Testing for Athlete Citizenship

Regulating Doping and Sex in Sport

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Author: Kathryn E. Henne

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813565928

Category: Law

Page: 246

View: 5962

Incidents of doping in sports are common in news headlines, despite regulatory efforts. How did doping become a crisis? What does a doping violation actually entail? Who gets punished for breaking the rules of fair play? In Testing for Athlete Citizenship, Kathryn E. Henne, a former competitive athlete and an expert in the law and science of anti-doping regulations, examines the development of rules aimed at controlling performance enhancement in international sports. As international and celebrated figures, athletes are powerful symbols, yet few spectators realize that a global regulatory network is in place in an attempt to ensure ideals of fair play. The athletes caught and punished for doping are not always the ones using performance-enhancing drugs to cheat. In the case of female athletes, violations of fair play can stem from their inherent biological traits. Combining historical and ethnographic approaches, Testing for Athlete Citizenship offers a compelling account of the origins and expansion of anti-doping regulation and gender-verification rules. Drawing on research conducted in Australasia, Europe, and North America, Henne provides a detailed account of how race, gender, class, and postcolonial formations of power shape these ideas and regulatory practices. Testing for Athlete Citizenship makes a convincing case to rethink the power of regulation in sports and how it separates athletes as a distinct class of citizens subject to a unique set of rules because of their physical attributes and abilities.

Sex Testing

Gender Policing in Women's Sports

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Author: Lindsay Pieper

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252098447

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7195

In 1968, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) implemented sex testing for female athletes at that year's Games. When it became clear that testing regimes failed to delineate a sex divide, the IOC began to test for gender --a shift that allowed the organization to control the very idea of womanhood. Lindsay Parks Pieper explores sex testing in sport from the 1930s to the early 2000s. Focusing on assumptions and goals as well as means, Pieper examines how the IOC in particular insisted on a misguided binary notion of gender that privileged Western norms. Testing evolved into a tool to identify--and eliminate--athletes the IOC deemed too strong, too fast, or too successful. Pieper shows how this system punished gifted women while hindering the development of women's athletics for decades. She also reveals how the flawed notions behind testing--ideas often sexist, racist, or ridiculous--degraded the very idea of female athleticism.

Fanaticus

Mischief and Madness in the Modern Sports Fan

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Author: Justine Gubar

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442228938

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 254

View: 5895

In 2011, the San Francisco 49ers hosted the Oakland Raiders in a preseason matchup that would become a seminal moment for fan violence. During the game, seventy fans were ejected from the stadium, one person was beaten unconscious in the men’s room, and two men were shot in the parking lot after the game. This is hardly an isolated incident. At any given game, fans get kicked out and arrested for acting out. In the spring of 2014 alone, soccer headlines screamed of a fan killed in Brazil, a supporter who punched a police horse in England, and three fans shot in Italy. But why do fans resort to such violence? What drives them to abandon societal norms and act out in unimaginable ways? Fanaticus: Mischief and Madness in the Modern Sports Fan explores the roots of extreme fanaticism, from organized thuggery to digital hate speech. Justine Gubar divulges outrageous and often shocking incidents, including first-hand accounts from both the transgressors and victims. Gubar reaches back into ancient times, providing a history of fan violence throughout the ages before delving into events of misbehavior, violence, and hatred in the United States and around the world. She revisits several notorious riots and tragedies throughout the United States, Europe, Asia, and Latin America in order to understand mayhem on a global scale. In addition, Gubar investigates the sports leagues and the security and beverage industries so as to explain the roots of fan misbehavior and to dispel common myths that are often invoked to understand the madness. Featuring original interviews with European football hooligans, rioting college students, stadium security experts, and many others, Fanaticus provides a rare window into what drives human behavior. Together, these voices create the fullest picture of modern fan violence ever written.

