures that maintain the system. The rapidly growing science of Landscape Ecology quantifies the ways these ecosystems interact and establishes a link between the activities in one region and repercussions in another. Although science continuously yields new environmentally friendly agricultural technology, the sustainable development of a system will ultimately depend on a farmer's ability to understand and utilize these advances. The results presented in this book highlight the options for controlling threats and present guidelines for the implementation of environmentally friendly landscape management. Written by eminent scientists in landscape ecology research, Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management provides a systematic evaluation of the basic ecological functions of the agricultural landscape. It presents a new approach to managing heat balance parameters and evaluates the effectiveness of models for assessing land use changes in rural areas. It also discusses the methods of evaluating matter cycling in agricultural landscapes with emphasis on the process leading to the diffuse pollution problems in ground and surface waters. It reports studies that show how semi-natural habitats maintained in the agricultural landscape constitute important refuge for many plants and animals and thereby enhances biological diversity in farmlands. Finally, it provides guidelines for management of agricultural landscapes for sustainable development of the countryside. The integration of agriculture and the natural ecosystem in the landscape has recently become a "hot" topic. The review of the achievements in landscape ecology presented in this book clearly demonstrates that landscape ecology is just passing through the threshold between the recognition of various basic processes to being able to manage these processes to achieve desired goals. This transformation will result not only from the development of knowledge, but also by the change in nature protection paradigms. Whether you are researching, designing, or managing agroecosystems, Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management is a "must have" book.

Integrating Agriculture, Conservation and Ecotourism: Examples from the Field

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Author: W. Bruce Campbell,Silvia López Ortíz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400713093

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 8188

Issues In Agroecology – Present Status and Future Prospectus not only reviews aspects of ecology, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, and related societal and cultural values. To provide effective communication regarding status and advances in this field, this series connects with many disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, environmental sciences, ethics, agriculture, economics, ecology, rural development, sustainability, policy and education, and integrations of these general themes so as to provide integrated points of view that will help lead to a more sustainable construction of values than conventional economics alone. Such designs are inherently complex and dynamic, and go beyond the individual farm to include landscapes, communities, and biogeographic regions by emphasizing their unique agricultural and ecological values, and their biological, societal, and cultural components and processes.

Globalisation and Agricultural Landscapes

Change Patterns and Policy trends in Developed Countries

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Author: Jørgen Primdahl,Simon Swaffield

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139486349

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 1139

Whilst agricultural landscapes are products of the local ecosystem and community in which they are situated, they are becoming increasingly affected by the same global issues, and are converging under the dynamics of globalisation. Combining landscape ecological research and an examination of relevant public policy, this book investigates the dynamic relationship between agricultural landscapes and the global change processes, such as urbanisation, by which they are being transformed. Landscape change is analysed in the context of biophysical patterns, market dynamics, and specific public policy frameworks, through a series of case studies from different OECD countries spanning Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. Particular emphasis is placed upon the way that landscapes are changing under differing policies of agricultural subsidy including the EU Common Agricultural Policy. This is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers in landscape ecology and agriculture as well as policy analysts working in the agricultural sector.

Conserving Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes

Model-based Planning Tools

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Author: Robert K. Swihart,Jeffrey E. Moore

Publisher: Purdue University Press

ISBN: 9781557533272

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 8763

Habitat loss and fragmentation arguably pose the greatest threats to biological diversity. Agriculture is a dominant land use that, along with urban sprawl and residential development, can reduce the amount and connectedness of natural areas required by many native species. Unfortunately, progress has been slow in integrating nature and biodiversity protection into community planning in intensively farmed regions, especially in America's heartland. Seldom do issues related to species conservation receive consideration during local planning activities. Lack of progress stems partly from scientific inadequacies in understanding the dynamics of complex landscapes, and from a lack of engagement of non-scientific stakeholders by scientists and modelers. The result of these shortcomings is a critical disconnect of conservation issues from the planning infrastructure. This book provides a blueprint for advancing conceptual understanding of conservation in agricultural regions. It accomplishes this with a two-pronged approach: first, by developing spatially structured models that acknowledge the link between socio-economic drivers of land-use change and the dynamics of species occupying agricultural landscapes with abrupt changes in land cover (i.e., sharp edges); and second, by providing guidelines and examples to enable scientists to effectively engage stakeholders in participatory learning and planning activities that integrate biodiversity with other, more traditional, considerations. The structure of the book is truly interdisciplinary, linking the efforts of ecologists, economists, statisticians, mathematicians, and land-use specialists.

