Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants

Chemistry and Technology, Second Edition

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Author: Leslie R. Rudnick

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439855374

Category: Science

Page: 1008

View: 9940

Highlighting the major economic and industrial changes in the lubrication industry since the first edition, Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants, Second Edition outlines the state of the art in each major lubricant application area. Chapters cover trends in the major industries, such as the use of lubricant fluids, growth or decline of market areas and applications, potential new applications, production capacities, and regulatory issues, including biodegradability, toxicity, and food production equipment lubrication. In a single, unique volume, Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants, Second Edition offers property and performance information of fluids, theoretical and practical background to their current applications, and strong indicators for global market trends that will influence the industry for years to come.

Lubricant Additives

Chemistry and Applications, Third Edition

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Author: Leslie R. Rudnick

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351646966

Category: Science

Page: 707

View: 5725

This indispensable book describes lubricant additives, their synthesis, chemistry, and mode of action. All important areas of application are covered, detailing which lubricants are needed for a particular application. Laboratory and field performance data for each application is provided and the design of cost-effective, environmentally friendly technologies is fully explored. This edition includes new chapters on chlorohydrocarbons, foaming chemistry and physics, antifoams for nonaqueous lubricants, hydrogenated styrene–diene viscosity modifiers, alkylated aromatics, and the impact of REACh and GHS on the lubricant industry.

Environmentally Friendly and Biobased Lubricants

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Author: Brajendra K. Sharma,Girma Biresaw

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315355892

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 1371

A Comprehensive Review of Developing Environmentally Friendly Lubricants A push from environmentally savvy consumers along with recent changes in governmental regulations have paved the way for a marketplace of products with high levels of environmental performance. Fueled by the growing demand for biobased lubricants, Environmentally Friendly and Biobased Lubricants highlights the development of environmentally friendly additives that are compatible with environmental regulations and describes the approaches being used in this emerging area. Derived from research topics shared over the years at various technical sessions of the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Annual Meetings, the book includes a critical assessment of gaps and weaknesses in the field of environmentally friendly fluids and biobased lubricants. Each chapter is written by authors selected from the environmentally friendly fluids and biobased lubricants sessions of STLE and also incorporates input from prominent researchers invited to take part in the book. Expert contributors discuss the control, production, usage, and disposal of lubricants; factor in related policies, laws, and regulations around the world; and include case studies demonstrating the uses and values of commercially viable biobased lubricants. The book is divided into five sections that cover advanced environmentally friendly base oils and feedstocks, biobased hydraulic lubricants and biodegradability, chemically/enzymatically modified environmentally friendly base oils, vegetable oil–based environmentally friendly fluids, and additives for environmentally friendly fluids.

Biobased Lubricants and Greases

Technology and Products

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Author: Lou Honary,Erwin Richter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470741589

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 238

View: 6831

mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';' lang='EN-US'Due to the rise in petroleum prices as well as increasing environmental concerns, there is a need to develop biochemicals and bioproducts that offer realistic alternatives to their traditional counterparts; this book will address the lack of a centralized resource of information on lubricants and greases from renewable sources, and will be useful to a wide audience in industry and academia. It is based on 20 years of research and development at the UNI-NABL Center, and discusses the various types of vegetable oils available, comparing their characteristics, properties and benefits against those of typical petroleum oils as well as discussing common evaluation tests and giving examples and case studies of successful applications of biobased lubricants and greases. Whilst scientific and engineering research data is included, the book is written in an accessible manner and is illustrated throughout. mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';' lang='EN-US' Focuses on an industrial application of lubrication technology undergoing current explosive growth in the global market. mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';' lang='EN-US' Includes a detailed review of the material benefits of plant-based lubricants that include a better viscosity index and lubricity even at extreme temperatures, lower flammability due to higher flash points and lower pour points. mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';' lang='EN-US' Covers the basic chemistry of vegetable oils as well as their profiles for use in lubricants and greases and environmental benefits. mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New Roman';' lang='EN-US' Includes examples and case studies of where vegetable-based lubricants have been successfully employed in industry applications.

