Spatial Data Analysis

Models, Methods and Techniques

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Author: Manfred M. Fischer,Jinfeng Wang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642217203

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 88

View: 3604

The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised, and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.

Introduction to Spatial Econometrics

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Author: James LeSage,Robert Kelley Pace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420064254

Category: Mathematics

Page: 340

View: 2507

Although interest in spatial regression models has surged in recent years, a comprehensive, up-to-date text on these approaches does not exist. Filling this void, Introduction to Spatial Econometrics presents a variety of regression methods used to analyze spatial data samples that violate the traditional assumption of independence between observations. It explores a wide range of alternative topics, including maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation, various types of spatial regression specifications, and applied modeling situations involving different circumstances. Leaders in this field, the authors clarify the often-mystifying phenomenon of simultaneous spatial dependence. By presenting new methods, they help with the interpretation of spatial regression models, especially ones that include spatial lags of the dependent variable. The authors also examine the relationship between spatiotemporal processes and long-run equilibrium states that are characterized by simultaneous spatial dependence. MATLAB® toolboxes useful for spatial econometric estimation are available on the authors’ websites. This work covers spatial econometric modeling as well as numerous applied illustrations of the methods. It encompasses many recent advances in spatial econometric models—including some previously unpublished results.

Spatial Regression Models

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Author: Michael D. Ward,Kristian Skrede Gleditsch

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1544328818

Category: Social Science

Page: 128

View: 2027

Spatial Regression Models illustrates the use of spatial analysis in the social sciences within a regression framework and is accessible to readers with no prior background in spatial analysis. The text covers different modeling-related topics for continuous dependent variables, including: mapping data on spatial units, exploratory spatial data analysis, working with regression models that have spatially dependent regressors, and estimating regression models with spatially correlated error structures. Using social sciences examples based on real data, Michael D. Ward and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch illustrate the concepts discussed, and show how to obtain and interpret relevant results. The examples are presented along with the relevant code to replicate all the analysis using the R package for statistical computing. Users can download both the data and computer code to work through all the examples found in the text. New to the Second Edition is a chapter on mapping as data exploration and its role in the research process, updates to all chapters based on substantive and methodological work, as well as software updates, and information on estimation of time-series, cross-sectional spatial models.

Spatial Econometrics

From Cross-Sectional Data to Spatial Panels

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Author: J Paul Elhorst

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642403409

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 119

View: 3741

​This book provides an overview of three generations of spatial econometric models: models based on cross-sectional data, static models based on spatial panels and dynamic spatial panel data models. The book not only presents different model specifications and their corresponding estimators, but also critically discusses the purposes for which these models can be used and how their results should be interpreted.

Spatial Econometric Interaction Modelling

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Author: Roberto Patuelli,Giuseppe Arbia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319301969

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 468

View: 2317

This contributed volume applies spatial and space-time econometric methods to spatial interaction modeling. The first part of the book addresses general cutting-edge methodological questions in spatial econometric interaction modeling, which concern aspects such as coefficient interpretation, constrained estimation, and scale effects. The second part deals with technical solutions to particular estimation issues, such as intraregional flows, Bayesian PPML and VAR estimation. The final part presents a number of empirical applications, ranging from interregional tourism competition and domestic trade to space-time migration modeling and residential relocation.

Regional Development in Rural Areas

Analytical Tools and Public Policies

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Author: André Torre,Frédéric Wallet

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319023721

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 110

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This book intends to provide analytical and policy tools for investigating the question of the development of rural and peri-urban areas. The aim is to shed some light on this topic and in particular to contribute to a better understanding of the link between issues of regional or territorial development and issues of rural development. The text addresses the question of the disputed notions and definitions of rural development in rural and regional studies, examines the literature of regional and territorial development and the policies of regional development and planning. It also presents scenarios for the future of rural areas, with a focus on European territories.