The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment

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Author: John Davenport,Julia L. Davenport

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402045042

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 8513

This volume reviews the ecological effects of road, rail, marine and air transport. The focus ranges from identification of threats and repair of damaging effects to design of future transport systems that minimize environmental degradation. The scope of coverage extends from small ecosystems to the planet as a whole. Experts from a variety of disciplines address the topic, expressing views across the spectrum from deep pessimism to cautious optimism.

Land Mosaics

The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions

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Author: Richard T. T. Forman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521479806

Category: Nature

Page: 632

View: 2574

An analysis and synthesis of the ecology of heterogeneous land areas.

The French Mind on the Landscape

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Author: Germn Cruz

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1479702609

Category: Philosophy

Page: 174

View: 3677

Germán T. Cruz is a landscape architect by profession and vocation with a wide path of practical engagement in urban and residential design across the USA and several countries. In addition to professional practice from his studio, Professor Cruz teaches at the Department of Landscape Architecture in the College of Architecture and Planning at Ball State University where he leads graduate and undergraduate design studios on urban design, graphic communications, parks, regional design, and open space as well as lecturing on design theory, technology and materials, contemporary history of urban design, and philosophy of landscape architecture. In 2010 he walked on the Road of Saint James through southern France and northern Spain from Le Puy en Velay to Santiago over 3000 km in 66 days. The result of this journey was a design meditation and travelogue under the title Walking to Know that was published recently by Xlibris. A collection of his poems has also been published in a bilingual edition (Spanish/English) under the title Poemas Veniales/Venial Poems.

Nature and Farming

Sustaining Native Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes

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Author: David Norton FLS,Nick Reid

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 064310660X

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 587

Conserving and enhancing native biodiversity on farms brings many benefits as well as providing many challenges. Nature and Farming explains why it is important to sustain native plants and animals in agricultural landscapes, and outlines the key issues in developing and implementing practical approaches to safeguarding native biodiversity in rural areas. The book considers the range of ecological and agricultural issues that determine what native biodiversity occurs in farmland and how it can be secured. Many inspiring case studies are presented where innovative approaches towards integrating biodiversity and farm management have been successful, resulting in win–win outcomes for both nature and society. In the integration and synthesis of these case studies lies the kernel of a new paradigm for nature conservation on farms. Although the book focuses on biodiversity conservation on Australian and New Zealand farms, the issues and approaches discussed are applicable to many other developed countries, especially in Europe and North America.

Wildlife Conservation in Farm Landscapes

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Author: David Lindenmayer,Damian Michael,Mason Crane,Sachiko Okada,Philip Barton,Daniel Florance,Karen Ikin

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 1486303110

Category: Nature

Page: 232

View: 7979

An increasing number of Australians want to be assured that the food and fibre being produced on this continent have been grown and harvested in an ecologically sustainable way. Ecologically sustainable farming conserves the array of species that are integral to key ecological processes such as pollination, seed dispersal, natural pest control and the decomposition of waste. Wildlife Conservation in Farm Landscapes communicates new scientific information about best practice ways to integrate conservation and agriculture in the temperate eucalypt woodland belt of eastern Australia. It is based on the large body of scientific literature in this field, as well as long-term studies at 790 permanent sites on over 290 farms extending throughout Victoria, New South Wales and south-east Queensland. Richly illustrated, with chapters on birds, mammals, reptiles, invertebrates and plants, this book illustrates how management interventions can promote nature conservation and what practices have the greatest benefit for biodiversity. Together the new insights in this book inform whole-of-farm planning.

The Ecology of War in China

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Author: Micah S. Muscolino

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107071569

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 4231

This book explores the interplay between war and the environment in Henan Province, a hotly contested frontline territory that endured massive environmental destruction and human disruption during the conflict between China and Japan that raged during World War II. In a desperate attempt to block Japan's military advance, Chinese Nationalist armies under Chiang Kai-shek broke the Yellow River's dikes in Henan in June 1938, resulting in devastating floods that persisted until after the war's end. Greater catastrophe struck Henan in 1942-1943, when famine took some two million lives and displaced millions more. Focusing on these war-induced disasters and their aftermath, this book conceptualizes the ecology of war in terms of energy flows through and between militaries, societies, and environments. Ultimately, Micah Muscolino argues that efforts to procure and exploit nature's energy in various forms shaped the choices of generals, the fates of communities, and the trajectory of environmental change in North China.

