Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

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Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107005876

Category: Science

Page: 739

View: 8464

New edition of the highly readable textbook applying the fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry and diffraction to a range of materials.

Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

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Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560476

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 5480

This highly readable, popular textbook for upper undergraduates and graduates comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. New to this edition are more streamlined coverage of crystallography, additional coverage of magnetic point group symmetry and updated material on extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. New exercises at the end of chapters, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. Over 400 illustrations within the text help students visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, supporting more difficult topics like point group symmetries. Historical and biographical sections add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field. Supplementary online material includes password-protected solutions, over 100 crystal structure data files, and Powerpoints of figures from the book.

Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

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Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521651514

Category: Science

Page: 844

View: 3167

Highly illustrated, self-contained textbook covering the fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry and diffraction, providing a full appreciation of material structure for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses within materials science and engineering. Includes over 430 illustrations and 400 homework problems. Solutions, data files for crystal structures, and appendices, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521651516.

Properties of Materials

Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

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Author: Robert E. Newnham

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191523403

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 8490

Crystals are sometimes called 'Flowers of the Mineral Kingdom'. In addition to their great beauty, crystals and other textured materials are enormously useful in electronics, optics, acoustics, and many other engineering applications. This book describes the underlying principles of crystal physics and chemistry, covering a wide range of topics, and illustrating numerous applications in many fields of engineering using the most important materials. It has been written at a level suitable for science and engineering students and can be used for teaching a one- or two-semester course. Tensors, matrices, symmetry and structure-property relationships form the main subjects of the book. Whilst tensors and matrices provide the mathematical framework for understanding anisotropy, on which the physical and chemical properties of crystals and textured materials often depend, atomistic arguments are also needed to quantify the property coefficients in various directions. The atomistic arguments are partly based on symmetry and partly on the basic physics and chemistry of materials. After introducing the point groups appropriate for single crystals, textured materials and ordered magnetic structures, the directional properties of many different materials are described: linear and nonlinear elasticity, piezoelectricity and electrostriction, magnetic phenomena, diffusion and other transport properties, and both primary and secondary ferroic behaviour. With crystal optics (its roots in classical mineralogy) having become an important component of the information age, nonlinear optics is described along with the piezo-optics, magneto-optics and electro-optics, and analogous linear and nonlinear acoustic wave phenomena. Enantiomorphism, optical activity, and chemical anisotropy are discussed in the final chapters of the book.

Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials

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Author: Gregory S. Rohrer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521663793

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 5715

A graduate level textbook for materials scientists that describes the established principles of crystallography and bonding.

Physical Properties of Crystals

Their Representation by Tensors and Matrices

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Author: J. F. Nye

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198511656

Category: Mathematics

Page: 329

View: 1015

First published in 1957, this classic study has been reissued in a paperback version that includes an additional chapter bringing the material up to date. The author formulates the physical properties of crystals systematically in tensor notation, presenting tensor properties in terms of their common mathematical basis and the thermodynamic relations between them. The mathematical groundwork is laid in a discussion of tensors of the first and second ranks. Tensors of higher ranks and matrix methods are then introduced as natural developments of the theory. A similar pattern is followed in discussing thermodynamic and optical aspects.

Crystallography and Crystal Defects

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Author: Anthony Kelly,Kevin M. Knowles

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470750146

Category: Science

Page: 521

View: 1559

This new edition updates readers with the latest concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner, and describes their application in line and planar defects in crystalline materials, quasicrystals, and crystal interfaces. The coverage begins with a chapter on lattice geometry, followed by crystal systems and crystal structures.

Introduction to Crystallography

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Author: Donald E. Sands

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136809

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 3688

Clear, concise explanation of logical development of basic crystallographic concepts. Topics include crystals and lattices, symmetry, x-ray diffraction, and more. Problems, with answers. 114 illustrations. 1969 edition.