Sport and Militarism

Contemporary global perspectives

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Author: Michael L. Butterworth

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1134990383

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 3766

The institutional relationship between sport and the military appears to be intensifying. In the US for example, which faced global criticism for its foreign policy during the "war on terror," militaristic images are commonplace at sporting events. The growing global phenomenon of conflating sport with war calls for closer analysis. This critical, interdisciplinary and international book seeks to identify intersections of sport and militarism as a means to interrogate, interrupt and intervene on behalf of democratic, peaceful politics. Viewing sport as a crucial site in which militarism is made visible and legitimate, the book explores the connections between sport, the military and the state, and their consequent impact on wider culture. Featuring case studies on sports such as association football, baseball and athletics from countries including the US, UK, Germany, Canada, South Africa, Brazil and Japan, each chapter sheds new light on the shifting significance of sport in our society. This book is fascinating reading for all those interested in sport and politics, the sociology of sport, communication studies, the ethics and philosophy of sport, or military sociology.

No Slam Dunk

Gender, Sport and the Unevenness of Social Change

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Author: Cheryl Cooky,Michael A. Messner

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813592089

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 314

View: 2268

In just a few decades, sport has undergone a radical gender transformation. However, Cheryl Cooky and Michael A. Messner suggest that the progress toward gender equity in sports is far from complete. The continuing barriers to full and equal participation for young people, the far lower pay for most elite-level women athletes, and the continuing dearth of fair and equal media coverage all underline how much still has yet to change before we see gender equality in sports. The chapters in No Slam Dunk show that is this not simply a story of an “unfinished revolution.” Rather, they contend, it is simplistic optimism to assume that we are currently nearing the conclusion of a story of linear progress that ends with a certain future of equality and justice. This book provides important theoretical and empirical insights into the contemporary world of sports to help explain the unevenness of social change and how, despite significant progress, gender equality in sports has been “No Slam Dunk.”

The Anti-Doping Crisis in Sport

Causes, Consequences, Solutions

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Author: Paul Dimeo,Verner Møller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134810067

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 174

View: 3254

The sense of crisis that pervades global sport suggests that the war on doping is still very far from being won. In this critical and provocative study of anti-doping regimes in global sport, Paul Dimeo and Verner Møller argue that the current system is at a critical historical juncture. Reviewing the recent history of anti-doping, this book highlights serious problems in the approach developed and implemented by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), including continued failure to accept responsibility for the ineffectiveness of the testing system, the growing number of dubious convictions, and damaging human-rights issues. Without a total rethink of how we deal with this critical issue in world sport, this book warns that we could be facing the collapse of anti-doping, both as a policy and as an ideology. The Anti-Doping Crisis in Sport: Causes, Consequences, Solutions is important reading for all students and scholars of sport studies, as well as researchers, coaches, doctors and policymakers interested in the politics and ethics of drug use in sport. It examines the reasons for the crisis, the consequences of policy strategies, and it explores potential solutions.

The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law

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Author: Michael A. McCann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190465956

Category: Law

Page: 648

View: 2611

The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law takes the reader through the most important controversies and critical developments in law and U.S. sports. Over the course of 30 chapters, leading scholars explore this expanding and captivating area of law. The Handbook is the first book to gather dozens of perspectives on sports law controversies in the United States, and will be of interest to those who study and practice sports law, as well as journalists, broadcasters, and legally minded sports fans. The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law incorporates analysis of key historical events in sports law-such as the rise of free agency in professional sports and the concept of "amateurism" for college athletes-and their broader context. Contemporary legal controversies in U.S. sports and their accompanying questions are also of central importance: In a sensible legal system, how would long-term neurological injuries from contact sports be addressed? How would the use of racially insensitive team names be resolved? How would a seemingly trivial dispute over air pressure in footballs be studied from the competing perspectives of players, teams, and leagues? The Oxford Handbook of American Sports Law weighs not just the facts, but how courts and lawmakers ought to consider the most important questions at stake. The essays in this volume also canvass the types of legal controversies in sports likely to surface in the future. This is particularly true of law and technology matters, including those related to broadcasting and streaming. Legal doctrine has been and will continue to be forced to adapt to these developments, and the Handbook both forecasts coming debates and outlines where the law may be headed.