Refining Used Lubricating Oils

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Author: James Speight,Douglas I. Exall

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466551496

Category: Science

Page: 466

View: 7118

Used lubricating oil is a valuable resource. However, it must be re-refined mainly due to the accumulation of physical and chemical contaminants in the oil during service. Refining Used Lubricating Oils describes the properties of used lubricating oils and presents ways these materials can be re-refined and converted into useful lubricants as well as other products. It provides an up-to-date review of most of the processes for used lubricating oil refining that have been proposed or implemented in different parts of the world, and addresses feasibility and criteria for selecting a particular process. The book begins with an overview of lubricating oil manufacturing, both petroleum-based and synthetic-based. It reviews the types and properties of lubricating oils and discusses the characteristics and potential of used lubricating oils. The authors describe the basic steps of used oil treatment including dehydration, distillation or solvent extraction, and finishing. They explore the combustion of used oil for use as fuel, covering chemistry and equipment, fuel oil properties, and combustion emissions. The book considers alternative processing options such as refinery processing and re-refining. It also reviews the major refining processes that have been suggested over the years for used oil. These include acid/clay, simple distillation, combinations of distillation and hydrogenation, solvent extraction, filtration, and coking processes. The book addresses economic, life cycle assessment, and other criteria for evaluating the attractiveness of an oil recycling project, examining various costs and presenting an economic evaluation method using an Excel spreadsheet that can be downloaded from the publisher’s website. The book concludes with a chapter offering insights on how to choose the most suitable process technology.

Lubrication and Reliability Handbook

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Author: Michael John Neale

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780750651547

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 256

View: 4570

This handbook helps engineers in industry with the operation and maintenance of machinery. It provides the information that these engineers need in a form that is instantly accessible and easy to read. The manufacturers of machinery give guidelines on the operation, lubrication and maintenance required for their particular equipment. There are however many different machines in an industrial plant or service organisation, often supplied by many different manufacturers, and there is a need to select as many similar lubricants as possible and to use related machine techniques. This book bridges the gap which exists between the available data on the various machines by providing overall guidance on how to co-ordinate the recommendations of the various equipment makers. The book is structured in a number of sections that will make it easier to use, and to bring together related topics so that when a reader is focusing on a particular problem they can also refer to related material that is also likely to be of interest. THE handbook for an industrial audience consisting of plant engineers and maintenance managers. It describes the essential theory and practice relating to matters of lubrication and reliability. Unique layout and presentation of information makes this one of the best practical reference books available.

Synthetic Lubricants And High- Performance Functional Fluids, Revised And Expanded

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Author: Leslie R. Rudnick,Ronald L. Shubkin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203909898

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 1471

Offers state-of-the-art information on all the major synthetic fluids, describing established products as well as highly promising experimental fluids with commercial potential. This second edition contains chapters on polyinternalolefins, polymer esters, refrigeration lubes, polyphenyl ethers, highly refined mineral oils, automotive gear oils and industrial gear oils. The book also assesses automotive, industrial, aerospace, environmental, and commercial trends in Europe, Asia, South America, and the US.

Surfactants in Tribology

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Author: Girma Biresaw,K.L. Mittal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351647148

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 8718

Surfactants play a critical role in Tribology controlling friction, wear, and lubricant properties such as emulsification, demulsification, bioresistance, oxidation resistance, rust prevention and corrosion resistance. This is a critical topic for new materials and devices particularly those built at the nanoscale. This newest volume will address tribological properties of cutting fluids, lubricant performance related to steel surfaces, biolubricants, and novel materials and ways to reduce friction and wear. Scientists from industrial research and development (R&D) organizations and academic research teams in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North America will participate in the work.

Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants

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Author: R. M. Mortier,S. T. Orszulik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461535549

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 302

View: 4260

The use oflubricants began in ancient times and has developed into a major international business through the need to lubricate machines of increasing complexity. The impetus for lubricant development has arisen from need, so lubricatingpractice has precededan understandingofthescientificprinciples. This is not surprising as the scientific basis of the technology is, by nature, highly complex and interdisciplinary. However, we believe that the under standing of lubricant phenomena will continue to be developed at a mol ecular level to meet future challenges. These challenges will include the control of emissions from internal combustion engines, the reduction of friction and wear in machinery, and continuing improvements to lubricant performanceand life-time. More recently, there has been an increased understanding ofthe chemical aspects of lubrication, which has complemented the knowledge and under standing gained through studies dealing with physics and engineering. This book aims to bring together this chemical information and present it in a practical way. It is written by chemists who are authorities in the various specialisations within the lubricating industry, and is intended to be of interest to chemists who may already be working in the lubricating industry or in academia, and who are seeking a chemist's view of lubrication. It will also be of benefit to engineers and technologists familiar with the industry who requirea more fundamental understanding oflubricants.

