The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare

Ideas, Organization, and Field Command

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Author: Edward Hagerman

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253207159

Category: History

Page: 366

View: 5082

"... a major contribution to our knowledge of the place of the Civil War in the history of warfare.... I have long hoped for a sound history of Civil War military staffs... I need hope no more; Hagerman has covered this subject also, with the same assured expertness that he gives to tactics and technology." —Russell F. Weigley "... this fine book deserves a place on the shelves of all military historians in this country and abroad." —American Historical Review "... a first rate book... impressive... an imposing work... " —Journal of American History "This book is filled with enlightening information.... ought to be a standard for many years to come and should be required reading for any serious Civil War military historian." —Journal of Southern History

With a Sword in One Hand and Jomini in the Other

The Problem of Military Thought in the Civil War North

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Author: Carol Reardon

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807882577

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 7080

When the Civil War began, Northern soldiers and civilians alike sought a framework to help make sense of the chaos that confronted them. Many turned first to the classic European military texts from the Napoleonic era, especially Antoine Henri Jomini's Summary of the Art of War. As Carol Reardon shows, Jomini's work was only one voice in what ultimately became a lively and contentious national discourse about how the North should conduct war at a time when warfare itself was rapidly changing. She argues that the absence of a strong intellectual foundation for the conduct of war at its start--or, indeed, any consensus on the need for such a foundation--ultimately contributed to the length and cost of the conflict. Reardon examines the great profusion of new or newly translated military texts of the Civil War years, intended to fill that intellectual void, and draws as well on the views of the soldiers and civilians who turned to them in the search for a winning strategy. In examining how debates over principles of military thought entered into the question of qualifications of officers entrusted to command the armies of Northern citizen soldiers, she explores the limitations of nineteenth-century military thought in dealing with the human elements of combat.

Themes of the American Civil War

The War Between the States

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Author: Susan-Mary Grant,Brian Holden-Reid

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135276587

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 2841

Themes of the American Civil War offers a timely and useful guide to this vast topic for a new generation of students. The volume provides a broad-ranging assessment of the causes, complexities, and consequences of America’s most destructive conflict to date. The essays, written by top scholars in the field, and reworked for this new edition, explore how, and in what ways, differing interpretations of the war have arisen, and explains clearly why the American Civil War remains a subject of enduring interest. It includes chapters covering four broad areas, including The Political Front, The Military Front, The Race Front, and The Ideological Front. Additions to the second edition include a new introduction – added to the current introduction by James McPherson – a chapter on gender, as well as information on the remembrance of the war (historical memory). The addition of several maps, a timeline, and an appendix listing further reading, battlefield statistics, and battle/regiment/general names focuses the book squarely at undergraduates in both the US and abroad.

Leaders of the American Civil War

A Biographical and Historiographical Dictionary

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Author: Charles F. Ritter,Jon L. Wakelyn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135936250

Category: Political Science

Page: 465

View: 7220

Provides an overview of the careers of the great military leaders and the critical political leaders of the American Civil War. Entries consider the leader's character and pre-war experience, their contributions to the war effort, and the war's impact on the rest of their lives. An assessment of their historical treatment puts their long-term reputations on the line, and results in a thorough revision of some leaders, a call for further study of others, and a reaffirmation of the accomplishments of the greatest leaders.

Yankee Leviathan

The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859–1877

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Author: Richard Franklin Bensel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139935852

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4350

This book describes the impact of the American Civil War on the development of central state authority in the late nineteenth century. The author contends that intense competition for control of the national political economy between the free North and slave South produced secession, which in turn spawned the formation of two new states, a market-oriented northern Union and a southern Confederacy in which government controls on the economy were much more important. During the Civil War, the American state both expanded and became the agent of northern economic development. After the war ended, however, tension within the Republican coalition led to the abandonment of Reconstruction and to the return of former Confederates to political power throughout the South. As a result, American state expansion ground to a halt during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This book makes a major contribution to the understanding of the causes and consequences of the Civil War and the legacy of the war in the twentieth century.

