The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy

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Author: Eldar Shafir

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845343

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 8117

In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in behavioral research on a wide variety of topics, from behavioral finance, labor contracts, philanthropy, and the analysis of savings and poverty, to eyewitness identification and sentencing decisions, racism, sexism, health behaviors, and voting. Research findings have often been strikingly counterintuitive, with serious implications for public policymaking. In this book, leading experts in psychology, decision research, policy analysis, economics, political science, law, medicine, and philosophy explore major trends, principles, and general insights about human behavior in policy-relevant settings. Their work provides a deeper understanding of the many drivers--cognitive, social, perceptual, motivational, and emotional--that guide behaviors in everyday settings. They give depth and insight into the methods of behavioral research, and highlight how this knowledge might influence the implementation of public policy for the improvement of society. This collection examines the policy relevance of behavioral science to our social and political lives, to issues ranging from health, environment, and nutrition, to dispute resolution, implicit racism, and false convictions. The book illuminates the relationship between behavioral findings and economic analyses, and calls attention to what policymakers might learn from this vast body of groundbreaking work. Wide-ranging investigation into people's motivations, abilities, attitudes, and perceptions finds that they differ in profound ways from what is typically assumed. The result is that public policy acquires even greater significance, since rather than merely facilitating the conduct of human affairs, policy actually shapes their trajectory. The first interdisciplinary look at behaviorally informed policymaking Leading behavioral experts across the social sciences consider important policy problems A compendium of behavioral findings and their application to relevant policy domains

Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health

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Author: Jeannine Coreil

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412957044

Category: Medical

Page: 434

View: 2377

This book is intended as a core textbook for courses in public health that examines current issues in health from a social and behavioral science perspective. It is a cross-disciplinary course (public health, medical sociology, health psychology, medical anthropology) and thus there are many ways to teach the course based on a particular instructor's perspective. The authors wrote the book because they were dissatisfied with the way other texts apply social science to public health and found that many texts being used were from related fields such as medicine, nursing or general health.The authors are planning to do a major revision based on reviews they have collected and the reviews we have collected. We believe the revised edition will essentially be a new text based on rich feedback. They will include new theory, new cases, new research, and a rich ancillary package. They will also reduce the frameworks presented to make the book more readable to students.

A Behavioral Theory of Elections

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Author: Jonathan Bendor,Daniel Diermeier,David A. Siegel,Michael M. Ting

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400836802

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 8630

Most theories of elections assume that voters and political actors are fully rational. While these formulations produce many insights, they also generate anomalies--most famously, about turnout. The rise of behavioral economics has posed new challenges to the premise of rationality. This groundbreaking book provides a behavioral theory of elections based on the notion that all actors--politicians as well as voters--are only boundedly rational. The theory posits learning via trial and error: actions that surpass an actor's aspiration level are more likely to be used in the future, while those that fall short are less likely to be tried later. Based on this idea of adaptation, the authors construct formal models of party competition, turnout, and voters' choices of candidates. These models predict substantial turnout levels, voters sorting into parties, and winning parties adopting centrist platforms. In multiparty elections, voters are able to coordinate vote choices on majority-preferred candidates, while all candidates garner significant vote shares. Overall, the behavioral theory and its models produce macroimplications consistent with the data on elections, and they use plausible microassumptions about the cognitive capacities of politicians and voters. A computational model accompanies the book and can be used as a tool for further research.

The Foundations of Behavioral Economic Analysis

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Author: Sanjit Dhami

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198715528

Category:

Page: 1798

View: 2962

This is the first definitive introduction to behavioral economics aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students. Authoritative, cutting edge, yet accessible, it guides the reader through theory and evidence, providing engaging and relevant applications throughout. It is divided into nine parts and 24 chapters: Part I is on behavioral economics of risk, uncertainty, and ambiguity. The evidence against expected utility theory is examined, and the behavioral response is outlined; the best empirically supported theory is prospect theory. Part II considers other-regarding preferences. The evidence from experimental games on human sociality is given, followed by models and applications of inequity aversion, intentions based reciprocity, conditional cooperation, human virtues, and social identity. Part III is on time discounting. It considers the evidence against the exponential discounted utility model and describes several behavioral models such as hyperbolic discounting, attribute based models and the reference time theory. Part IV describes the evidence on classical game theory and considers several models of behavioral game theory, including level-k and cognitive hierarchy models, quantal response equilibrium, and psychological game theory. Part V considers behavioral models of learning that include evolutionary game theory, classical models of learning, experience weighted attraction model, learning direction theory, and stochastic social dynamics. Part VI studies the role of emotions; among other topics it considers projection bias, temptation preferences, happiness economics, and interaction between emotions and cognition. Part VII considers bounded rationality. The three main topics considered are judgment heuristics and biases, mental accounting, and behavioral finance. Part VIII considers behavioral welfare economics; the main topics are soft paternalism, and choice-based measures of welfare. Finally, Part IX gives an abbreviated taster course in neuroeconomics.