The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

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Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019156771X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 9008

This book provides a clear introduction to topics which are essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which are otherwise only covered in specialised and mathematically detailed texts. It shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination, it develops the concepts of crystal symmetry, point and space groups by way of two dimensional examples of patterns and tilings, it explains the concept of the reciprocal lattice in simple terms and shows its importance in an understanding of light, X-ray and electron diffraction. Practical examples of the applications of these techniques are described and also the importance of diffraction in the performance of optical instruments. The book is also of value to the general reader since it shows, by biographical and historical references, how the subject has developed and thereby indicates some of the excitement of scientific discovery.

Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy

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Author: Marc De Graef

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521620066

Category: Science

Page: 718

View: 7898

This book covers the fundamentals of conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) as applied to crystalline solids. In addition to including a large selection of worked examples and homework problems, the volume is accompanied by a supplementary website (http://ctem.web.cmu.edu/) containing interactive modules and over 30,000 lines of free Fortran 90 source code. The work is based on a lecture course given by Marc De Graef in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.

X-Ray Diffraction

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Author: B. E. Warren

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141616

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 8812

Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.

Introduction to Macromolecular Crystallography

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Author: Alexander McPherson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210638

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 7167

A comprehensive and approachable introduction to crystallography — now updated in a valuable new edition The Second Edition of this well-received book continues to offer the most concise, authoritative, and easy-to-follow introduction to the field of crystallography. Dedicated to providing a complete, basic presentation of the subject that does not assume a background in physics or math, the book's content flows logically from basic principles to methods, such as those for solving phase problems, interpretation of Patterson maps and the difference Fourier method, the fundamental theory of diffraction and the properties of crystals, and applications in determining macromolecular structure. This new edition includes a vast amount of carefully updated materials, as well as two completely new chapters on recording and compiling X-ray data and growing crystals of proteins and other macromolecules. Richly illustrated throughout to clarify difficult concepts, this book takes a non-technical approach to crystallography that is ideal for professionals and graduate students in structural biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and molecular biology who are studying the subject for the first time.

Crystals and Crystal Structures

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Author: Richard J. D. Tilley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470029534

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 1270

Crystals and Crystal Structures is an introductory text for students and others who need to understand the subject without necessarily becoming crystallographers. Using the book will enable students to read scientific papers and articles describing a crystal structure or use crystallographic databases with confidence and understanding. Reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the subject the book includes a variety of applications as diverse as the relationship between physical properties and symmetry, and molecular and protein crystallography. As well as covering the basics the book contains an introduction to areas of crystallography, such as modulated structures and quasicrystals, and protein crystallography, which are the subject of important and active research. A non-mathematical introduction to the key elements of the subject Contains numerous applications across a variety of disciplines Includes a range of problems and exercises Clear, direct writing style "...the book contains a wealth of information and it fulfils its purpose of providing an interesting and broad introduction to the terpenes." CHEMISTRY WORLD, February 2007

Electronic Properties of Materials

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Author: Rolf E. Hummel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642865380

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 0

View: 8913

Books are seldom finished. At best, they are abandoned. The second edition of "Electronic Properties of Materials" has been in use now for about seven years. During this time my publisher gave me ample opportunities to update and improve the text whenever the Ibook was reprinted. There were about six of these reprinting cycles. Eventually, however, it became clear that substantially more new material had to be added to account for the stormy developments which occurred in the field of electrical, optical, and magnetic materials. In particular, expanded sections on flat-panel displays (liquid crystals, electroluminescence devices, field emission displays, and plasma dis. : plays) were added. Further, the recent developments in blue- and green emitting LED's and in photonics are included. Magnetic storage devices also underwent rapid development. Thus, magneto-optical memories, magneto resistance devices, and new' magnetic materials needed to be covered. The sections on dielectric properties, ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, electrostric tion, and thermoelectric properties have been expanded. Of course, the entire text was critically reviewed, updated, and improved. However, the most extensive change I undertook was the conversion of all equations to SI units throughout. In most of the world and in virtually all of the interna tional scientific journals use of this system of units is required. If today's students do not learn to utilize it, another generation is "lost" on this matter. In other words, it is important that students become comfortable with SI units.