Villainous Compounds

Chemical Weapons and the American Civil War

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Author: Guy R. Hasegawa

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 0809334305

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 2842

"This book is a study of the diverse array of chemical weapons that were deployed, prepared for use, or proposed during the Civil War"--

The Image before the Weapon

a critical history of the distinction between combatant and civilian

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Author: Helen M. Kinsella

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461262

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7533

Since at least the Middle Ages, the laws of war have distinguished between combatants and civilians under an injunction now formally known as the principle of distinction. The principle of distinction is invoked in contemporary conflicts as if there were an unmistakable and sure distinction to be made between combatant and civilian. As is so brutally evident in armed conflicts, it is precisely the distinction between civilian and combatant, upon which the protection of civilians is founded, cannot be taken as self-evident or stable. Helen M. Kinsella documents that the history of international humanitarian law itself admits the difficulty of such a distinction. In The Image Before the Weapon, Kinsella explores the evolution of the concept of the civilian and how it has been applied in warfare. A series of discourses-including gender, innocence, and civilization- have shaped the legal, military, and historical understandings of the civilian and she documents how these discourses converge at particular junctures to demarcate the difference between civilian and combatant. Engaging with works on the law of war from the earliest thinkers in the Western tradition, including St. Thomas Aquinas and Christine de Pisan, to contemporary figures such as James Turner Johnson and Michael Walzer, Kinsella identifies the foundational ambiguities and inconsistencies in the principle of distinction, as well as the significant role played by Christian concepts of mercy and charity. She then turns to the definition and treatment of civilians in specific armed conflicts: the American Civil War and the U.S.-Indian Wars of the nineteenth century, and the civil wars of Guatemala and El Salvador in the 1980s. Finally, she analyzes the two modern treaties most influential for the principle of distinction: the 1949 IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Conventions, which for the first time formally defined the civilian within international law. She shows how the experiences of the two world wars, but particularly World War II, and the Algerian war of independence affected these subsequent codifications of the laws of war. As recognition grows that compliance with the principle of distinction to limit violence against civilians depends on a firmer grasp of its legal, political, and historical evolution, The Image before the Weapon is a timely intervention in debates about how best to protect civilian populations.

Fateful Lightning

A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction

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Author: Allen C. Guelzo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199939365

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 9155

The Civil War is the greatest trauma ever experienced by the American nation, a four-year paroxysm of violence that left in its wake more than 600,000 dead, more than 2 million refugees, and the destruction (in modern dollars) of more than $700 billion in property. The war also sparked some of the most heroic moments in American history and enshrined a galaxy of American heroes. Above all, it permanently ended the practice of slavery and proved, in an age of resurgent monarchies, that a liberal democracy could survive the most frightful of challenges. In Fateful Lightning, two-time Lincoln Prize-winning historian Allen C. Guelzo offers a marvelous portrait of the Civil War and its era, covering not only the major figures and epic battles, but also politics, religion, gender, race, diplomacy, and technology. And unlike other surveys of the Civil War era, it extends the reader's vista to include the postwar Reconstruction period and discusses the modern-day legacy of the Civil War in American literature and popular culture. Guelzo also puts the conflict in a global perspective, underscoring Americans' acute sense of the vulnerability of their republic in a world of monarchies. He examines the strategy, the tactics, and especially the logistics of the Civil War and brings the most recent historical thinking to bear on emancipation, the presidency and the war powers, the blockade and international law, and the role of intellectuals, North and South. Written by a leading authority on our nation's most searing crisis, Fateful Lightning offers a vivid and original account of an event whose echoes continue with Americans to this day.

