# Tensor Calculus for Physics

A Concise Guide

Author: Dwight E. Neuenschwander

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 142141564X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

View: 4074

Understanding tensors is essential for any physics student dealing with phenomena where causes and effects have different directions. A horizontal electric field producing vertical polarization in dielectrics; an unbalanced car wheel wobbling in the vertical plane while spinning about a horizontal axis; an electrostatic field on Earth observed to be a magnetic field by orbiting astronauts—these are some situations where physicists employ tensors. But the true beauty of tensors lies in this fact: When coordinates are transformed from one system to another, tensors change according to the same rules as the coordinates. Tensors, therefore, allow for the convenience of coordinates while also transcending them. This makes tensors the gold standard for expressing physical relationships in physics and geometry. Undergraduate physics majors are typically introduced to tensors in special-case applications. For example, in a classical mechanics course, they meet the "inertia tensor," and in electricity and magnetism, they encounter the "polarization tensor." However, this piecemeal approach can set students up for misconceptions when they have to learn about tensors in more advanced physics and mathematics studies (e.g., while enrolled in a graduate-level general relativity course or when studying non-Euclidean geometries in a higher mathematics class). Dwight E. Neuenschwander's Tensor Calculus for Physics is a bottom-up approach that emphasizes motivations before providing definitions. Using a clear, step-by-step approach, the book strives to embed the logic of tensors in contexts that demonstrate why that logic is worth pursuing. It is an ideal companion for courses such as mathematical methods of physics, classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and relativity.

# Emmy Noether's Wonderful Theorem

Author: Dwight E. Neuenschwander

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421422670

Category: Mathematics

Page: 344

View: 8647

"In the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians, Fräulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began."—Albert Einstein The year was 1915, and the young mathematician Emmy Noether had just settled into Göttingen University when Albert Einstein visited to lecture on his nearly finished general theory of relativity. Two leading mathematicians of the day, David Hilbert and Felix Klein, dug into the new theory with gusto, but had difficulty reconciling it with what was known about the conservation of energy. Knowing of her expertise in invariance theory, they requested Noether’s help. To solve the problem, she developed a novel theorem, applicable across all of physics, which relates conservation laws to continuous symmetries—one of the most important pieces of mathematical reasoning ever developed. Noether’s "first" and "second" theorem was published in 1918. The first theorem relates symmetries under global spacetime transformations to the conservation of energy and momentum, and symmetry under global gauge transformations to charge conservation. In continuum mechanics and field theories, these conservation laws are expressed as equations of continuity. The second theorem, an extension of the first, allows transformations with local gauge invariance, and the equations of continuity acquire the covariant derivative characteristic of coupled matter-field systems. General relativity, it turns out, exhibits local gauge invariance. Noether’s theorem also laid the foundation for later generations to apply local gauge invariance to theories of elementary particle interactions. In Dwight E. Neuenschwander’s new edition of Emmy Noether’s Wonderful Theorem, readers will encounter an updated explanation of Noether’s "first" theorem. The discussion of local gauge invariance has been expanded into a detailed presentation of the motivation, proof, and applications of the "second" theorem, including Noether’s resolution of concerns about general relativity. Other refinements in the new edition include an enlarged biography of Emmy Noether’s life and work, parallels drawn between the present approach and Noether’s original 1918 paper, and a summary of the logic behind Noether’s theorem.

# A Brief on Tensor Analysis

Author: James G. Simmonds

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441985220

Category: Mathematics

Page: 114

View: 5415

In this text which gradually develops the tools for formulating and manipulating the field equations of Continuum Mechanics, the mathematics of tensor analysis is introduced in four, well-separated stages, and the physical interpretation and application of vectors and tensors are stressed throughout. This new edition contains more exercises. In addition, the author has appended a section on Differential Geometry.

# Tensor Analysis for Physicists

Author: Jan Arnoldus Schouten

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486655822

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 8167

This rigorous and advanced mathematical explanation of classic tensor analysis was written by one of the founders of tensor calculus. Its concise exposition of the mathematical basis of the discipline is integrated with well-chosen physical examples of the theory, including those involving elasticity, classical dynamics, relativity, and Dirac's matrix calculus. 1954 edition.