Global Corruption Report: Sport

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Author: Transparency International

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317443756

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 372

View: 7914

Sport is a global phenomenon engaging billions of people and generating annual revenues of more than US$ 145 billion. Problems in the governance of sports organisations, fixing of matches and staging of major sporting events have spurred action on many fronts. Yet attempts to stop corruption in sport are still at an early stage. The Global Corruption Report (GCR) on sport is the most comprehensive analysis of sports corruption to date. It consists of more than 60 contributions from leading experts in the fields of corruption and sport, from sports organisations, governments, multilateral institutions, sponsors, athletes, supporters, academia and the wider anti-corruption movement. This GCR provides essential analysis for understanding the corruption risks in sport, focusing on sports governance, the business of sport, planning of major events, and match-fixing. It highlights the significant work that has already been done and presents new approaches to strengthening integrity in sport. In addition to measuring transparency and accountability, the GCR gives priority to participation, from sponsors to athletes to supporters an essential to restoring trust in sport.

Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport

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Author: Eric Anderson,Ann Travers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315304252

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 3897

While efforts to include gay and lesbian athletes in competitive sport have received significant attention, it is only recently that we have begun examining the experiences of transgender athletes in competitive sport. This book represents the first comprehensive study of the challenges that transgender athletes face in competitive sport; and the challenges they pose for this sex-segregated institution. Beginning with a discussion of the historical role that sport has played in preserving sex as a binary, the book examines how gender has been policed by policymakers within competitive athletics. It also considers how transgender athletes are treated by a system predicated on separating males from females, consequently forcing transgender athletes to negotiate the system in coercive ways. The book not only exposes our culture’s binary thinking in terms of both sex and gender, but also offers a series of thought-provoking and sometimes contradictory recommendations for how to make sport more hospitable, inclusive and equitable. Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport is important reading for all students and scholars of the sociology of sport with an interest in the relationship between sport and gender, politics, identity and ethics.

The Global Sporting Arms Race

An International Comparative Study on Sports Policy Factors Leading to International Sporting Success

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Author: Veerle De Bosscher,Jerry Bingham,Simon Shibli

Publisher: Meyer & Meyer Verlag

ISBN: 1841262285

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 173

View: 8902

Over the last few decades, the power struggle between nations to win medals in major international competitions has intensified. This has led to sporting organizations and governments the world over spending ever increasing sums of money on elite sports. In spite of increased funding, competition, and the homogenisation of elite sports systems, the optimum strategy for delivering international success is still unclear. This volume presents an international comparison of elite sports policies in six nations (Belgium, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom). Drawing on research involving more than 1,400 athletes, coaches, and performance directors at the highest levels, it seeks to evaluate and compare over 100 factors that lead to international sporting success.

Sport Policy in Canada

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Author: Lucie Thibault,Jean Harvey

Publisher: University of Ottawa Press

ISBN: 0776620959

Category: Law

Page: 435

View: 3321

The first and most comprehensive analysis of the new Canadian Sport Policy adopted in 2012.

Sport, Peace, and Development

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Author: Keith Gilbert,Will Bennett

Publisher: Common Ground Publishing

ISBN: 9781612290867

Category: Political Science

Page: 510

View: 3841

Ethics and Sport in Europe

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Author: Dominique Bodin,Gaelle Sempé

Publisher: Council of Europe

ISBN: 9789287170774

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 195

View: 3951

Defending ethics in sport is vital in order to combat the problems of corruption, violence, drugs, extremism and other forms of discrimination it is currently facing. Sport reflects nothing more and nothing less than the societies in which it takes place. However, if sport is to continue to bring benefits for individuals and societies, it cannot afford to neglect its ethical values or ignore these scourges. The major role of the Council of Europe and the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport (EPAS) in addressing the new challenges to sports ethics was confirmed by the 11th Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Sport, held in Athens on 11 and 12 December 2008. A political impetus was given on 16 June 2010 by the Committee of Ministers, with the adoption of an updated version of the Code of Sports Ethics (Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)9), emphasising the requisite co-ordination between governments and sports organisations. The EPAS prepared the ministerial conference and stepped up its work in an international conference organised with the University of Rennes, which was attended by political leaders, athletes, researchers and officials from the voluntary sector. The key experiences described in the conference and the thoughts that it prompted are described in this publication. All the writers share the concern that the end result should be practical action - particularly in terms of the setting of standards - that falls within the remit of the EPAS and promotes the Council of Europe's core values.