George B. McClellan and Civil War History

In the Shadow of Grant and Sherman

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Author: Thomas J. Rowland

Publisher: Kent State University Press

ISBN: 9780873386036

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 5787

Perhaps no other Union commander's legacy in the Civil War has been the subject of as much controversy as George B. McClellan's. Since the midpoint of this century, however, he has emerged as the complex general who, though gifted with administrative and organizational skills, was unable and unwilling to fight with the splendid army he had created. Thomas J. Rowland argues that this interpretation rests squarely within the context of general historical verdicts of the way in which the North eventually triumphed. Civil War scholars have found the quality of Union leadership in the early years of the war wanting, and that it was not until U.S. Grant and W.T. Sherman emerged that success was ensured. On the other hand, Grant and Sherman knew failure but were judged less harshly than was McClellan. In George B. McClellan and Civil War History, Rowland presents a framework in which early Civil War command can be viewed without direct comparison to that of the final two years.

The Civil War in the East: Struggle, Stalemate, and Victory

Struggle, Stalemate, and Victory

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Author: Brooks D. Simpson

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313082774

Category: History

Page: 162

View: 8220

This book fills a gap in Civil War literature on the strategies employed by the Union and Confederacy in the East, offering a more integrated interpretation of military operations that shows how politics, public perception, geography, and logistics shaped the course of military operations in the East.

The Age of Lincoln and the Art of American Power, 1848-1876

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Author: William Nester

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1612346596

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 4863

Although Abraham Lincoln was among seven presidents who served during the tumultuous years between the end of the Mexican War and the end of the Reconstruction era, history has not been kind to the others: Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, and Ulysses S. Grant. In contrast, history sees Abraham Lincoln as a giant in character and deeds. During his presidency, he governed brilliantly, developed the economy, liberated four million people from slavery, reunified the nation, and helped enact the Homestead Act, among other accomplishments. He proved to be not only an outstanding commander in chief but also a skilled diplomat, economist, humanist, educator, and moralist. Lincoln achieved that and more because he was a master of the art of American power. He understood that the struggle for hearts and minds was the essence of politics in a democracy. He asserted power mostly by appealing to peopleÆs hopes rather than their fears. All along he tried to shape rather than reflect prevailing public opinions that differed from his own. To that end, he was brilliant at bridging the gap between progressives and conservatives by reining in the former and urging on the latter. His art of power ultimately reflected his unswerving devotion to the Declaration of IndependenceÆs principles and the ConstitutionÆs institutions, or as he so elegantly expressed it, ôto a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.ö

"Kollaboration" in Nordosteuropa

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Author: Joachim Tauber

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 9783447053679

Category: History

Page: 478

View: 8140

Das in den vergangenen Jahren in Osteuropa intensiv diskutierte Problem der Kollaboration mit der deutschen Besatzungsmacht wahrend des Zweiten Weltkriegs erhalt seine aktuelle Brisanz aus der Frage nach der politischen und moralischen Mitverantwortung und Mitbeteiligung der Besiegten und Okkupierten an der national-sozialistischen Besatzungs- und Vernichtungspolitik. Dabei geht es in der Diskussion auch um Begriffe wie nationale Identitat und ?Wurde', vor deren Hintergrund eine Zusammenarbeit mit dem Feind als ?Verrat' empfunden wurde (und wird). In Nordosteuropa ist das Problem der Kollaboration zudem eingebettet in eine komplexe ethnische Struktur und damit verbundene traditionelle Konfliktlagen, die auch wahrend des Zweiten Weltkrieges eine grosse Bedeutung besassen. Dieser Band beschrankt sich deshalb nicht nur auf die Jahre zwischen 1939 und 1945, sondern verfolgt zudem den Ansatz, den Begriff Kollaboration auch ausserhalb seiner zeitlichen Gebundenheit an den Zweiten Weltkrieg auf seine Eignung fur die Analyse von Phanomenen zu untersuchen, die in der Zeit vor 1939 und nach 1945 im Spannungsfeld zwischen Nation und Fremdherrschaft eine zentrale Bedeutung hatten und in den nationalen Historiographien lange verdrangt wurden. Den regionalen Schwerpunkt bilden Polen, Litauen, Lettland und Russland/Sowjetunion, erganzt um einen Beitrag zur Tschechoslowakei. Fallstudien bieten Einblicke in die Ereignisse, aber auch in die historiographische und politisch-gesellschaftliche Auseinandersetzung wahrend und nach den Geschehnissen. Erganzt werden die Landerstudien durch grundlegende Beitrage zu den Begriffen ?Kollaboration' und ?Fremdherrschaft'.