Behavioural Public Policy

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Author: Adam Oliver

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107042631

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 9354

In this accessible collection, leading academic economists, psychologists and philosophers apply behavioural economic findings to practical policy concerns.

Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Planning

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Author: Michael K. Lindell,Ronald W. Perry

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780891166207

Category: Social Science

Page: 309

View: 5740

Because of the public's increased demands for effective planning and response to community-wide crisis, emergency management has become an increasingly important activity in modern society. Advances in technology have made it possible to detect, monitor, and transmit hazard data more accurately and rapidly than ever before. In addition, development of environmental and engineering systems theory has been matched by advances in the understanding of social systems. Despite this wealth of knowledge, however, the diffusion of scientific information and innovative planning practices has been sluggish.

A Course in Behavioral Economics

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Author: Erik Angner

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137017511

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 4701

A Course in Behavioral Economics is a concise and reader-friendly introduction to one of the most influential areas of economics today. Covering all core areas of the subject, the book requires no advanced mathematics and is full of examples, exercises, and problems drawn from the fields of economics, management, marketing, political science, and public policy, among others. It is an ideal first textbook for students coming to behavioral economics from a wide range of disciplines, and would also appeal to the general reader looking for a thorough and readable introduction to the subject. Available to lecturers: access to an Instructor's Manual at www.palgrave.com/economics/angner, containing a sample syllabus, instructor guide, sample handouts and examinations, and PowerPoint slides.

How Far to Nudge?

Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

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Author: Peter John

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781786430540

Category:

Page: 192

View: 5786

Behavioural public policies, or nudges, have become increasingly popular in recent years, with governments keen to use light-touch interventions to improve the success of their public policies. In this unique book, Peter John explores nudges, their successes and limitations, and sets out a bold manifesto for the future of behavioural public policy.This book traces the beginnings of nudge in behavioural economics and tracks the adoption of its core ideas by policy-makers, providing examples of successful applications. By considering the question 'how far to nudge?', John reviews why it is crucial for governments to address citizen behaviours, and reviews the criticisms of nudge and its ethical limitations. Looking to its future, this book proposes the adoption of a radical version of nudge, nudge plus, involving increased feedback and more engagement with citizens.How Far to Nudge? will be a vital text for students of behavioural public policy and policy analysis, as well as for anyone looking for an introduction to nudge policy and an explanation for its growth in popularity.

Social Justice

The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy

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Author: Madison Powers,Ruth Faden

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199705191

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 3204

In bioethics, discussions of justice have tended to focus on questions of fairness in access to health care: is there a right to medical treatment, and how should priorities be set when medical resources are scarce. But health care is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which people live healthy lives, and fairness is not the only consideration in determining whether a health policy is just. In this pathbreaking book, senior bioethicists Powers and Faden confront foundational issues about health and justice.

Behavioral Economics and Its Applications

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Author: Peter Diamond,Hannu Vartiainen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400829143