Information Technology in Geo-Engineering

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference (ICITG) Durham, UK

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Author: D.G. Toll,H. Zhu,A. Osman

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 161499417X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 3573

Information technology continues to evolve and remains central to all aspects of geo-engineering. Key issues are the effective use and re-use of data, particularly within Building Information Modelling (BIM) frameworks; the use of smart monitoring; artificial intelligence and data processing techniques. All these contribute to improvements in design processes, greater construction efficiency and more cost-effective maintenance. This book presents the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Technology in Geo-Engineering (ICITG 2014), held in Durham, United Kingdom, in July 2014. Topics of the conference cover the full range of information technology applications in geotechnical and geo-environmental engineering, as well as engineering geology. The focus of the papers in this book is on geotechnical data, specifically dealing with issues related to data standards and data exchange. The wider issues of managing data and data sharing through global web portals are also addressed. Also included are papers on artificial intelligence applications, and the use of expert (knowledge-based) systems, artificial neural networks and data mining techniques, particularly as applied to the identification of properties of geo-materials. The use of web-based materials for education, data processing techniques, and the numerical modeling of tunnels, piles and anchors are also discussed. This book will be of interest to the geo-engineering community and is the second in a series of proceedings designed to keep practitioners and researchers abreast of the developments in information technology which relate to their work.

Spatial Econometrics

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Author: Harry Kelejian,Gianfranco Piras

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128133929

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 458

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Spatial Econometrics provides a modern, powerful and flexible skillset to early career researchers interested in entering this rapidly expanding discipline. It articulates the principles and current practice of modern spatial econometrics and spatial statistics, combining rigorous depth of presentation with unusual depth of coverage. Introducing and formalizing the principles of, and ‘need’ for, models which define spatial interactions, the book provides a comprehensive framework for almost every major facet of modern science. Subjects covered at length include spatial regression models, weighting matrices, estimation procedures and the complications associated with their use. The work particularly focuses on models of uncertainty and estimation under various complications relating to model specifications, data problems, tests of hypotheses, along with systems and panel data extensions which are covered in exhaustive detail. Extensions discussing pre-test procedures and Bayesian methodologies are provided at length. Throughout, direct applications of spatial models are described in detail, with copious illustrative empirical examples demonstrating how readers might implement spatial analysis in research projects. Designed as a textbook and reference companion, every chapter concludes with a set of questions for formal or self--study. Finally, the book includes extensive supplementing information in a large sample theory in the R programming language that supports early career econometricians interested in the implementation of statistical procedures covered. Combines advanced theoretical foundations with cutting-edge computational developments in R Builds from solid foundations, to more sophisticated extensions that are intended to jumpstart research careers in spatial econometrics Written by two of the most accomplished and extensively published econometricians working in the discipline Describes fundamental principles intuitively, but without sacrificing rigor Provides empirical illustrations for many spatial methods across diverse field Emphasizes a modern treatment of the field using the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach Explores sophisticated modern research methodologies, including pre-test procedures and Bayesian data analysis

Visualizing the Data City

Social Media as a Source of Knowledge for Urban Planning and Management

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Author: Paolo Ciuccarelli,Giorgia Lupi,Luca Simeone

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319021958

Category: Computers

Page: 76

View: 7666

This book investigates novel methods and technologies for the collection, analysis and representation of real-time user-generated data at the urban scale in order to explore potential scenarios for more participatory design, planning and management processes. For this purpose, the authors present a set of experiments conducted in collaboration with urban stakeholders at various levels (including citizens, city administrators, urban planners, local industries and NGOs) in Milan and New York in 2012. It is examined whether geo-tagged and user-generated content can be of value in the creation of meaningful, real-time indicators of urban quality, as it is perceived and communicated by the citizens. The meanings that people attach to places are also explored to discover what such an urban semantic layer looks like and how it unfolds over time. As a conclusion, recommendations are proposed for the exploitation of user-generated content in order to answer hitherto unsolved urban questions. Readers will find in this book a fascinating exploration of techniques for mining the social web that can be applied to procure user-generated content as a means of investigating urban dynamics.

