The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy

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Author: Eldar Shafir

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845343

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 4777

In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in behavioral research on a wide variety of topics, from behavioral finance, labor contracts, philanthropy, and the analysis of savings and poverty, to eyewitness identification and sentencing decisions, racism, sexism, health behaviors, and voting. Research findings have often been strikingly counterintuitive, with serious implications for public policymaking. In this book, leading experts in psychology, decision research, policy analysis, economics, political science, law, medicine, and philosophy explore major trends, principles, and general insights about human behavior in policy-relevant settings. Their work provides a deeper understanding of the many drivers--cognitive, social, perceptual, motivational, and emotional--that guide behaviors in everyday settings. They give depth and insight into the methods of behavioral research, and highlight how this knowledge might influence the implementation of public policy for the improvement of society. This collection examines the policy relevance of behavioral science to our social and political lives, to issues ranging from health, environment, and nutrition, to dispute resolution, implicit racism, and false convictions. The book illuminates the relationship between behavioral findings and economic analyses, and calls attention to what policymakers might learn from this vast body of groundbreaking work. Wide-ranging investigation into people's motivations, abilities, attitudes, and perceptions finds that they differ in profound ways from what is typically assumed. The result is that public policy acquires even greater significance, since rather than merely facilitating the conduct of human affairs, policy actually shapes their trajectory. The first interdisciplinary look at behaviorally informed policymaking Leading behavioral experts across the social sciences consider important policy problems A compendium of behavioral findings and their application to relevant policy domains

Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health

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Author: Jeannine Coreil

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412957044

Category: Medical

Page: 434

View: 4608

This book is intended as a core textbook for courses in public health that examines current issues in health from a social and behavioral science perspective. It is a cross-disciplinary course (public health, medical sociology, health psychology, medical anthropology) and thus there are many ways to teach the course based on a particular instructor's perspective. The authors wrote the book because they were dissatisfied with the way other texts apply social science to public health and found that many texts being used were from related fields such as medicine, nursing or general health.The authors are planning to do a major revision based on reviews they have collected and the reviews we have collected. We believe the revised edition will essentially be a new text based on rich feedback. They will include new theory, new cases, new research, and a rich ancillary package. They will also reduce the frameworks presented to make the book more readable to students.

Behavioural Public Policy

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Author: Adam Oliver

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107042631

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 4857

In this accessible collection, leading academic economists, psychologists and philosophers apply behavioural economic findings to practical policy concerns.

How Far to Nudge?

Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

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Author: Peter John

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 178643055X

Category:

Page: 192

View: 5500

This book addresses the wave of innovation and reforms that has been called the nudge or behavioural public policy agenda, which has emerged in many countries since the mid-2000s. Nudge involves developing behavioural insights to solve complex policy problems, such as unemployment, obesity and the environment, as well as improving the delivery of policies by reforming standard operating procedures. It reviews the changes that have taken place, in particular the greater use of randomised evaluations, and discusses how far nudge can be used more generally in the policy process. The book argues that nudge has a radical future if it develops a more bottom up approach involving greater feedback and more engagement with citizens.

A Behavioral Theory of Elections

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Author: Jonathan Bendor,Daniel Diermeier,David A. Siegel,Michael M. Ting

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400836802

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 9677

Most theories of elections assume that voters and political actors are fully rational. While these formulations produce many insights, they also generate anomalies--most famously, about turnout. The rise of behavioral economics has posed new challenges to the premise of rationality. This groundbreaking book provides a behavioral theory of elections based on the notion that all actors--politicians as well as voters--are only boundedly rational. The theory posits learning via trial and error: actions that surpass an actor's aspiration level are more likely to be used in the future, while those that fall short are less likely to be tried later. Based on this idea of adaptation, the authors construct formal models of party competition, turnout, and voters' choices of candidates. These models predict substantial turnout levels, voters sorting into parties, and winning parties adopting centrist platforms. In multiparty elections, voters are able to coordinate vote choices on majority-preferred candidates, while all candidates garner significant vote shares. Overall, the behavioral theory and its models produce macroimplications consistent with the data on elections, and they use plausible microassumptions about the cognitive capacities of politicians and voters. A computational model accompanies the book and can be used as a tool for further research.