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 8437

In the last decade, behavioral economics, borrowing from psychology and sociology to explain decisions inconsistent with traditional economics, has revolutionized the way economists view the world. But despite this general success, behavioral thinking has fundamentally transformed only one field of applied economics-finance. Peter Diamond and Hannu Vartiainen's Behavioral Economics and Its Applications argues that behavioral economics can have a similar impact in other fields of economics. In this volume, some of the world's leading thinkers in behavioral economics and general economic theory make the case for a much greater use of behavioral ideas in six fields where these ideas have already proved useful but have not yet been fully incorporated--public economics, development, law and economics, health, wage determination, and organizational economics. The result is an attempt to set the agenda of an important development in economics--an agenda that will interest policymakers, sociologists, and psychologists as well as economists. Contributors include Ian Ayres, B. Douglas Bernheim, Truman F. Bewley, Colin F. Camerer, Anne Case, Michael D. Cohen, Peter Diamond, Christoph Engel, Richard G. Frank, Jacob Glazer, Seppo Honkapohja, Christine Jolls, Botond Koszegi, Ulrike Malmendier, Sendhil Mullainathan, Antonio Rangel, Emmanuel Saez, Eldar Shafir, Sir Nicholas Stern, Jean Tirole, Hannu Vartiainen, and Timothy D. Wilson.

Behavioural Foundations of Economics

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Author: J. Baxter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349226270

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 265

View: 8371

In recent years, work on what may broadly be described as 'behavioural economics' has expanded rapidly, and is now attracting the attention of leading figures in economics, such as Kenneth Arrow. Much of the work, however, has concentrated on particular aspects of individual and aggregate behaviour. The book attempts to construct a unified framework, showing both how behavioural variables form the basis of economic activity, and how behavioural and economic variables interact to determine individual and aggregate behaviour.

Exotic Preferences

Behavioral Economics and Human Motivation

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Author: George Loewenstein

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199257072

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 671

View: 6144

An analysis of how individual preferences are formed, whether they can be predicted and the extent to which they are influenced by emotion rather than reason.

Advances in Behavioral Economics

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Author: Colin F. Camerer,George Loewenstein,Matthew Rabin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400829118

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 768

View: 4661

Twenty years ago, behavioral economics did not exist as a field. Most economists were deeply skeptical--even antagonistic--toward the idea of importing insights from psychology into their field. Today, behavioral economics has become virtually mainstream. It is well represented in prominent journals and top economics departments, and behavioral economists, including several contributors to this volume, have garnered some of the most prestigious awards in the profession. This book assembles the most important papers on behavioral economics published since around 1990. Among the 25 articles are many that update and extend earlier foundational contributions, as well as cutting-edge papers that break new theoretical and empirical ground. Advances in Behavioral Economics will serve as the definitive one-volume resource for those who want to familiarize themselves with the new field or keep up-to-date with the latest developments. It will not only be a core text for students, but will be consulted widely by professional economists, as well as psychologists and social scientists with an interest in how behavioral insights are being applied in economics. The articles, which follow Colin Camerer and George Loewenstein's introduction, are by the editors, George A. Akerlof, Linda Babcock, Shlomo Benartzi, Vincent P. Crawford, Peter Diamond, Ernst Fehr, Robert H. Frank, Shane Frederick, Simon Gächter, David Genesove, Itzhak Gilboa, Uri Gneezy, Robert M. Hutchens, Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, David Laibson, Christopher Mayer, Terrance Odean, Ted O'Donoghue, Aldo Rustichini, David Schmeidler, Klaus M. Schmidt, Eldar Shafir, Hersh M. Shefrin, Chris Starmer, Richard H. Thaler, Amos Tversky, and Janet L. Yellen.

Well-being for Public Policy

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Author: Ed Diener

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195334078

Category: Psychology

Page: 245

View: 5763

In this volume, the authors explain the reasons why subjective indicators of well-being are needed. They describe how these indicators can offer useful input and provide examples of policy uses of well-being measures. The book then delves into objections to the use of subjective well-being indicators for policy purposes and discusses why these objections are not warranted. Finally, the book contains answers pertaining to the measures that are currently in use and describes the types of measures that are most likely to be valuable in the policy domain. At the most ambitious, even audacious, level, Well-Being for Public Policy has the potential of transforming society by making people and policy more concerned about well-being, and less concerned about economics and income. The existence of national measures of well-being would draw more interest to the rewarding and problem areas of life, and serve to give a broader focus to societal decisions. National accounts of well-being could reorient societies so that social values, the environment, enjoyable work, and physical and emotional health are given prominence along with economic development. This book is an invaluable treatise on current understanding of the complex relationship between well-being and public policy-- it will be of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology and economics.