Spatial Techniques for Soil Erosion Estimation

Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

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Author: Rupesh Jayaram Patil

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319742868

Category: Science

Page: 81

View: 3517

This book presents a novel computation of the topographic LS factor of the USLE model to estimate spatial soil erosion. In developing countries, soil erosion is one of the main concerns as it adversely affects agriculture and reduces food production. Therefore, the author presents a particularly relevant approach, as he demonstrates how the C++ programming allows us to identify important erosion stages like detachment and deposition. He does this by assessing the annual rate of soil erosion from the Shakkar River watershed in India using distributed information and applying RS and GIS techniques. He also discusses different approaches that have been proposed to work out the influence of topography on erosion. Simulated and observed data of sediment loss are compared for the period 1992 to 2006.This book provides an easy-to-understand basic piece of soil erosion and hydrological research and reaches out to young researchers and students at the graduate and undergraduate level as well as applicants of soil erosion models.

Quantile Regression for Spatial Data

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Author: Daniel P. McMillen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642318150

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 66

View: 4339

Quantile regression analysis differs from more conventional regression models in its emphasis on distributions. Whereas standard regression procedures show how the expected value of the dependent variable responds to a change in an explanatory variable, quantile regressions imply predicted changes for the entire distribution of the dependent variable. Despite its advantages, quantile regression is still not commonly used in the analysis of spatial data. The objective of this book is to make quantile regression procedures more accessible for researchers working with spatial data sets. The emphasis is on interpretation of quantile regression results. A series of examples using both simulated and actual data sets shows how readily seemingly complex quantile regression results can be interpreted with sets of well-constructed graphs. Both parametric and nonparametric versions of spatial models are considered in detail.

Spatial Data Analysis

Theory and Practice

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Author: Robert P. Haining

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521774376

Category: Nature

Page: 432

View: 9510

This book, first published in 2003, is a comprehensive overview of the theory and practice of spatial data analysis for students and researchers.

A Primer for Spatial Econometrics

With Applications in R

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Author: G. Arbia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137317949

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 230

View: 9469

This book aims at meeting the growing demand in the field by introducing the basic spatial econometrics methodologies to a wide variety of researchers. It provides a practical guide that illustrates the potential of spatial econometric modelling, discusses problems and solutions and interprets empirical results.

Time-of-Flight Cameras

Principles, Methods and Applications

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Author: Miles Hansard,Seungkyu Lee,Ouk Choi,Radu Patrice Horaud

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447146581

Category: Computers

Page: 96

View: 9565

Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.

Introduction to Time Series Analysis

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Author: Mark Pickup

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483324540

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

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Introducing time series methods and their application in social science research, this practical guide to time series models is the first in the field written for a non-econometrics audience. Giving readers the tools they need to apply models to their own research, Introduction to Time Series Analysis, by Mark Pickup, demonstrates the use of—and the assumptions underlying—common models of time series data including finite distributed lag; autoregressive distributed lag; moving average; differenced data; and GARCH, ARMA, ARIMA, and error correction models. “This volume does an excellent job of introducing modern time series analysis to social scientists who are already familiar with basic statistics and the general linear model.” —William G. Jacoby, Michigan State University

Economics of Wildfire Management

The Development and Application of Suppression Expenditure Models

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Author: Michael S. Hand,Krista M. Gebert,Jingjing Liang,David E. Calkin,Matthew P. Thompson,Mo Zhou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1493905783

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 71

View: 6005

In this age of climatic and financial uncertainty, it becomes increasingly important to balance the cost, benefits and risk of wildfire management. In the United States, increased wildland fire activity over the last 15 years has resulted in drastic damage and loss of life. An associated rapid increase in fire management costs has consumed higher portions of budgets of public entities involved in wildfire management, challenging their ability to fulfill other responsibilities. Increased public scrutiny highlights the need to improve wildland fire management for cost effectiveness. This book closely examines the development of basic wildfire suppression cost models for the United States and their application to a wide range of settings from informing incident decision making to programmatic review. The book also explores emerging trends in suppression costs and introduces new spatially explicit cost models to account for characteristics of the burned landscape. Finally, it discusses how emerging risk assessment tools can be better informed by integrating management cost models with wildfire simulation models and values at risk. Economics of Wildfire Management is intended for practitioners as a reference guide. Advanced-level students and researchers will also find the book invaluable.