A Course in Behavioral Economics

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Author: Erik Angner

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137017511

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 6618

A Course in Behavioral Economics is a concise and reader-friendly introduction to one of the most influential areas of economics today. Covering all core areas of the subject, the book requires no advanced mathematics and is full of examples, exercises, and problems drawn from the fields of economics, management, marketing, political science, and public policy, among others. It is an ideal first textbook for students coming to behavioral economics from a wide range of disciplines, and would also appeal to the general reader looking for a thorough and readable introduction to the subject. Available to lecturers: access to an Instructor's Manual at www.palgrave.com/economics/angner, containing a sample syllabus, instructor guide, sample handouts and examinations, and PowerPoint slides.

Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning

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Author: Michael K. Lindell,Ronald W. Perry

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780891166207

Category: Social Science

Page: 309

View: 5020

Because of the public's increased demands for effective planning and response to community-wide crisis, emergency management has become an increasingly important activity in modern society. Advances in technology have made it possible to detect, monitor, and transmit hazard data more accurately and rapidly than ever before. In addition, development of environmental and engineering systems theory has been matched by advances in the understanding of social systems. Despite this wealth of knowledge, however, the diffusion of scientific information and innovative planning practices has been sluggish.

The Foundations of Behavioral Economic Analysis

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Author: Sanjit Dhami

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198715528

Category:

Page: 1798

View: 3951

This is the first definitive introduction to behavioral economics aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students. Authoritative, cutting edge, yet accessible, it guides the reader through theory and evidence, providing engaging and relevant applications throughout. It is divided into nine parts and 24 chapters: Part I is on behavioral economics of risk, uncertainty, and ambiguity. The evidence against expected utility theory is examined, and the behavioral response is outlined; the best empirically supported theory is prospect theory. Part II considers other-regarding preferences. The evidence from experimental games on human sociality is given, followed by models and applications of inequity aversion, intentions based reciprocity, conditional cooperation, human virtues, and social identity. Part III is on time discounting. It considers the evidence against the exponential discounted utility model and describes several behavioral models such as hyperbolic discounting, attribute based models and the reference time theory. Part IV describes the evidence on classical game theory and considers several models of behavioral game theory, including level-k and cognitive hierarchy models, quantal response equilibrium, and psychological game theory. Part V considers behavioral models of learning that include evolutionary game theory, classical models of learning, experience weighted attraction model, learning direction theory, and stochastic social dynamics. Part VI studies the role of emotions; among other topics it considers projection bias, temptation preferences, happiness economics, and interaction between emotions and cognition. Part VII considers bounded rationality. The three main topics considered are judgment heuristics and biases, mental accounting, and behavioral finance. Part VIII considers behavioral welfare economics; the main topics are soft paternalism, and choice-based measures of welfare. Finally, Part IX gives an abbreviated taster course in neuroeconomics.

Essentials of Health Behavior

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Author: Mark Cameron Edberg,Associate Professor the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health Mark Edberg,Dr Edward Baker,Anne J Menkens,Janet E Porter

