The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Long-term Research on the Path to Sustainability

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Author: Stephen K. Hamilton

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0199773351

Category: Agricultural ecology

Page: 432

View: 8638

Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

Ecology in Agriculture

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Author: Louise E. Jackson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080530680

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 4915

Agricultural crops are prominent features of an increasing number of variously perturbed ecosystems and the landscapes occupied by these ecosystems. Yet the ecology of agricultural-dominated landscapes is only now receiving the scientific attention it has long deserved. This attention has been stimulated by the realization that all agriculture must become sustainable year after year while leaving nearby ecosystems unaffected. Ecology in Agriculture focuses exclusively on the ecology of agricultural ecosystems. The book is divided into four major sections. An introduction establishes the unique ties between agricultural and ecological sciences. The second section describes the community ecology of these sorts of ecosystems, while the final section focuses on the processes that operate throughout these agricultural landscapes. Contains an ecological perspective on agricultural production and resource utilization Includes in-depth reviews of major issues in crop ecology by active researchers Covers a range of topics in agricultural ecophysiology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology Provides examples of ecological approaches to solving problems in crop management and environmental quality

The Ecology of Agroecosystems

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Author: John H. Vandermeer

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763771539

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 5725

Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. The Ecology of Agroecosystems highlights a collection of alternative agricultural methodologies and philosophies and provides an interdisciplinary approach that bridges the sociopolitical and historical context of agriculture. It includes the technical issues in a serious and ecological fashion and captures the complex merging of ecology, agriculture, politics and economics in both a historical and contemporary context. Readers will learn not only about the ethical and moral elements related to producing food of questionable quality while possibly impairing the environment, but also about the soil chemistry involved. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Agrarian Landscapes in Transition

Comparisons of Long-Term Ecological & Cultural Change

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Author: Charles Redman,David R. Foster

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195367960

Category: Nature

Page: 282

View: 2000

Agrarian transformations represent the most pervasive alteration of the Earth's terrestrial environment over the past 10,000 years. Using North American examples, the book traces, compares, and contrasts the introduction, spread, and abandonment of agriculture at six U.S. long-term ecological research (LTER) sites. Indeed, lessons from these examples apply more broadly to inform socio-ecological studies, land use options, conservation strategies, restoration initiatives, and urban planning.

The Ecology of Transportation: Managing Mobility for the Environment

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Author: John Davenport,Julia L. Davenport

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402045042

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 7086

This volume reviews the ecological effects of road, rail, marine and air transport. The focus ranges from identification of threats and repair of damaging effects to design of future transport systems that minimize environmental degradation. The scope of coverage extends from small ecosystems to the planet as a whole. Experts from a variety of disciplines address the topic, expressing views across the spectrum from deep pessimism to cautious optimism.

The French Mind on the Landscape

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Author: Germn Cruz

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1479702609

Category: Philosophy

Page: 174

View: 7889

Germán T. Cruz is a landscape architect by profession and vocation with a wide path of practical engagement in urban and residential design across the USA and several countries. In addition to professional practice from his studio, Professor Cruz teaches at the Department of Landscape Architecture in the College of Architecture and Planning at Ball State University where he leads graduate and undergraduate design studios on urban design, graphic communications, parks, regional design, and open space as well as lecturing on design theory, technology and materials, contemporary history of urban design, and philosophy of landscape architecture. In 2010 he walked on the Road of Saint James through southern France and northern Spain from Le Puy en Velay to Santiago over 3000 km in 66 days. The result of this journey was a design meditation and travelogue under the title Walking to Know that was published recently by Xlibris. A collection of his poems has also been published in a bilingual edition (Spanish/English) under the title Poemas Veniales/Venial Poems.

Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

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Author: Stephen Wratten,Harpinder Sandhu,Ross Cullen,Robert Costanza

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118506243

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 375

Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles. Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can be maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers.

Land Mosaics

The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions

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Author: Richard T. T. Forman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521479806

Category: Nature

Page: 632

View: 7733

An analysis and synthesis of the ecology of heterogeneous land areas.