McClellan's War

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Author: Ethan S. Rafuse

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253006147

Category: History

Page: 545

View: 3024

“An important book that rescues George B. McClellan’s military reputation.” —Chronicles Bold, brash, and full of ambition, George Brinton McClellan seemed destined for greatness when he assumed command of all the Union armies before he was 35. It was not to be. Ultimately deemed a failure on the battlefield by Abraham Lincoln, he was finally dismissed from command following the bloody battle of Antietam. To better understand this fascinating, however flawed, character, Ethan S. Rafuse considers the broad and complicated political climate of the earlier 19th Century. Rather than blaming McClellan for the Union’s military losses, Rafuse attempts to understand his political thinking as it affected his wartime strategy. As a result, Rafuse sheds light not only on McClellan’s conduct on the battlefields of 1861-62 but also on United States politics and culture in the years leading up to the Civil War. “Any historian seriously interested in the period will come away from the book with useful material and a better understanding of George B. McClellan.” —Journal of Southern History “Exhaustively researched and lucidly written, Rafuse has done an excellent job in giving us a different perspective on ‘Little Mac.’” —Civil War History “Rafuse’s thoughtful study of Little Mac shows just how enthralling this complex and flawed individual continues to be.” —Blue & Gray magazine

War Upon the Land

Military Strategy and the Transformation of Southern Landscapes During the American Civil War

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Author: Lisa M. Brady

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820342491

Category: History

Page: 187

View: 9537

"War upon the land is not merely an environmental history of the war ... Instead, Brady's is a book about how the Civil War engaged with, and forever altered, a suite of nineteenth-century American ideas about nature ... Thus [it] examines the place of wilderness in the history of the Civil War, and as importantly, the place of the Civil War in the history of wilderness"--Foreword.

Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men

A History of the American Civil War

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Author: Jeffrey Hummel

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 0812698444

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 2214

This book combines a sweeping narrative of the Civil War with a bold new look at the war’s significance for American society. Professor Hummel sees the Civil War as America’s turning point: simultaneously the culmination and repudiation of the American revolution. While the chapters tell the story of the Civil War and discuss the issues raised in readable prose, each chapter is followed by a detailed bibliographical essay, looking at all the different major works on the subject, with their varying ideological viewpoints and conclusions. In his economic analysis of slavery, Professor Hummel takes a different view than the two major poles which have determined past discussions of the topic. While some writers claim that slavery was unprofitable and harmful to the Southern economy, and others maintain it was profitable and efficient for the South, Hummel uses the economic concept of Deadweight Loss to show that slavery was both highly profitable for slave owners and harmful to Southern economic development. While highly critical of Confederate policy, Hummel argues that the war was fought to prevent secession, not to end slavery, and that preservation of the Union was not necessary to end slavery: the North could have let the South secede peacefully, and slavery would still have been quickly terminated. Part of Hummel’s argument is that the South crucially relied on the Northern states to return runaway slaves to their owners. This new edition has a substantial new introduction by the author, correcting and supplementing the account given in the first edition (the major revision is an increase in the estimate of total casualties) and a foreword by John Majewski, a rising star of Civil War studies.

Lee's Miserables

Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Appomattox

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Author: J. Tracy Power

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469620413

Category: History

Page: 488

View: 620

Never did so large a proportion of the American population leave home for an extended period and produce such a detailed record of its experiences in the form of correspondence, diaries, and other papers as during the Civil War. Based on research in more than 1,200 wartime letters and diaries by more than 400 Confederate officers and enlisted men, this book offers a compelling social history of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its final year, from May 1864 to April 1865. Organized in a chronological framework, the book uses the words of the soldiers themselves to provide a view of the army's experiences in camp, on the march, in combat, and under siege--from the battles in the Wilderness to the final retreat to Appomattox. It sheds new light on such questions as the state of morale in the army, the causes of desertion, ties between the army and the home front, the debate over arming black men in the Confederacy, and the causes of Confederate defeat. Remarkably rich and detailed, Lee's Miserables offers a fresh look at one of the most-studied Civil War armies.