# Vector and Tensor Analysis with Applications

Author: A. I. Borisenko,I. E. Tarapov

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486131904

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 1491

Concise, readable text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

# Tensors for Physics

Author: Siegfried Hess

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331912787X

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 900

This book presents the science of tensors in a didactic way. The various types and ranks of tensors and the physical basis is presented. Cartesian Tensors are needed for the description of directional phenomena in many branches of physics and for the characterization the anisotropy of material properties. The first sections of the book provide an introduction to the vector and tensor algebra and analysis, with applications to physics, at undergraduate level. Second rank tensors, in particular their symmetries, are discussed in detail. Differentiation and integration of fields, including generalizations of the Stokes law and the Gauss theorem, are treated. The physics relevant for the applications in mechanics, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and hydrodynamics is presented. The second part of the book is devoted to tensors of any rank, at graduate level. Special topics are irreducible, i.e. symmetric traceless tensors, isotropic tensors, multipole potential tensors, spin tensors, integration and spin-trace formulas, coupling of irreducible tensors, rotation of tensors. Constitutive laws for optical, elastic and viscous properties of anisotropic media are dealt with. The anisotropic media include crystals, liquid crystals and isotropic fluids, rendered anisotropic by external orienting fields. The dynamics of tensors deals with phenomena of current research. In the last section, the 3D Maxwell equations are reformulated in their 4D version, in accord with special relativity.

# Introduction to Tensor Analysis and the Calculus of Moving Surfaces

Author: Pavel Grinfeld

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461478677

Category: Mathematics

Page: 302

View: 2333

This textbook is distinguished from other texts on the subject by the depth of the presentation and the discussion of the calculus of moving surfaces, which is an extension of tensor calculus to deforming manifolds. Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this text invites its audience to take a fresh look at previously learned material through the prism of tensor calculus. Once the framework is mastered, the student is introduced to new material which includes differential geometry on manifolds, shape optimization, boundary perturbation and dynamic fluid film equations. The language of tensors, originally championed by Einstein, is as fundamental as the languages of calculus and linear algebra and is one that every technical scientist ought to speak. The tensor technique, invented at the turn of the 20th century, is now considered classical. Yet, as the author shows, it remains remarkably vital and relevant. The author’s skilled lecturing capabilities are evident by the inclusion of insightful examples and a plethora of exercises. A great deal of material is devoted to the geometric fundamentals, the mechanics of change of variables, the proper use of the tensor notation and the discussion of the interplay between algebra and geometry. The early chapters have many words and few equations. The definition of a tensor comes only in Chapter 6 – when the reader is ready for it. While this text maintains a consistent level of rigor, it takes great care to avoid formalizing the subject. The last part of the textbook is devoted to the Calculus of Moving Surfaces. It is the first textbook exposition of this important technique and is one of the gems of this text. A number of exciting applications of the calculus are presented including shape optimization, boundary perturbation of boundary value problems and dynamic fluid film equations developed by the author in recent years. Furthermore, the moving surfaces framework is used to offer new derivations of classical results such as the geodesic equation and the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem.

# A Concise Handbook of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering Sciences

Author: Andrei D. Polyanin,Alexei I. Chernoutsan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439806401

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1125

View: 8254

A Concise Handbook of Mathematics, Physics, and Engineering Sciences takes a practical approach to the basic notions, formulas, equations, problems, theorems, methods, and laws that most frequently occur in scientific and engineering applications and university education. The authors pay special attention to issues that many engineers and students find difficult to understand. The first part of the book contains chapters on arithmetic, elementary and analytic geometry, algebra, differential and integral calculus, functions of complex variables, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations, special functions, and probability theory. The second part discusses molecular physics and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics, special relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear physics, and elementary particles. The third part covers dimensional analysis and similarity, mechanics of point masses and rigid bodies, strength of materials, hydrodynamics, mass and heat transfer, electrical engineering, and methods for constructing empirical and engineering formulas. The main text offers a concise, coherent survey of the most important definitions, formulas, equations, methods, theorems, and laws. Numerous examples throughout and references at the end of each chapter provide readers with a better understanding of the topics and methods. Additional issues of interest can be found in the remarks. For ease of reading, the supplement at the back of the book provides several long mathematical tables, including indefinite and definite integrals, direct and inverse integral transforms, and exact solutions of differential equations.