The Ecology of War in China

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Author: Micah S. Muscolino

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107071569

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 2609

This book explores the interplay between war and the environment in Henan Province, a hotly contested frontline territory that endured massive environmental destruction and human disruption during the conflict between China and Japan that raged during World War II. In a desperate attempt to block Japan's military advance, Chinese Nationalist armies under Chiang Kai-shek broke the Yellow River's dikes in Henan in June 1938, resulting in devastating floods that persisted until after the war's end. Greater catastrophe struck Henan in 1942-1943, when famine took some two million lives and displaced millions more. Focusing on these war-induced disasters and their aftermath, this book conceptualizes the ecology of war in terms of energy flows through and between militaries, societies, and environments. Ultimately, Micah Muscolino argues that efforts to procure and exploit nature's energy in various forms shaped the choices of generals, the fates of communities, and the trajectory of environmental change in North China.

Pond Conservation in Europe

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Author: Beat Oertli,Régis Céréghino,Jeremy Biggs,Steven Declerck,Andrew P. Hull,Maria Rosa Miracle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048190881

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 7102

Ponds are an exceptional freshwater resource around the world and represent thirty percent of the global surface area of standing water. Furthermore, the millions of ponds which exist exhibit a particularly high biodiversity and have a high potential for ecosystem functions and services. Despite these impressive features, ponds face many threats from a variety of human activities and receive little or no protection under European and national legislation. Consequently, there is an urgent need to protect, consolidate and increase the pond resource in Europe. In order to achieve these objectives, the European Pond Conservation Network (EPCN) was launched 2004 in Geneva. Its aim is to promote the awareness, understanding and conservation of these small water bodies in the European landscape. This volume of “Developments in Hydrobiology” presents a selection of 31 papers presented during EPCN conferences held in 2006 in France (Toulouse) and in 2008 in Spain (Valencia). They represent a diverse collection of themes from across the continent and North Africa and present new and original insights into topics as wide ranging as pond biodiversity; human disturbance; landscape ecology; ecological assessment and monitoring; practical management measures; ecological restoration; hydrology and climate change; invasive species and threatened species.

Globalisation and Agricultural Landscapes

Change Patterns and Policy trends in Developed Countries

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Author: Jørgen Primdahl,Simon Swaffield

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139486349

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 1149

Whilst agricultural landscapes are products of the local ecosystem and community in which they are situated, they are becoming increasingly affected by the same global issues, and are converging under the dynamics of globalisation. Combining landscape ecological research and an examination of relevant public policy, this book investigates the dynamic relationship between agricultural landscapes and the global change processes, such as urbanisation, by which they are being transformed. Landscape change is analysed in the context of biophysical patterns, market dynamics, and specific public policy frameworks, through a series of case studies from different OECD countries spanning Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. Particular emphasis is placed upon the way that landscapes are changing under differing policies of agricultural subsidy including the EU Common Agricultural Policy. This is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers in landscape ecology and agriculture as well as policy analysts working in the agricultural sector.

Ecology of Fragmented Landscapes

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Author: Sharon K. Collinge

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801895669

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 378

Ask airline passengers what they see as they gaze out the window, and they will describe a fragmented landscape: a patchwork of desert, woodlands, farmlands, and developed neighborhoods. Once-contiguous forests are now subdivided; tallgrass prairies that extended for thousands of miles are now crisscrossed by highways and byways. Whether the result of naturally occurring environmental changes or the product of seemingly unchecked human development, fractured lands significantly impact the planet’s biological diversity. In Ecology of Fragmented Landscapes, Sharon K. Collinge defines fragmentation, explains its various causes, and suggests ways that we can put our lands back together. Researchers have been studying the ecological effects of dismantling nature for decades. In this book, Collinge evaluates this body of research, expertly synthesizing all that is known about the ecology of fragmented landscapes. Expanding on the traditional coverage of this topic, Collinge also discusses disease ecology, restoration, conservation, and planning. Not since Richard T. T. Forman's classic Land Mosaics has there been a more comprehensive examination of landscape fragmentation. Ecology of Fragmented Landscapes is critical reading for ecologists, conservation biologists, and students alike. -- Renate Sander— Regier

Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management

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Author: Lech Ryszkowski

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420041371

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 679

Successful management of agricultural landscapes depends on the recognition of the relationships between the processes and the structures that maintain the system. The rapidly growing science of Landscape Ecology quantifies the ways these ecosystems interact and establishes a link between the activities in one region and repercussions in another. Although science continuously yields new environmentally friendly agricultural technology, the sustainable development of a system will ultimately depend on a farmer's ability to understand and utilize these advances. The results presented in this book highlight the options for controlling threats and present guidelines for the implementation of environmentally friendly landscape management. Written by eminent scientists in landscape ecology research, Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management provides a systematic evaluation of the basic ecological functions of the agricultural landscape. It presents a new approach to managing heat balance parameters and evaluates the effectiveness of models for assessing land use changes in rural areas. It also discusses the methods of evaluating matter cycling in agricultural landscapes with emphasis on the process leading to the diffuse pollution problems in ground and surface waters. It reports studies that show how semi-natural habitats maintained in the agricultural landscape constitute important refuge for many plants and animals and thereby enhances biological diversity in farmlands. Finally, it provides guidelines for management of agricultural landscapes for sustainable development of the countryside. The integration of agriculture and the natural ecosystem in the landscape has recently become a "hot" topic. The review of the achievements in landscape ecology presented in this book clearly demonstrates that landscape ecology is just passing through the threshold between the recognition of various basic processes to being able to manage these processes to achieve desired goals. This transformation will result not only from the development of knowledge, but also by the change in nature protection paradigms. Whether you are researching, designing, or managing agroecosystems, Landscape Ecology in Agroecosystems Management is a "must have" book.

The Ecological Consequences of Environmental Heterogeneity

The 40th Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Held at the University of Sussex, 23-25 March 1999

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Author: British Ecological Society. Symposium,M. J. Hutchings,Libby A. John,Alan J. A. Stewart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780632057139

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 8327

Presents advances in the measurement and interpretation of the impacts of environmental heterogenity upon organisms and ecological processes. The 18 contributions from the March 1999 symposium discuss the effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on individuals, populations, communities and biodiversity; and the management and conservation implications of environmental heterogeneity. Topics include plant response to patchy soils, heterogeneity in plant quality and its impact on the population ecology of insect herbivores, and genetic variation and adaptation in tree populations. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR

Ecology of Hierarchical Landscapes

From Theory to Application

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Author: Jiquan Chen

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781600210471

Category: Nature

Page: 311

View: 9870

The idea for this book grew out of: (1) the realisation that development of the theory of landscape ecology has now reached the point where rigorous field work is required to validate models, test assumptions and ideas of scaling theory, and refine our understanding of landscape features and their delineation; (2) the relative scarcity of compilations that have examined the role of field research or interdisciplinary management applications in advancing the science of landscape ecology; and (3) the increasing amount of information coming out of the Chequamegon Integrated Field Project (CIFP) on relevant topics. This book synthesises the experiences and lessons learned from the CIFP project and other relevant landscape studies in an attempt to demonstrate the utility of field studies and emerging technology to the advancement of the science. This book is organised to synthesise and update knowledge on research topics mentioned previously, with an emphasis on ecological consequences (i.e., implications for ecological function) of the approach to and understanding of these topics across levels of the ecological hierarchy.

Landscape Ecology: A Widening Foundation

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Author: Vittorio Ingegnoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540427438

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 357

View: 1579

The urgent need for a sustainable environment has resulted in the increased recognition of the field of landscape ecology amongst policy makers working in the area of nature conservation, restoration and territorial planning. Nonetheless, the question of what is precisely meant by the term 'landscape ecology' is still unresolved. Is it, for example, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the environment at a landscape scale? Or perhaps at the level of biological organisation? Still further, has the inseparability of landscape and culture affected the scope of 'landscape ecology'? No doubt, a proper foundation of the discipline must first be cemented. This book then develops such a foundation. In doing so it provides all the diverse applications of the discipline with a solid framework and proposes an effective diagnostic methodology to investigate the ecological state and the pathologies of the landscape.

Landscape and Sustainability

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Author: John F. Benson,Maggie H. Roe

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1135804044

Category: Architecture

Page: 336

View: 6063

This unique book is about landscape, sustainability and the practices of the professions which plan, design and manage landscapes at many scales and in many locations; urban, suburban and rural. Despite the ubiquity of 'sustainability' as a concept, this is the first book to address the relationship between landscape architecture and sustainability in a comprehensive way. Much in the book is underpinned by landscape ecology, in contrast to the idea of landscape as only appealing to the eye or aspiring cerebrally to be fine art. As this book argues, landscape is and must be much more than this; landscape architecture is about making places which are biologically wholesome, socially just and spiritually rewarding.