Mental Health Challenges in Elite Sport: Balancing Risk with Reward

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Author: Tadhg Eoghan MacIntyre,Judy Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Marc Jones,Deirdre O’Shea,Paul Joseph McCarthy

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889453839

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2067

Elite sport typically provides obvious rewards in terms of recognition, finance and acclaim for athletic performance. Increasingly, we are becoming aware of the risks that elite athletes, their entourage, including families, sport-science support team and coaches are exposed to. Twelve original articles, seven commentaries and a corrigendum, are structured in a five chapter format. Chapter 1, comprising the Editorial, is titled “An Overview of Mental Health in Elite Sport: Changing the Play Book” to reflect the advocacy role of this article. Chapter 2 (“Finding the Sweet Spot”) amplifies the voice of key stakeholders across three qualitative studies with three additional commentaries. Quantitative evidence is presented in Chapter 3 which has the sub-title the “State of Play.” Chapter 4, entitled the “Field of Play”, includes three original publications which present contrasting conceptual approaches to guide researchers in hypothesis generation, formulation and implementation science. Finally, in Chapter 5, “Seeing the Ball Early”, prospective perspectives are provided in three publications reinforced by two commentaries. The future thinking ideas includes the use of virtual reality training, a broadening of the concept of mental health literacy, tackling stigma and focusing on the potential positive effect of the natural environment on well-being and recovery. To date the research topic has generated widespread in the field. For example, several articles have generated an Altmetric score above 40 with one publication meriting an Altmetric score of 102. We envisage that the impact of this e-book will not simply be measured in citations, views, downloads nor social media impact, but in the discourse that emerges from this collection of contributions from a combined total of 53 authors from across three continents. It is our hope that this e-book, providing a snapshot of global challenges for elite athletes mental health and well-being, becomes a touchstone for researchers and practitioners in the field.

Sport in Capitalist Society

A Short History

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Author: Tony Collins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135081980

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 2204

Why are the Olympic Games the driving force behind a clampdown on civil liberties? What makes sport an unwavering ally of nationalism and militarism? Is sport the new opiate of the masses? These and many other questions are answered in this new radical history of sport by leading historian of sport and society, Professor Tony Collins. Tracing the history of modern sport from its origins in the burgeoning capitalist economy of mid-eighteenth century England to the globalised corporate sport of today, the book argues that, far from the purity of sport being ‘corrupted’ by capitalism, modern sport is as much a product of capitalism as the factory, the stock exchange and the unemployment line. Based on original sources, the book explains how sport has been shaped and moulded by the major political and economic events of the past two centuries, such as the French Revolution, the rise of modern nationalism and imperialism, the Russian Revolution, the Cold War and the imposition of the neo-liberal agenda in the last decades of the twentieth century. It highlights the symbiotic relationship between the media and sport, from the simultaneous emergence of print capitalism and modern sport in Georgian England to the rise of Murdoch’s global satellite television empire in the twenty-first century, and for the first time it explores the alternative, revolutionary models of sport in the early twentieth century. Sport in a Capitalist Society is the first sustained attempt to explain the emergence of modern sport around the world as an integral part of the globalisation of capitalism. It is essential reading for anybody with an interest in the history or sociology of sport, or the social and cultural history of the modern world.

Gender Relations in Sport

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Author: Emily A. Roper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9462094551

Category: Education

Page: 186

View: 3793

Designed primarily as a textbook for upper division undergraduate courses in gender and sport, gender issues, sport sociology, cultural sport studies, and women’s studies, Gender Relations in Sport provides a comprehensive examination of the intersecting themes and concepts surrounding the study of gender and sport. The 16 contributors, leading scholars from sport studies, present key issues, current research perspectives and theoretical developments within nine sub-areas of gender and sport: • Gender and sport participation • Theories of gender and sport • Gender and sport media • Sexual identity and sport • Intersections of race, ethnicity and gender in sport • Framing Title IX policy using conceptual metaphors • Studying the athletic body • Sexual harassment and abuse in sport • Historical developments and current issues from a European perspective The intersecting themes and concepts across chapters are also accentuated. Such a publication provides access to the study of gender relations in sport to students across a variety of disciplines. Emily A. Roper, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health and Kinesiology at Sam Houston State University. Her research focuses on gender, sexuality, and sport.