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449698514

Category: Education

Page: 225

View: 7925

Health promotion, education, and prevention programs ultimately focus on changing health behavior. Essentials of Health Behavior, Second Edition provides the groundwork for understanding, assessing, and effectively applying theories of human behavior within the practice of public health. In clear and accessible language, it provides the student with a background of the kinds of social and behavioral theories that guide our understanding of health related behavior and form the background for health promotion and prevention efforts. Filled with real life examples and profiles, the text explores some of the ways in which these theories and approaches are used in applied health promotion efforts. This book will: -Introduce students to the relationship between behavior and a selection of major health issues. -Provide an introductory background to the kinds of social and behavioral theories that guide our understanding of health related behavior and form the background for health promotion and prevention efforts. -Explore some of the ways in which these theories and approaches are used in applied health promotion efforts. The Second Edition offers: -New chapter on multi-level theories and frameworks -Updated examples of application and practice throughout -Additional information on several of the theories presented, such as the Diffusion of Innovations theory and the Social Cognitive Theory Looking for more real-life evidence? Check out Cases 3, 5-11, 13, 18, & 20 in Essential Case Studies in Public Health, Putting Public Health into Practice.

Behavioral Economics and Its Applications

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Author: Peter Diamond,Hannu Vartiainen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400829143

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 6505

In the last decade, behavioral economics, borrowing from psychology and sociology to explain decisions inconsistent with traditional economics, has revolutionized the way economists view the world. But despite this general success, behavioral thinking has fundamentally transformed only one field of applied economics-finance. Peter Diamond and Hannu Vartiainen's Behavioral Economics and Its Applications argues that behavioral economics can have a similar impact in other fields of economics. In this volume, some of the world's leading thinkers in behavioral economics and general economic theory make the case for a much greater use of behavioral ideas in six fields where these ideas have already proved useful but have not yet been fully incorporated--public economics, development, law and economics, health, wage determination, and organizational economics. The result is an attempt to set the agenda of an important development in economics--an agenda that will interest policymakers, sociologists, and psychologists as well as economists. Contributors include Ian Ayres, B. Douglas Bernheim, Truman F. Bewley, Colin F. Camerer, Anne Case, Michael D. Cohen, Peter Diamond, Christoph Engel, Richard G. Frank, Jacob Glazer, Seppo Honkapohja, Christine Jolls, Botond Koszegi, Ulrike Malmendier, Sendhil Mullainathan, Antonio Rangel, Emmanuel Saez, Eldar Shafir, Sir Nicholas Stern, Jean Tirole, Hannu Vartiainen, and Timothy D. Wilson.

The Bounds of Reason

Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences

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Author: Herbert Gintis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400851343

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 2599

Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences—from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorating game theory, The Bounds of Reason offers innovative thinking for the behavioral sciences.

Social Justice

The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy

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Author: Madison Powers,Ruth Faden,Ruth R. Faden

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195375130

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 9830

This volume develops a theory of social justice for the specific context of health care policy, although it can also be applied to education, economic development and other social policy issues where resources are limited.

Beyond the Market

The Social Foundations of Economic Efficiency

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Author: Jens Beckert

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400825448

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

View: 1170

Beyond the Market launches a sociological investigation into economic efficiency. Prevailing economic theory, which explains efficiency using formalized rational choice models, often simplifies human behavior to the point of distortion. Jens Beckert finds such theory to be particularly weak in explaining such crucial forms of economic behavior as cooperation, innovation, and action under conditions of uncertainty--phenomena he identifies as the proper starting point for a sociology of economic action. Beckert levels an enlightened critique at neoclassical economics, arguing that understanding efficiency requires looking well beyond the market to the social, cultural, political, and cognitive factors that influence the coordination of economic action. Beckert searches social theory for the components of an alternative theory of action, one that accounts for the social embedding of economic behavior. In Durkheim and Parsons he finds especially useful approaches to cooperation; in Luhmann, a way to understand how people act under highly contingent conditions; and in Giddens, an understanding of creative action and innovation. Together, these provide building blocks for a research program that will yield a theoretically sophisticated understanding of how economic processes are coordinated and the ways that markets are embedded in social, cultural, and cognitive structures. Containing one of the most fully informed critiques of the neoclassical analysis of economic efficiency--as well as one of the most thoughtful blueprints for economic sociology--this book reclaims for sociology the study of one of the most important arenas of human action.