# Tensor Calculus for Engineers and Physicists

Author: Emil de Souza Sánchez Filho

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331931520X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 345

View: 7921

This textbook provides a rigorous approach to tensor manifolds in several aspects relevant for Engineers and Physicists working in industry or academia. With a thorough, comprehensive, and unified presentation, this book offers insights into several topics of tensor analysis, which covers all aspects of n-dimensional spaces. The main purpose of this book is to give a self-contained yet simple, correct and comprehensive mathematical explanation of tensor calculus for undergraduate and graduate students and for professionals. In addition to many worked problems, this book features a selection of examples, solved step by step. Although no emphasis is placed on special and particular problems of Engineering or Physics, the text covers the fundamentals of these fields of science. The book makes a brief introduction into the basic concept of the tensorial formalism so as to allow the reader to make a quick and easy review of the essential topics that enable having the grounds for the subsequent themes, without needing to resort to other bibliographical sources on tensors. Chapter 1 deals with Fundamental Concepts about tensors and chapter 2 is devoted to the study of covariant, absolute and contravariant derivatives. The chapters 3 and 4 are dedicated to the Integral Theorems and Differential Operators, respectively. Chapter 5 deals with Riemann Spaces, and finally the chapter 6 presents a concise study of the Parallelism of Vectors. It also shows how to solve various problems of several particular manifolds.

# Covariant Electrodynamics

A Concise Guide

Author: John M. Charap

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421401231

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 2149

Thorough, evenly paced, and intuitive, this friendly introduction to high-level covariant electrodynamics is a handy and helpful addition to any physicist’s toolkit.

# A Student's Guide to Vectors and Tensors

Author: Daniel A. Fleisch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503944

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 586

Vectors and tensors are among the most powerful problem-solving tools available, with applications ranging from mechanics and electromagnetics to general relativity. Understanding the nature and application of vectors and tensors is critically important to students of physics and engineering. Adopting the same approach used in his highly popular A Student's Guide to Maxwell's Equations, Fleisch explains vectors and tensors in plain language. Written for undergraduate and beginning graduate students, the book provides a thorough grounding in vectors and vector calculus before transitioning through contra and covariant components to tensors and their applications. Matrices and their algebra are reviewed on the book's supporting website, which also features interactive solutions to every problem in the text where students can work through a series of hints or choose to see the entire solution at once. Audio podcasts give students the opportunity to hear important concepts in the book explained by the author.

# Differential Forms and the Geometry of General Relativity

Author: Tevian Dray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466510005

Category: Mathematics

Page: 321

View: 1829

Differential Forms and the Geometry of General Relativity provides readers with a coherent path to understanding relativity. Requiring little more than calculus and some linear algebra, it helps readers learn just enough differential geometry to grasp the basics of general relativity. The book contains two intertwined but distinct halves. Designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in mathematics or physics, most of the text requires little more than familiarity with calculus and linear algebra. The first half presents an introduction to general relativity that describes some of the surprising implications of relativity without introducing more formalism than necessary. This nonstandard approach uses differential forms rather than tensor calculus and minimizes the use of "index gymnastics" as much as possible. The second half of the book takes a more detailed look at the mathematics of differential forms. It covers the theory behind the mathematics used in the first half by emphasizing a conceptual understanding instead of formal proofs. The book provides a language to describe curvature, the key geometric idea in general relativity.

# Tensor Calculus

A Concise Course

Author: Barry Spain

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486428311

Category: Mathematics

Page: 125

View: 794

A compact exposition of the theory of tensors, this text also illustrates the power of the tensor technique by its applications to differential geometry, elasticity, and relativity. Explores tensor algebra, the line element, covariant differentiation, geodesics and parallelism, and curvature tensor. Also covers Euclidean 3-dimensional differential geometry, Cartesian tensors and elasticity, and the theory of relativity. 1960 edition.