The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, Fifth Edition

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Author: James G. Speight

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439873895

Category: Science

Page: 953

View: 2366

With demand for petroleum products increasing worldwide, there is a tendency for existing refineries to seek new approaches to optimize efficiency and throughput. In addition, changes in product specifications due to environmental regulations greatly influence the development of petroleum refining technologies. These factors underlie the need for this fifth edition of The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, which continues in the tradition of the bestselling fourth edition, proving readers with a detailed overview of the chemistry and technology of petroleum as it evolves into the twenty-first century. The new edition has been updated with the latest developments in the refining industry, including new processes as well as updates on evolving processes and various environmental regulations. The book covers issues related to economics and future refineries, examines the changing character of refinery feedstock, and offers new discussions on environmental aspects of refining. It contains more than 300 figures and tables, including chemical structures and process flow sheets. A useful reference for scientists and engineers in the petroleum industry as well as in the catalyst manufacturing industry, this book introduces readers to the science and technology of petroleum, beginning with its formation in the ground and culminating in the production of a wide variety of products and petrochemical intermediates.

Lubricants

Introduction to Properties and Performance

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Author: Marika Torbacke,Ãsa Kassman Rudolphi,Elisabet Kassfeldt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118799747

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 210

View: 8220

Those working with tribology often have a background in mechanical engineering, while people working with lubricant development have a chemistry/chemical engineering background. This means they have a tradition of approaching problems in different ways. Today's product development puts higher demands on timing and quality, requiring collaboration between people with different backgrounds. However, they can lack understanding of each other's challenges as well as a common language, and so this book aims to bridge the gap between these two areas. Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance provides an easy to understand overview of tribology and lubricant chemistry. The first part of the book is theoretical and provides an introduction to tribological contact, friction, wear and lubrication, as well as the basic concepts regarding properties and the most commonly made analyses on lubricants. Base fluids and their properties and common additives used in lubricants are also covered. The second part of the book is hands-on and introduces the reader to the actual formulations and the evaluation of their performance. Different applications and their corresponding lubricant formulations are considered and tribological test methods are discussed. Finally used oil characterisation and surface characterisation are covered which give the reader an introduction to different methods of characterising used oils and surfaces, respectively. Key features: Combines chemistry and tribology of lubricants into one unified approach Covers the fundamental theory, describing lubricant properties as well as base fluids and additives Contains practical information on the formulations of lubricants and evaluates their performance Considers applications of lubricants in hydraulics, gears and combustion engines Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance is a comprehensive reference for industry practitioners (tribologists, lubricant technicians, and lubricant chemists, etc) and is also an excellent source of information for graduate and undergraduate students.

Biotreatment of Industrial Effluents

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Author: Mukesh Doble,Anil Kumar

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080456219

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 336

View: 4467

With increasing government regulation of pollution, as well as willingness to levy punitive fines for transgressions, treatment of industrial waste is a important subject. This book is a single source of information on treatment procedures using biochemical means for all types of solid, liquid and gaseous contaminants generated by various chemical and allied industries. This book is intended for practicing environmental engineers and technologists from any industry as well as researchers and professors. The topics covered include the treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid waste from a large number of chemical and allied industries that include dye stuff, chemical, alcohol, food processing, pesticide, pharmaceuticals, paint etc. Information on aerobic and anaerobic reactors and modeling and simulation of waste treatment systems are also discussed. * Compares chemical and biochemical means of industrial waste treatment * Provides details of technology (i.e. reactors, operating conditions etc) with regard to the biochemistry aspects. * Can be used as a teaching aid for graduate courses and a reference material by practicing environmental scientists and engineers. * Researchers can extract synergy between treatment procedures and various effluents.

Towards Green Lubrication in Machining

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Author: Willey Liew Yun Hsien

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9812872663

Category: Science

Page: 46

View: 2497

The book gives an overview of environmental friendly gaseous and vapour, refrigerated compressed gas, solid lubricant, mist lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and vegetable oils that can be used as lubricants and additives in industrial machining applications. This book introduces vegetable oils as viable and good alternative resources because of their environmental friendly, non-toxic and readily biodegradable nature. The effectiveness of various types of vegetables oils as lubricants and additives in reducing wear and friction is discussed in this book. Engineers and scientist working in the field of lubrication and machining will find this book useful.

Green Polymer Chemistry

Biobased Materials and Biocatalysis

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Author: Patrick B. Smith

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780841230651

Category: Green chemistry

Page: 1

View: 806

The Tribology Handbook

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Author: Michael J Neale

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080519661

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 640

View: 5576

The renowned reference work is a practical guide to the selection and design of the components of machines and to their lubrication. It has been completely revised for this second edition by leading experts in the area.

Water Quality Assessments

A guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, Second Edition

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Author: Deborah V Chapman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0419215905

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 9737

This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.

