The Algebra of Organic Synthesis

Green Metrics, Design Strategy, Route Selection, and Optimization

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Author: John Andraos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420093290

Category: Science

Page: 1221

View: 6086

The Algebra of Organic Synthesis combines the aims, philosophies, and efforts involved in organic synthesis, reaction optimization, and green chemistry with techniques for determining quantitatively just how "green" synthesis plans are. It provides the first complete quantitative description of synthesis strategy analysis in the context of green chemistry and reaction optimization. Providing what is perhaps the first complete description of synthesis strategy analysis, this book: Explores quantitative material efficiency for synthesizing molecules, including 1,000+ worked out synthesis plans to important target molecules Explains, in simple language, the most useful ideas in graph theory that have direct application in organic synthesis Reinforces the value of simple mathematical analysis in organic synthesis to help any synthetics or process chemist understand presented ideas and apply them to their own work Illustrates concepts with example target plans to classical targets that are considered milestones in synthetic chemistry, from pharmaceuticals, industrial commodity chemicals, dyestuffs, agrichemicals, flavorings, natural products, and molecules of theoretical interest The accompanying CD-ROM includes a reproduction of the tables in the book, with direct electronic links to files for all plans. Files contain a list of references for each plan, including secondary references for the synthesis of starting materials if applicable. Ancillary materials also include a complete synthesis scheme with fully balanced chemical equations, a synthesis tree, a summary of green metrics parameters, a target bond map and list of reagents that end up in the target molecule, and a series of graphs that offer a visual depiction of the plan performance.

Green Syntheses

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Author: Pietro Tundo,John Andraos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466513195

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 2016

Many new methods directed to organic and inorganic syntheses of useful intermediates are being developed to specifically address green and sustainable chemistry principles. Highlighting the importance of green metrics, the Green Syntheses series focuses on how to reliably substantiate and validate the level of "greenness" of chemical processes, providing practical synthetic methodologies and metrics for a rigorous proof of "greenness." In Green Syntheses, Volume 1, the first book of its kind, the editors determine appropriate material efficiency green metrics and use them to compare syntheses provided by the chapter authors with those previously published. Presenting a new concept in green chemistry, this book demonstrates what future publications might look like if green principles are followed and also incorporate the important ethical aspect of supplying rigorous procedures in laboratory practice and evidence of greenness of a given synthesis protocol using metrics analysis. This inaugural volume initiates the much-needed transition from stating the 12 guiding principles on the philosophy of green chemistry to the actualization and verification of it. The book addresses primarily the issue of material efficiency metrics, which measure the amount of waste produced relative to desired product. In each contributed example, full experimental details are given showing all quantities of materials used in the procedure. Authors discuss the green merits of their protocols in conjunction with the results of a thorough metrics analysis, allowing for in-depth discussion of insights about synthesis strategy and performance characteristics of the new and prior cited plans.

Chemistry Beyond Chlorine

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Author: Pietro Tundo,Liang-Nian He,Ekaterina Lokteva,Claudio Mota

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319300733

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 8479

Since the industrial revolution, chlorine remains an iconic molecule even though its production by the electrolysis of sodium chloride is extremely energy intensive. The rationale behind this book is to present useful and industrially relevant examples for alternatives to chlorine in synthesis. This multi-authored volume presents numerous contributions from an international spectrum of authors that demonstrate how to facilitate the development of industrially relevant and implementable breakthrough technologies. This volume will interest individuals working in organic synthesis in industry and academia who are working in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technologies.

Green Metrics

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Author: N.A

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527695265

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 1863

Volume 11 of the Handbook of Green Chemistry series identifies, explains and expands on green chemistry and engineering metrics, describing how the two work together, backed by numerous practical applications. Up-to-date and authoritative, this ready reference covers the development and application of sustainable chemistry along with engineering metrics in both academia and industry, providing the latest information on fundamental aspects of metrics, practical realizations and example case studies. Additionally, it outlines how metrics have been used to facilitate developments in sustainable and green chemistry. The different concepts of and approaches to metrics are applied to fundamental problems in chemistry and the focus is firmly placed on their use to promote the development and implementation of more sustainable and green chemistry and technology in the production of chemicals and related products. Starting with molecular design, followed by chemical route evaluation, chemical process metrics and product assessment, by the end readers will have a complete set of metrics to choose from as they move a chemical conception to final product. Of high interest to academics and chemists working in industry.

Green Chemistry Metrics

A Guide to Determining and Evaluating Process Greenness

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Author: Andrew P. Dicks,Andrei Hent

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105000

Category: Science

Page: 90

View: 8274

This contribution to SpringerBriefs in Green Chemistry outlines and discusses the four major green chemistry metrics (atom economy, reaction mass efficiency, E factor and process mass intensity), at a level that is comprehensible by upper-level undergraduates. Such students have previously received fundamental training in organic chemistry basics, and are ideally positioned to learn about green chemistry principles, of which metrics is one foundational pillar. Following this, other green metrics in common use are discussed, along with applications that allow important calculations to be easily undertaken. Finally, an introduction to metrics in the context of life cycle analyses is presented. It should be noted that no other available publication teaches green chemistry metrics in detail with an emphasis on educating undergraduates, whilst simultaneously providing a contemporary industrial flavour to the material.