Kinetics of Materials

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Author: Robert W. Balluffi,Sam Allen,W. Craig Carter

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471749303

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 6884

A classroom-tested textbook providing a fundamental understanding of basic kinetic processes in materials This textbook, reflecting the hands-on teaching experience of its three authors, evolved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology's first-year graduate curriculum in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. It discusses key topics collectively representing the basic kinetic processes that cause changes in the size, shape, composition, and atomistic structure of materials. Readers gain a deeper understanding of these kinetic processes and of the properties and applications of materials. Topics are introduced in a logical order, enabling students to develop a solid foundation before advancing to more sophisticated topics. Kinetics of Materials begins with diffusion, offering a description of the elementary manner in which atoms and molecules move around in solids and liquids. Next, the more complex motion of dislocations and interfaces is addressed. Finally, still more complex kinetic phenomena, such as morphological evolution and phase transformations, are treated. Throughout the textbook, readers are instilled with an appreciation of the subject's analytic foundations and, in many cases, the approximations commonly used in the field. The authors offer many extensive derivations of important results to help illuminate their origins. While the principal focus is on kinetic phenomena in crystalline materials, select phenomena in noncrystalline materials are also discussed. In many cases, the principles involved apply to all materials. Exercises with accompanying solutions are provided throughout Kinetics of Materials, enabling readers to put their newfound knowledge into practice. In addition, bibliographies are offered with each chapter, helping readers to investigate specialized topics in greater detail. Several appendices presenting important background material are also included. With its unique range of topics, progressive structure, and extensive exercises, this classroom-tested textbook provides an enriching learning experience for first-year graduate students.

Fundamentals of Nanotechnology

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Author: Gabor L. Hornyak,John J. Moore,H.F. Tibbals,Joydeep Dutta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142004804X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 786

View: 8879

WINNER 2009 CHOICE AWARD OUTSTANDING ACADEMIC TITLE! Nanotechnology is no longer a subdiscipline of chemistry, engineering, or any other field. It represents the convergence of many fields, and therefore demands a new paradigm for teaching. This textbook is for the next generation of nanotechnologists. It surveys the field’s broad landscape, exploring the physical basics such as nanorheology, nanofluidics, and nanomechanics as well as industrial concerns such as manufacturing, reliability, and safety. The authors then explore the vast range of nanomaterials and systematically outline devices and applications in various industrial sectors. This color text is an ideal companion to Introduction to Nanoscience by the same group of esteemed authors. Both titles are also available as the single volume Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Qualifying instructors who purchase either of these volumes (or the combined set) are given online access to a wealth of instructional materials. These include detailed lecture notes, review summaries, slides, exercises, and more. The authors provide enough material for both one- and two-semester courses.

Space Groups for Solid State Scientists

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Author: Michael Glazer,Gerald Burns

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123946158

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 5644

This comprehensively revised – essentially rewritten – new edition of the 1990 edition (described as "extremely useful" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as "understandable and comprehensive" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallographic space groups. Reflecting the bewildering array of recent changes to the International Tables, this new edition brings the standard of science well up-to-date, reorganizes the logical order of chapters, improves diagrams and presents clearer explanations to aid understanding Clarifies, condenses and simplifies the meaning of the deeply written, complete Tables of Crystallography into manageable chunks Provides a detailed, multi-factor, interdisciplinary explanation of how to use the International Tables for a number of possible, hitherto unexplored uses Presents essential knowledge to those needing the necessary but missing pedagogical support and detailed advice – useful for instance in symmetry of domain walls in solids

Crystallography

A Very Short Introduction

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Author: A. M. Glazer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198717598