Agriculture, Biodiversity and Markets

Livelihoods and Agroecology in Comparative Perspective

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Author: Stewart Lockie,David Carpenter

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849774374

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 337

View: 7926

Debate about how best to ensure the preservation of agricultural biodiversity is caught in a counter-productive polemic between proponents and critics of market-based instruments and agricultural modernization. However, it is argued in this book that neither position does justice to the range of strategies that farmers use to manage agrobiodiversity and other livelihood assets as they adapt to changing social, economic, and environmental circumstances.

Agroecology

The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems, Third Edition

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Author: Stephen R. Gliessman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498728464

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 405

View: 2594

Agroecology is a science, a productive practice, and part of a social movement that is at the forefront of transforming food systems to sustainability. Building upon the ecological foundation of the agroecosystem, Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems, Third Edition provides the essential foundation for understanding sustainability in all of its components: agricultural, ecological, economic, social, cultural, and even political. It presents a case for food system change and why the current industrial model of food production and distribution is not sustainable. See What’s New in the Third Edition: Chapters on animal production and social change in food systems Updated case studies, references, websites, and new research Emphasis on how climate change impacts agriculture Greater focus on health issues related to food The book begins with a focus on the key ecological factors and resources that impact agricultural plants and animals as individual organisms. It then examines all of the components of agroecosystem complexity, from genetics to landscapes and explores the transition process for achieving sustainability and indicators of progress. The book then delves into power and control of food systems by agribusiness, and the need to develop a new paradigm that moves beyond production and explores issues of food justice, equity, food security and sovereignty. The book concludes with a call to action so that research and education can link together for transformative change in our food systems. Groundbreaking in its first edition, respected in its second edition, this third edition of this standard textbook has evolved along with the field. Written by an expert with more than 40 years of experience, the third edition begins with a strong ecological foundation for farming practices and ends with all of us thinking about the critical importance of transitioning to a new paradigm for food and agriculture, and what this means for our future.

History of the Italian Agricultural Landscape

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Author: Emilio Sereni

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691012155

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 389

View: 9755

Emilio Sereni's classic work is now available in an English language edition. History of the Italian Agricultural Landscape is a synthesis of the agricultural history of Italy in its economic, social, and ecological context, from antiquity to the mid-twentieth century. From his perspective in the Italian tradition of cultural Marxism, Sereni guides the reader through the millennial changes that have affected the agriculture and ecology of the regions of Italy, as well as through the successes and failures of farmers and technicians in antiquity, the middle ages, the Renaissance, and the Industrial Revolution. In this sweeping historical survey, he describes attempts by successive generations to adapt Italy's natural environment for the purposes of agriculture and to respond to its changing ecological problems. History of the Italian Agricultural Landscape first appeared in 1961. At the time of its publication it was a pathbreaking work, parallel in its importance for Italy to Marc Bloc's masterwork of 1931, The Original Characteristics of French Rural History. Sereni invented the concept of the historical "agricultural landscape": an interdisciplinary characterization of rural life involving economic and social history, linguistics, archeology, art history, and ecological studies. Originally published in 1997. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Pond Conservation in Europe

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Author: Beat Oertli,Régis Céréghino,Jeremy Biggs,Steven Declerck,Andrew P. Hull,Maria Rosa Miracle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048190881

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 1941

Ponds are an exceptional freshwater resource around the world and represent thirty percent of the global surface area of standing water. Furthermore, the millions of ponds which exist exhibit a particularly high biodiversity and have a high potential for ecosystem functions and services. Despite these impressive features, ponds face many threats from a variety of human activities and receive little or no protection under European and national legislation. Consequently, there is an urgent need to protect, consolidate and increase the pond resource in Europe. In order to achieve these objectives, the European Pond Conservation Network (EPCN) was launched 2004 in Geneva. Its aim is to promote the awareness, understanding and conservation of these small water bodies in the European landscape. This volume of “Developments in Hydrobiology” presents a selection of 31 papers presented during EPCN conferences held in 2006 in France (Toulouse) and in 2008 in Spain (Valencia). They represent a diverse collection of themes from across the continent and North Africa and present new and original insights into topics as wide ranging as pond biodiversity; human disturbance; landscape ecology; ecological assessment and monitoring; practical management measures; ecological restoration; hydrology and climate change; invasive species and threatened species.

Landscape Ecology of Trees and Forests

Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual IALE (UK) Conference, Held at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, 21st-24th June 2004

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Author: Richard Smithers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780954713010

Category: Forest ecology

Page: 374

View: 4508