# TENSORS

MATHEMATICS OF DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY AND RELATIVITY

Author: AHSAN, ZAFAR

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 812035088X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 7518

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book. This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.

# Tensor Analysis with Applications in Mechanics

Author: L. P. Lebedev

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814313998

Category: Mathematics

Page: 380

View: 3643

The tensorial nature of a quantity permits us to formulate transformation rules for its components under a change of basis. These rules are relatively simple and easily grasped by any engineering student familiar with matrix operators in linear algebra. More complex problems arise when one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum bodies. In this case general curvilinear coordinates become necessary. The principal basis of a curvilinear system is constructed as a set of vectors tangent to the coordinate lines. Another basis, called the dual basis, is also constructed in a special manner. The existence of these two bases is responsible for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions. A tensor field is a tensor-valued function of position in space. The use of tensor fields allows us to present physical laws in a clear, compact form. A byproduct is a set of simple and clear rules for the representation of vector differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate systems. This book is a clear, concise, and self-contained treatment of tensors, tensor fields, and their applications. The book contains practically all the material on tensors needed for applications. It shows how this material is applied in mechanics, covering the foundations of the linear theories of elasticity and elastic shells. The main results are all presented in the first four chapters. The remainder of the book shows how one can apply these results to differential geometry and the study of various types of objects in continuum mechanics such as elastic bodies, plates, and shells. Each chapter of this new edition is supplied with exercises and problems most with solutions, hints, or answers to help the reader progress. An extended appendix serves as a handbook-style summary of all important formulas contained in the book.

# Tensor Calculus

Author: J. L. Synge,A. Schild

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048614139X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 9305

Fundamental introduction of absolute differential calculus and for those interested in applications of tensor calculus to mathematical physics and engineering. Topics include spaces and tensors; basic operations in Riemannian space, curvature of space, more.

# Calculus of Tensors and Differential Forms

Author: R. K. Sinha,Rajnikant Sinha

Publisher: Alpha Science International Limited

ISBN: 9781842658949

Category: Mathematics

Page: 294

View: 3630

CALCULUS OF TENSORS AND DIFFERENTIAL FORMS is an introductory-level textbook. Through this book, students will familiarize themselves with tools they need in order to use for further study on general relativity and research, such as affine tensors, tensor calculus on manifolds, relative tensors, Lie derivatives, wedge products, differential forms, and Stokes' theorem. The treatment is concrete and in detail, so that abstract concepts do not deter even physics and engineering students. This self contained book requires undergraduate-level calculus of several variables and linear algebra as prerequisite. Fubini's theorem in real analysis, to be used in Stokes' theorem, has been proved earlier than Stokes' theorem so that students don't have to search elsewhere.

# A Student's Guide to Fourier Transforms

With Applications in Physics and Engineering

Author: J. F. James

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139493949

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9243

Fourier transform theory is of central importance in a vast range of applications in physical science, engineering and applied mathematics. Providing a concise introduction to the theory and practice of Fourier transforms, this book is invaluable to students of physics, electrical and electronic engineering, and computer science. After a brief description of the basic ideas and theorems, the power of the technique is illustrated through applications in optics, spectroscopy, electronics and telecommunications. The rarely discussed but important field of multi-dimensional Fourier theory is covered, including a description of Computer Axial Tomography (CAT scanning). The book concludes by discussing digital methods, with particular attention to the Fast Fourier Transform and its implementation. This new edition has been revised to include new and interesting material, such as convolution with a sinusoid, coherence, the Michelson stellar interferometer and the van Cittert–Zernike theorem, Babinet's principle and dipole arrays.

# Tensor Analysis on Manifolds

Author: Richard L. Bishop,Samuel I. Goldberg

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486139239

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 2102

DIVProceeds from general to special, including chapters on vector analysis on manifolds and integration theory. /div

# A Student's Guide to Lagrangians and Hamiltonians

Author: Patrick Hamill

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107042887

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 4279

A concise treatment of variational techniques, focussing on Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems, ideal for physics, engineering and mathematics students.