Mapping Urban Practices Through Mobile Phone Data

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Author: Paola Pucci,Fabio Manfredini,Paolo Tagliolato

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319148338

Category: Science

Page: 90

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This book explains the potential value of using mobile phone data to monitor urban practices and identify rhythms of use in today’s cities. Drawing upon research conducted in the Italian region of Lombardy, the authors demonstrate how maps based on mobile phone data, which are better tailored to the dynamic processes at work in cities, can document urban practices, provide new insights into spatial and temporal patterns of mobility, and assist in recognizing different communities of practice. The described methodology permits detailed visualization of the spatial distribution of mobility flows and offers a more extensive and refined description of the distribution of urban activity than is provided by traditional travel surveys. The book also details how maps derived by processing mobile phone data can assist in the definition of urban policies that will deliver services that match cities’ needs, facilitate the management of large events (inflow, outflow, and monitoring), and reflect time-dependent phenomena not included in traditional analyses.

Air Quality Integrated Assessment

A European Perspective

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Author: Giorgio Guariso,Marialuisa Volta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319333496

Category: Science

Page: 110

View: 1936

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book reports on the results of an extended survey conducted across Europe within the framework of the APPRAISAL FP7 project to determine the extent to which an integrated assessment approach to air quality is being adopted, on the one hand, by regional and local authorities to develop air quality plans and, on the other, by researchers. Following a detailed analysis of the role and structure of the components of an integrated assessment study, the results of the survey are considered from a variety of perspectives. Above all, the book discusses the new light the survey sheds on emission abatement policies and measures planned at regional and local scales, and on their synergies/trade-offs with measures implemented at the national scale. Detailed consideration is given to the currently available modeling methodologies for identifying emission sources, assessing the effectiveness of emission reduction measures, and evaluating the impacts of emission abatement measures on human health. Current strengths and weaknesses revealed by the survey are explored, and the application of an integrated assessment tool in two case studies (in Brussels and Porto) is discussed. The book will appeal to all those interested in the use of integrated assessment in connection with the sources, effects and control of air pollution.

Handbook of Applied Spatial Analysis

Software Tools, Methods and Applications

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Author: Manfred M. Fischer,Arthur Getis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642036477

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 811

View: 5817

The Handbook is written for academics, researchers, practitioners and advanced graduate students. It has been designed to be read by those new or starting out in the field of spatial analysis as well as by those who are already familiar with the field. The chapters have been written in such a way that readers who are new to the field will gain important overview and insight. At the same time, those readers who are already practitioners in the field will gain through the advanced and/or updated tools and new materials and state-of-the-art developments included. This volume provides an accounting of the diversity of current and emergent approaches, not available elsewhere despite the many excellent journals and te- books that exist. Most of the chapters are original, some few are reprints from the Journal of Geographical Systems, Geographical Analysis, The Review of Regional Studies and Letters of Spatial and Resource Sciences. We let our contributors - velop, from their particular perspective and insights, their own strategies for m- ping the part of terrain for which they were responsible. As the chapters were submitted, we became the first consumers of the project we had initiated. We gained from depth, breadth and distinctiveness of our contributors’ insights and, in particular, the presence of links between them.

Twitter Data Analytics

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Author: Shamanth Kumar,Fred Morstatter,Huan Liu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461493722

Category: Computers

Page: 77

View: 2468

This brief provides methods for harnessing Twitter data to discover solutions to complex inquiries. The brief introduces the process of collecting data through Twitter’s APIs and offers strategies for curating large datasets. The text gives examples of Twitter data with real-world examples, the present challenges and complexities of building visual analytic tools, and the best strategies to address these issues. Examples demonstrate how powerful measures can be computed using various Twitter data sources. Due to its openness in sharing data, Twitter is a prime example of social media in which researchers can verify their hypotheses, and practitioners can mine interesting patterns and build their own applications. This brief is designed to provide researchers, practitioners, project managers, as well as graduate students with an entry point to jump start their Twitter endeavors. It also serves as a convenient reference for readers seasoned in Twitter data analysis.