Soy Based Chemicals and Materials

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Author: Robert P. Brentin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780841230064

Category: Soybean

Page: 414

View: 1901

The use of biobased feedstocks and products produced from them are becoming increasingly established in the chemical industry. Significant advancements in processing, formulation, biotechnology, and chemical modification have enabled biobased materials to be used alongside petroleum hydrocarbon derived materials and provide additional performance capabilities. There is growing interest in biobased products in the scientific community, industry, and the public sector due to health and environmental issues, interest in sustainability, concerns about petroleum supply, and opportunities for new products and processes. The use of renewable raw materials is an important component of green chemistry. Following the green chemistry principle that a raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable, and with demand for fuels and chemicals growing worldwide, biobased chemicals and processes are being implemented commercially. Renewable alternatives are playing an increasingly important role as basic resources for the production of energy and chemicals while enhancing human and environmental safety. Significant progress has been made, and is continuing, in developing and utilizing chemicals and materials using plant-based feedstocks as a viable and renewable replacement for petrochemicals. The driving forces supporting the growth of a biobased chemical industry segment and the global supply challenges that must be addressed are recognized. The chapters in this book provide examples of new developments and commercially promising biobased products.

The Biobased Economy

Biofuels, Materials, and Chemicals in the Post-oil Era

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Author: Hans Langeveld,Johan Sanders,Marieke Meeusen

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849774803

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 7615

The impending threats of catastrophic climate change and peak oil are driving our society towards increased use of biomass for energy, chemical compounds and other materials - the beginnings of a biobased economy. As alternative development models for the biobased economy emerge, we need to determine potential applications, their perspectives and possible impacts as well as policies that can steer technological and market development in such a way that our objectives are met. Currently, it is still far from clear what will be the most sustainable routes to follow, which technologies should be included, and how their development will affect, and be affected by, research, public opinion and policy and market forces. This groundbreaking work, edited by a group of leading researchers originally from Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands, sets out to unpick the complex systems in play. It provides an illuminating framework for how policy and market players could and should drive the development of a biobased economy that is effective, sustainable, fair and cost efficient. Starting with a state-of-the-art overview of major biobased technologies, including biorefinery and technologies for the production of biofuels, biogas, biomass feedstocks for chemistry and bioplastics, it discusses how different actor groups interact through policy and markets. Information from case studies is used to demonstrate how the potential of the biobased economy in different parts of the world, such as North America, Europe, and emerging economies like China and Brazil can be realised using research, debate, policy and commercial development. The result is an essential resource for all those working in or concerned with biobased industries, their policy or research.

Biolubricants

Science and Technology

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Author: Jan C.J. Bart,Emanuele Gucciardi,Stefano Cavallaro

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 085709632X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 944

View: 2884

Lubricants are essential in engineering, however more sustainable formulations are needed to avoid adverse effects on the ecosystem. Bio-based lubricant formulations present a promising solution. Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of this important subject. Initial chapters address the principles of lubrication, before systematically reviewing fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants. Further chapters describe catalytic, (bio) chemical functionalisation processes for transformation of feedstocks into commercial products, product development, relevant legislation, life cycle assessment, major product groups and specific performance criteria in all major applications. Final chapters consider markets for biolubricants, issues to consider when selecting and using a lubricant, lubricant disposal and future trends. With its distinguished authors, Biolubricants: Science and technology is a comprehensive reference for an industrial audience of oil formulators and lubrication engineers, as well as researchers and academics with an interest in the subject. It provides an essential overview of scientific and technological developments enabling the cost-effective improvement of biolubricants, something that is crucial for the green future of the lubricant industry. A comprehensive, interdisciplinary and timely review of bio-based lubricant formulations Addresses the principles of lubrication Reviews fossil and bio-based feedstock resources for biodegradable lubricants

Handbook of Industrial Chemistry

Organic Chemicals

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Author: M. Ali,Bassam Ali

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071783008

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 628

View: 3379

The definitive guide for the general chemical analyses of non-petroleum based organic products such as paints, dyes, oils, fats, and waxes. * Chemical tables, formulas, and equations * Covers all of the chemical processes which utilize organic chemicals * Physical properties for the most common organic chemicals Contents: Safety Considerations in Process Industries * Industrial Pollution Prevention and Waste Management * Edible Oils, Fats, and Waxes * Soaps and Detergents * Sugar and Other Sweeteners * Paints, Pigments, and Industrial Coatings * Dyestuffs, Finishing and Dyeing of Textiles * Industrial Fermentation * Pharmaceutical Industry *Agrochemicals * Chemical Explosives * Petroleum Processing and Petrochemicals *Polymers and Plastics