The Cognitive Basis of Institutions

A Synthesis of Behavioral and Institutional Economics

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Author: Shinji Teraji

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128120452

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 366

View: 8574

The Cognitive Basis of Institutions: A Synthesis of Behavioral and Institutional Economics synthesizes modern research in behavioral economics with traditional institutional economics. This work emphasizes that institution and agent are inextricably linked, and that both cognitive and institutional processes coalesce to influence human decision-making. It integrates cognition and institution through the behavioral economics theoretical lens of bounded rationality. Methodologically, it develops game-theoretical, complexity and neuroeconomic solutions to unite study of the two areas. The work concludes by proposing general implications for the economic study of decisions using the cognitive-institutional approach, also providing specific recommendations for public policy. Reveals how institutional structures and individual actions interact and coevolve cognitively Connects individual decision-making, decision-making processes and institutional formation Unites our understanding of cooperative ‘prosocial’ behavior with the institutional dynamics that may create it Discusses the implications of the behavioral-institutional paradigm for paternalism and libertarianism in public policy

Economic Foundations of Strategy

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Author: Joseph T. Mahoney

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412905435

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 253

View: 7171

Economic Foundations of Strategy helps clarify the theoretical foundations of management strategy. It identifies five theories of particular importance to the strategy field, and outlines the contributions of particularly influential works in each area. The book helps find answers for five questions regarding key issues in strategy using economic theory: How can organizations operate efficiently? How can firms minimize costs? How can firms create and allocate wealth? How can firms align individual self-interest? How can resources be acquired, developed and deployed to improve the likelihood of survival and profitable growth?

Inside the Nudge Unit

How small changes can make a big difference

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Author: David Halpern

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0753551381

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4570

Dr David Halpern, behavioural scientist and head of Number 10's Behavioural Insights Team, or the 'Nudge Unit', invites you inside the unconventional, multi-million pound saving initiative that makes a big difference through influencing small, simple changes in our behaviour. Using the application of psychology to the challenges we face in the world today, the Nudge Unit is pushing us in the right direction. This is their story.

Policy and Choice

Public Finance Through the Lens of Behavioral Economics

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Author: William J. Congdon,Jeffrey R. Kling,Sendhil Mullainathan

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815704984

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 247

View: 717

Argues that public finance--the study of the government's role in economics--should incorporate principles from behavior economics and other branches of psychology.

Advances in Behavioral Economics

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Author: Colin F. Camerer,George Loewenstein,Matthew Rabin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400829118

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 768

View: 9128

Twenty years ago, behavioral economics did not exist as a field. Most economists were deeply skeptical--even antagonistic--toward the idea of importing insights from psychology into their field. Today, behavioral economics has become virtually mainstream. It is well represented in prominent journals and top economics departments, and behavioral economists, including several contributors to this volume, have garnered some of the most prestigious awards in the profession. This book assembles the most important papers on behavioral economics published since around 1990. Among the 25 articles are many that update and extend earlier foundational contributions, as well as cutting-edge papers that break new theoretical and empirical ground. Advances in Behavioral Economics will serve as the definitive one-volume resource for those who want to familiarize themselves with the new field or keep up-to-date with the latest developments. It will not only be a core text for students, but will be consulted widely by professional economists, as well as psychologists and social scientists with an interest in how behavioral insights are being applied in economics. The articles, which follow Colin Camerer and George Loewenstein's introduction, are by the editors, George A. Akerlof, Linda Babcock, Shlomo Benartzi, Vincent P. Crawford, Peter Diamond, Ernst Fehr, Robert H. Frank, Shane Frederick, Simon Gächter, David Genesove, Itzhak Gilboa, Uri Gneezy, Robert M. Hutchens, Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, David Laibson, Christopher Mayer, Terrance Odean, Ted O'Donoghue, Aldo Rustichini, David Schmeidler, Klaus M. Schmidt, Eldar Shafir, Hersh M. Shefrin, Chris Starmer, Richard H. Thaler, Amos Tversky, and Janet L. Yellen.