Antietam 1862: Gateway to Emancipation

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Author: T. Stephen Whitman

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313397341

Category: History

Page: 187

View: 7369

This book explains how the Battle of Antietam—a conflict that changed nothing militarily—still played a pivotal role in the Civil War by affording Abraham Lincoln an opportunity to announce the emancipation of slaves in states in rebellion.

Fredericksburg! Fredericksburg!

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Author: George C. Rable

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807867934

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 2252

During the battle of Gettysburg, as Union troops along Cemetery Ridge rebuffed Pickett's Charge, they were heard to shout, "Give them Fredericksburg!" Their cries reverberated from a clash that, although fought some six months earlier, clearly loomed large in the minds of Civil War soldiers. Fought on December 13, 1862, the battle of Fredericksburg ended in a stunning defeat for the Union. Confederate general Robert E. Lee suffered roughly 5,000 casualties but inflicted more than twice that many losses--nearly 13,000--on his opponent, General Ambrose Burnside. As news of the Union loss traveled north, it spread a wave of public despair that extended all the way to President Lincoln. In the beleaguered Confederacy, the southern victory bolstered flagging hopes, as Lee and his men began to take on an aura of invincibility. George Rable offers a gripping account of the battle of Fredericksburg and places the campaign within its broader political, social, and military context. Blending battlefield and home front history, he not only addresses questions of strategy and tactics but also explores material conditions in camp, the rhythms and disruptions of military life, and the enduring effects of the carnage on survivors--both civilian and military--on both sides.

A Companion to the U.S. Civil War

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Author: Aaron Sheehan-Dean

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118802950

Category: History

Page: 1232

View: 8728

A Companion to the U.S. Civil War presents a comprehensive historiographical collection of essays covering all major military, political, social, and economic aspects of the American Civil War (1861-1865). Represents the most comprehensive coverage available relating to all aspects of the U.S. Civil War Features contributions from dozens of experts in Civil War scholarship Covers major campaigns and battles, and military and political figures, as well as non-military aspects of the conflict such as gender, emancipation, literature, ethnicity, slavery, and memory

Jefferson Davis's Generals

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Author: Gabor S. Boritt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199923779

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 7114

Confederate General P.G.T.Beauregard once wrote that "no people ever warred for independence with more relative advantages than the Confederates." If there was any doubt as to what Beauregard sought to imply, he later to chose to spell it out: the failure of the Confederacy lay with the Confederate president Jefferson Davis. In Jefferson Davis' Generals, a team of the nation's most distinguished Civil War historians present fascinating examinations of the men who led the Confederacy through our nation's bloodiest conflict, focusing in particular on Jefferson Davis' relationships with five key generals who held independent commands: Joseph E. Johnston, Robert E. Lee, P.G.T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, and John Bell Hood. Craig Symonds examines the underlying implications of a withering trust between Johnston and his friend Jefferson Davis. And was there really harmony between Davis and Robert E. Lee? A tenuous harmony at best, according to Emory Thomas. Michael Parrish explores how Beauregard and Davis worked through a deep and mutual loathing, while Steven E. Woodworth and Herman Hattaway make contrasting evaluations of the competence of Generals Braxton Bragg and John Bell Hood. Taking a different angle on Davis' ill-fated commanders, Lesley Gordon probes the private side of war through the roles of the generals' wives, and Harold Holzer investigates public perceptions of the Confederate leadership through printed images created by artists of the day. Pulitzer Prize-winner James M. McPherson's final chapter ties the individual essays together and offers a new perspective on Confederate strategy as a whole. Jefferson Davis' Generals provides stimulating new insights into one of the most vociferously debated topics in Civil War history.