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Author: Charles S. Barrett
Structure of Metals GRYSTALLOGRAPHIG METHODS, PRINCIPLES, AND - DATA BY CHARLES H. BARRETT, PH. D. Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering and Member of Staff of the Metals Research Laboratory Carnegie Institute of Technology FIRST EDITION F 1 FT 1 1 I M PRESS ION MoGBAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK AND LONDON 1943 STRUCTURE OF MKTALS COPYRIGHT. 1943, BY THE MrGRAW-HiLL BOOK COMPANY, INC. PRINTED IK THB UNITED STATES OF AMERICA All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publishers. PREFACE This book is intended to serve both as a text and as a reference book. The portions intended for classroom use have been written for courses in crystallography, particularly the courses offered to students of metallurgy. It is primarily intended for graduate courses, but a number of chapters are at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate courses in applied x-rays, crystallography, and physical metallurgy Chaps. I to IV, IX to XI, XIII. In an effort to make the book more readable, certain advanced topics on x-ray diffraction and various tables of data have been placed in appendixes, and laboratory manipulations that would not interest the general reader have been printed in smaller type. The first four chapters of this book explain the fundamentals of crystal lattices and projections, and the general principles of the diffrac tion of x-rays from Crystals. Chapters V to VII cover the technique of x-ray diffraction, presenting the operating details of the methods that are in common use. Several chapters are included on the applica tions of x-ray diffraction in the field of physical metallurgy, covering techniques fordetermining constitution diagrams, identifying unknown materials, determining crystal structures, determining the orientation of single crystals, detecting and analyzing preferred orientations, and measuring stresses. One chapter is devoted to electron diffraction, its metallurgical uses, and the precautions to be observed in interpreting electron diffrac tion data. The electron microscope receives only a brief mention because at the time the manuscript was written the metallographic technique for this instrument was still being rapidly developed and, except for particle-size determinations, the instrument had not yet achieved the status of a widely accepted tool in metallographic or crystallographic research. The last half of the book is devoted to the results of research and contains extensive reviews of fields that are of current interest. In assembling these summaries, an effort has been made to include an ade quate number of references to the literature, to cover thoroughly the subjects that have not been extensively reviewed in readily available publications, and to maintain a critical but unbiased attitude toward the data and conclusions that are reviewed. The subjects treated include the following principles governing the crystal structure of metals and vi PREPACK alloys supcrlattices and their effect on properties imperfections in crystals the structure of liquid metals the processes of slip, twinning, and fracture and modern theories of these processes, including the cur rent dislocation theory the effects of cold work and annealing on the structure of metals, including the effects on diffraction patterns of static and fatigue stressing, rolling, grinding, and polishing theresults of x-ray studies of internal stresses preferred orientations resulting from cold work, hot work, recrystallization, freezing, electrodeposition, evapora tion, and sputtering directionality in commercial products and in single crystals and its relation to crystal orientation. The author is indebted to many colleagues and graduate students who have assisted directly and indirectly in the preparation of this book. He particularly wishes to thank Dr. R. F...