Exposure Analysis

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Author: Wayne R. Ott,Anne C. Steinemann,Lance A. Wallace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420012630

Category: Science

Page: 533

View: 8327

Written by experts, Exposure Analysis is the first complete resource in the emerging scientific discipline of exposure analysis. A comprehensive source on the environmental pollutants that affect human health, the book discusses human exposure through pathways including air, food, water, dermal absorption, and, for children, non-food ingestion. The book summarizes existing definitions of exposure, dose, and related concepts and provides the mathematical framework at the heart of these conceptual definitions. Using secondhand smoke as an example, the book illustrates how exposure analysis studies can change human behavior and improve public health. An extensive section on air pollutants considers volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), fine and ultrafine particles, and the latest personal air quality monitors for measuring individual exposure. Another detailed section examines exposures to pesticides, metals such as lead, and dioxin that may occur through multiple routes such as air, food, and dust ingestion. The book explores important aspects of dermal exposure such as the absorption of volatile organic compounds while showering or bathing and exposure through multiple carrier media. The authors describe quantitative methods that have been validated for predicting the concentrations in enclosed everyday locations, such as automobiles and rooms of the home. They also discuss existing laws and examine the relationship between exposure and national policies. Defining the new field of exposure analysis, this book provides the basic tools needed to identify sources, understand causes, measure exposures, and develop strategies for improving public health.

Economic Foundations of Strategy

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Author: Joseph T. Mahoney

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412905435

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 253

View: 522

Economic Foundations of Strategy helps clarify the theoretical foundations of management strategy. It identifies five theories of particular importance to the strategy field, and outlines the contributions of particularly influential works in each area. The book helps find answers for five questions regarding key issues in strategy using economic theory: How can organizations operate efficiently? How can firms minimize costs? How can firms create and allocate wealth? How can firms align individual self-interest? How can resources be acquired, developed and deployed to improve the likelihood of survival and profitable growth?

An Introduction to Behavioral Economics

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Author: Nick Wilkinson,Matthias Klaes

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137524138

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 584

View: 1239

The third edition of this successful textbook introduces students to behavioral economics. It offers a critical examination of the latest literature, research, developments and debates in the field by discussing topics such as evolutionary psychology and neuroscience. Contains a wealth of case studies, examples and review questions.

Human Behavior and Public Policy

A Political Psychology

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Author: Marshall H. Segall

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483139034

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 9867

Human Behavior and Public Policy: A Political Psychology examines knowledge about human behavior and its application to public policy analysis. It shows that the findings of psychological research provide information on how to better understand social problems and formulate and implement policies for the solution of such problems. Organized into nine chapters, the book first discusses how psychology can be used to shape society into a better home and then presents three models for political psychology. The next chapters deal with intellectual capacities, educability, and prejudice and discrimination in different groups of people. The book also explores violence and intergroup conflict resolutions and concludes with a proposal for a research design that serves as an example of political-psychological planning. Academic psychologists who teach interdisciplinary social sciences and courses concerned with public affairs will find this book invaluable.

Behavioral Insights for Public Policy

Concepts and Cases

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Author: Kai Ruggeri

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138484238

Category:

Page: 288

View: 2197

The first decades of the twenty-first century have offered a remarkable shift in how policies are made as well as who designs them. Until this period, local, regional, and national policy advisors largely comprised economists, lawyers, and financial experts. But in an era when behavioral scientists are increasingly being asked to demonstrate the impact of their research, many are playing a much greater role in policy making across a range of sectors as a result. Written by a team of authors working across both academia and government, Behavioral Insights for Public Policy is the first textbook to fully examine how psychology can be applied to a range of public policy areas. It addresses a wide variety of topics from the origins of policy as well as major findings from behavioral economics and nudge theory, to large-scale applications of behavioral insights. The compilation is the first of its kind to broadly cover the underlying theory, history, major empirical examples, and practical applications to policy of nudges (or behavioral insights) for teaching and study in higher education. Featuring over 100 empirical examples of how behavioral insights are being used to address some of the most critical challenges faced globally, the book also includes a unique chapter from an organization actively implementing behavioral insights in policies along with various government institutions. Also featuring case studies looking at key policy issues, learning outcomes, a glossary of key terms, and an accompanying website, this important book will be essential reading for any student of applied psychology. It has also been produced for others interested in the topic from social, political, and economic sciences, as well as those in government looking for an overview of the key issues.