Legends Never Die

Athletes and their Afterlives in Modern America

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Author: Richard Ian Kimball

Publisher: Syracuse University Press

ISBN: 0815654057

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: N.A

View: 4581

With every touchdown, home run, and three-pointer, star athletes represent an American dream that only an elite group blessed with natural talent can achieve. However, Kimball concentrates on what happens once these modern warriors meet their untimely demise. As athletes die, legends rise in their place. The premature deaths of celebrated players not only capture and immortalize their physical superiority, but also jolt their fans with an unanticipated intensity. These athletes escape the inevitability of aging and decline of skill, with only the prime of their youth left to be remembered. But early mortality alone does not transform athletes into immortals. The living ultimately gain the power to construct the legacies of their fallen heroes. In Legends Never Die, Kimball explores the public myths and representations that surround a wide range of athletes, from Lou Gehrig and Joe DiMaggio to Dale Earnhardt and Bonnie McCarroll. Kimball delves deeper than just the cultural significance of sports and its players; he examines how each athlete’s narrative is shaped by gender relations, religion, and politics in contemporary America. In looking at how Americans react to the tragic deaths of sports heroes, Kimball illuminates the important role sports play in US society and helps to explain why star athletes possess such cultural power.

Beyond the Scoreboard

Youth Employment Opportunities and Skills Development in the Sports Sector

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Author: Giovanni di Cola

Publisher: International Labour Organisation

ISBN: 9789221179689

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 229

View: 9989

Comprises a collection of papers on the role that sport plays in positevely shaping the lives of youth in both developed and developing countries.

Clinical Sports Psychiatry

An International Perspective

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Author: David A. Baron,Claudia L. Reardon,Steven H. Baron

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118404939

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 8517

This book has it all - written by national and international experts and edited by world authorities, it is the first book on sport psychiatry in over a decade. Dealing with psychopathology, mental health problems and clinical management, it differs markedly from sports psychology books that focus on performance issues. Eating disorders, exercise addiction, drug abuse are all problems that are seen in 'everyday' athletes, not just elite performers. This book shows how to help. This text covers the most important topics in contemporary sports psychiatry/psychology from an international perspective. Chapter authors are experts in the field and global leaders in the related professional organizations, including current and past Presidents/Chairs of the International Society for Sports Psychiatry and of the World Psychiatric Association Section on Exercise and Sports Psychiatry. Authors are mainly psychiatrists: the rest are PhD sport psychologists. The book comprises representative chapter authors from around the world, to an extent unprecedented in this topic. The authors and editors are well-informed in global perspectives, e.g., having served as consultants to numerous Olympic teams, in addition to service on the International Society for Sports Psychiatry's Board of Directors. Specifically, this book covers four main categories of topics: 1) mental health challenges faced by athletes (including substance use disorders, exercise addiction, eating disorders, depression, suicide, and concussion), 2) treatment approaches and therapeutic issues with athletes (including different types of psychotherapy for psychiatric disorders, psychotherapeutic performance enhancement approaches, transference and countertransference issues, achievement by proxy, psychotherapeutic issues as applied to a couple of sports that are played around the world, and use of psychiatric medications in athletes), 3) psychosocial issues affecting athletes (including sexual harassment and abuse, cultural issues, and ethics issues), and 4) the field of sports psychiatry (including work within one common sports psychiatry practice setting, and current status of and challenges in the field of sports psychiatry). There is a growing need for this book. Performance-enhancing drugs, use of psychotropics in impaired athletes, head trauma, sexual abuse, eating disorders, ethics, and depression and suicide in athletes, are just a few of the timely subjects addressed in this text. This is the only comprehensive reference available for those working in the field (or merely interested in it) to consult for current information on these topics. The existing sports psychology texts all focus on performance issues, with little, if any, attention paid to these areas of clinical significance. The book addresses the core differences between sports psychiatry and sports psychology, as well as the areas of overlap. Emphasis is placed on how the disciplines should work together in diagnosing and treating athletes dealing with emotional stress and psychopathology. Chapters include case examples and specific goals listed at the beginning, along with tables and graphs to highlight key concepts.

Regulatory Theory

Foundations and applications

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Author: Peter Drahos

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760461024

Category: Law

Page: 783

View: 7574

This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.