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 2043

Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Structure of Metals

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Author: Charles S. Barrett

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1443731404

Category: Science

Page: 567

View: 9033

Structure of Metals GRYSTALLOGRAPHIG METHODS, PRINCIPLES, AND - DATA BY CHARLES H. BARRETT, PH. D. Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering and Member of Staff of the Metals Research Laboratory Carnegie Institute of Technology FIRST EDITION F 1 FT 1 1 I M PRESS ION MoGBAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC. NEW YORK AND LONDON 1943 STRUCTURE OF MKTALS COPYRIGHT. 1943, BY THE MrGRAW-HiLL BOOK COMPANY, INC. PRINTED IK THB UNITED STATES OF AMERICA All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of the publishers. PREFACE This book is intended to serve both as a text and as a reference book. The portions intended for classroom use have been written for courses in crystallography, particularly the courses offered to students of metallurgy. It is primarily intended for graduate courses, but a number of chapters are at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate courses in applied x-rays, crystallography, and physical metallurgy Chaps. I to IV, IX to XI, XIII. In an effort to make the book more readable, certain advanced topics on x-ray diffraction and various tables of data have been placed in appendixes, and laboratory manipulations that would not interest the general reader have been printed in smaller type. The first four chapters of this book explain the fundamentals of crystal lattices and projections, and the general principles of the diffrac tion of x-rays from Crystals. Chapters V to VII cover the technique of x-ray diffraction, presenting the operating details of the methods that are in common use. Several chapters are included on the applica tions of x-ray diffraction in the field of physical metallurgy, covering techniques fordetermining constitution diagrams, identifying unknown materials, determining crystal structures, determining the orientation of single crystals, detecting and analyzing preferred orientations, and measuring stresses. One chapter is devoted to electron diffraction, its metallurgical uses, and the precautions to be observed in interpreting electron diffrac tion data. The electron microscope receives only a brief mention because at the time the manuscript was written the metallographic technique for this instrument was still being rapidly developed and, except for particle-size determinations, the instrument had not yet achieved the status of a widely accepted tool in metallographic or crystallographic research. The last half of the book is devoted to the results of research and contains extensive reviews of fields that are of current interest. In assembling these summaries, an effort has been made to include an ade quate number of references to the literature, to cover thoroughly the subjects that have not been extensively reviewed in readily available publications, and to maintain a critical but unbiased attitude toward the data and conclusions that are reviewed. The subjects treated include the following principles governing the crystal structure of metals and vi PREPACK alloys supcrlattices and their effect on properties imperfections in crystals the structure of liquid metals the processes of slip, twinning, and fracture and modern theories of these processes, including the cur rent dislocation theory the effects of cold work and annealing on the structure of metals, including the effects on diffraction patterns of static and fatigue stressing, rolling, grinding, and polishing theresults of x-ray studies of internal stresses preferred orientations resulting from cold work, hot work, recrystallization, freezing, electrodeposition, evapora tion, and sputtering directionality in commercial products and in single crystals and its relation to crystal orientation. The author is indebted to many colleagues and graduate students who have assisted directly and indirectly in the preparation of this book. He particularly wishes to thank Dr. R. F...

Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials, Sixth Edition

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Author: David R. Gaskell,David E. Laughlin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498757014

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 694

View: 8581

Maintaining the substance that made Introduction to the Thermodynamic of Materials a perennial best seller for decades, this Sixth Edition is updated to reflect the broadening field of materials science and engineering. The new edition is reorganized into three major sections to align the book for practical coursework, with the first (Thermodynamic Principles) and second (Phase Equilibria) sections aimed at use in a one semester undergraduate course. The third section (Reactions and Transformations) can be used in other courses of the curriculum that deal with oxidation, energy, and phase transformations. The book is updated to include the role of work terms other than PV work (e.g., magnetic work) along with their attendant aspects of entropy, Maxwell equations, and the role of such applied fields on phase diagrams. There is also an increased emphasis on the thermodynamics of phase transformations and the Sixth Edition features an entirely new chapter 15 that links specific thermodynamic applications to the study of phase transformations. The book also features more than 50 new end of chapter problems and more than 50 new figures.