Die systematische Nomenklatur der organischen Chemie

Eine Gebrauchsanweisung

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Author: D. Hellwinkel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662066874

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 5241

Das explosionsartige Anwachsen des chemischen Wissens hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Bereich der organischen Chemie zu einer schier unübersehbaren Anzahl neuer und neuartiger Verbindungen und Verbindungsklassen geführt, deren rationelle Benennung immer größere Schwierigkeiten bereitete. Ursprünglich war ja die Namensgebung eines neuen Stoffes weitgehend, wenn nicht völlig in das Belieben des Entdeckers gestellt, der den Namen häufig von einer direkten sinnlichen Wahrnehmung ableitete oder sich gar ganz von der Intuition leiten ließ. Da die mehr oder weniger willkürlich gebildeten "Trivialnamen" meist gar nichts über die Strukturen der Verbindungen aussagten, konnten sie auch in keinen sinnvollen Zusammenhang zueinander ge bracht werden. Mit dem zunehmenden Verständnis der strukturellen Beziehungen der Organischen Chemie wuchs aber die Tendenz, eine allgemeinverbindliche und systema tische Nomenklatur zu entwickeln, die es erlauben sollte, wesentliche konstitutionelle Aussagen über ein Molekül be reits aus dessen Namen abzuleiten. Andererseits wollte man einen großen Teil der althergebrachten Trivial- und Semi trivialnamen nicht so ohne weiteres aufgeben. Dennoch ist es den damit befaßten Instanzen der "International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry", der IUPAC, gelungen, ein einheitliches und ausbaufähiges Nomen klatursystem zu entwickeln, das mittlerweile allgemein und international anerkannt ist. Die Originalfassung der IUPAC Nomenklaturregeln der Organischen Chemie ist ein unver zichtbares Hilfsmittel für den Spezialisten. Als Einführung in die Materie ist jedoch eine knappere und präzisere "Ge brauchsanweisung" eher am Platze, die an Hand zahlreicher, sorgfältig ausgewählter bzw. konstruierter Beispiele die Geltungsbereiche der einzelnen Regeln möglichst voll ständig überstreicht.

Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis

Second Revised and Enlarged Edition

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Author: Rolf Carlson,Johan E. Carlson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080455271

Category: Science

Page: 596

View: 6960

Revised, and updated Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis presents strategies to explore experimental conditions and methodologies for systematic studies of entire reaction systems (substrates, reagent(s), catalyst(s), and solvents). Chemical phenomena are not usually the result of a single factor and this book describes how statistically designed methods can be used to analyse and evaluate synthetic procedures. The methodology is based on multivariate statistical techniques. The accompanying CD contains data tables and programmes. This book is essential reading for anyone working in process design and development in fine chemicals or the pharmaceutical industry, and is suitable for those with no experience in the field. * Contains recalculated models and redrawn figures, as well as new chapters on for example, the design of combinatorial libraries * Presents strategies to explore experimental conditions and methodologies * Enables the analysis and prediction of the best synthetic procedures

Synthesis Green Metrics

Problems, Exercises, and Solutions

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Author: John Andraos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429683421

Category: Science

Page: 514

View: 7039

Green chemistry promotes improved syntheses as an intellectual endeavour that can have a great impact both on preserving and utilizing our planet’s finite resources and the quality of human life. This masterful accomplishment provides an evaluation of environmental impact metrics according to life cycle assessment analysis based on the Mackay compartment environmental model and Guinée environmental impact potentials formalism. Assumptions, limitations, and dealing with missing data are addressed. Best literature resources for finding key toxicological parameters are provided and applied to individual reactions as well as entire synthesis plans, in order to target molecules of interest.

Catalog of Copyright Entries. Third Series

1965: January-June

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Author: Library of Congress. Copyright Office

Publisher: Copyright Office, Library of Congress

ISBN: N.A

Category: Copyright

Page: 1394

View: 8085

Includes Part 1, Number 1: Books and Pamphlets, Including Serials and Contributions to Periodicals (January - June)

Abstract Algebra

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Author: Ronald Solomon

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821847954

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 4687

This undergraduate text takes a novel approach to the standard introductory material on groups, rings, and fields. At the heart of the text is a semi-historical journey through the early decades of the subject as it emerged in the revolutionary work of Euler, Lagrange, Gauss, and Galois. Avoiding excessive abstraction whenever possible, the text focuses on the central problem of studying the solutions of polynomial equations. Highlights include a proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, essentially due to Euler, and a proof of the constructability of the regular 17-gon, in the manner of Gauss. Another novel feature is the introduction of groups through a meditation on the meaning of congruence in the work of Euclid. Everywhere in the text, the goal is to make clear the links connecting abstract algebra to Euclidean geometry, high school algebra, and trigonometry, in the hope that students pursuing a career as secondary mathematics educators will carry away a deeper and richer understanding of the high school mathematics curriculum. Another goal is to encourage students, insofar as possible in a textbook format, to build the course for themselves, with exercises integrally embedded in the text of each chapter.

Basic Concepts of Chemistry

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Author: Leo J. Malone,Theodore Dolter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047174154X

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 6658

Engineers who need to have a better understanding of chemistry will benefit from this accessible book. It places a stronger emphasis on outcomes assessment, which is the driving force for many of the new features. Each section focuses on the development and assessment of one or two specific objectives. Within each section, a specific objective is included, an anticipatory set to orient the reader, content discussion from established authors, and guided practice problems for relevant objectives. These features are followed by a set of independent practice problems. The expanded Making it Real feature showcases topics of current interest relating to the subject at hand such as chemical forensics and more medical related topics. Numerous worked examples in the text now include Analysis and Synthesis sections, which allow engineers to explore concepts in greater depth, and discuss outside relevance.

Technical Manpower

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Author: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6867

Issues in Algebra, Geometry, and Topology: 2013 Edition

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Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1490111069

Category: Mathematics

Page: 698

View: 9014

Issues in Algebra, Geometry, and Topology / 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Topology. The editors have built Issues in Algebra, Geometry, and Topology: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Topology in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Algebra, Geometry, and Topology: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.