Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry

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Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821809228

Category: Mathematics

Page: 153

View: 4036

This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincare that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue--not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincare brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincare in their full brilliance.

Pangeometrie

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Author: Nikolaĭ Ivanovich Lobachevskiĭ

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geometry, Non-Euclidean

Page: 99

View: 7247

Non-Euclidean Geometry

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Author: Roberto Bonola

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048615503X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 448

View: 5479

Examines various attempts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate — by the Greeks, Arabs, and Renaissance mathematicians. It considers forerunners and founders such as Saccheri, Lambert, Legendre, W. Bolyai, Gauss, others. Includes 181 diagrams.

Guide to Information Sources in Mathematics and Statistics

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Author: Martha A. Tucker,Nancy D. Anderson

Publisher: Libraries Unlimited

ISBN: 9781563087011

Category: Mathematics

Page: 348

View: 9748

Publisher description: This book is a reference for librarians, mathematicians, and statisticians involved in college and research level mathematics and statistics in the 21st century. Part I is a historical survey of the past 15 years tracking this huge transition in scholarly communications in mathematics. Part II of the book is the bibliography of resources recommended to support the disciplines of mathematics and statistics. These resources are grouped by material type. Publication dates range from the 1800's onwards. Hundreds of electronic resources-some online, both dynamic and static, some in fixed media, are listed among the paper resources. A majority of listed electronic resources are free.

Lectures on Number Theory

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Author: Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet,Richard Dedekind

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821820176

Category: Mathematics

Page: 275

View: 9196

This volume is a translation of Dirichlet's Vorlesungen uber Zahlentheorie which includes nine supplements by Dedekind and an introduction by John Stillwell, who translated the volume. Lectures on Number Theory is the first of its kind on the subject matter. It covers most of the topics that are standard in a modern first course on number theory, but also includes Dirichlet's famous results on class numbers and primes in arithmetic progressions. The book is suitable as a textbook, yet it also offers a fascinating historical perspective that links Gauss with modern number theory. The legendary story is told how Dirichlet kept a copy of Gauss's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae with him at all times and how Dirichlet strove to clarify and simplify Gauss's results. Dedekind's footnotes document what material Dirichlet took from Gauss, allowing insight into how Dirichlet transformed the ideas into essentially modern form. Also shown is how Gauss built on a long tradition in number theory--going back to Diophantus--and how it set the agenda for Dirichlet's work. This important book combines historical perspective with transcendent mathematical insight. The material is still fresh and presented in a very readable fashion. This volume is one of an informal sequence of works within the History of Mathematics series. Volumes in this subset, ``Sources'', are classical mathematical works that served as cornerstones for modern mathematical thought. (For another historical translation by Professor Stillwell, see Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry, Volume 10 in the History of Mathematics series.)

Excursions in the History of Mathematics

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Author: Israel Kleiner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817682686

Category: Mathematics

Page: 347

View: 7118

This book comprises five parts. The first three contain ten historical essays on important topics: number theory, calculus/analysis, and proof, respectively. Part four deals with several historically oriented courses, and Part five provides biographies of five mathematicians who played major roles in the historical events described in the first four parts of the work. Excursions in the History of Mathematics was written with several goals in mind: to arouse mathematics teachers’ interest in the history of their subject; to encourage mathematics teachers with at least some knowledge of the history of mathematics to offer courses with a strong historical component; and to provide an historical perspective on a number of basic topics taught in mathematics courses.

Foundations of Hyperbolic Manifolds

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Author: John Ratcliffe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387331972

Category: Mathematics

Page: 782

View: 472

This heavily class-tested book is an exposition of the theoretical foundations of hyperbolic manifolds. It is a both a textbook and a reference. A basic knowledge of algebra and topology at the first year graduate level of an American university is assumed. The first part is concerned with hyperbolic geometry and discrete groups. The second part is devoted to the theory of hyperbolic manifolds. The third part integrates the first two parts in a development of the theory of hyperbolic orbifolds. Each chapter contains exercises and a section of historical remarks. A solutions manual is available separately.

Non-Euclidean Geometry in the Theory of Automorphic Functions

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Author: Jacques Hadamard

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821820303

Category: Mathematics

Page: 95

View: 5198

This is the English translation of a volume originally published only in Russian and now out of print. The book was written by Jacques Hadamard on the work of Poincare. Poincare's creation of a theory of automorphic functions in the early 1880s was one of the most significant mathematical achievements of the nineteenth century. It directly inspired the uniformization theorem, led to a class of functions adequate to solve all linear ordinary differential equations, and focused attention on a large new class of discrete groups. It was the first significant application of non-Euclidean geometry. The implications of these discoveries continue to be important to this day in numerous different areas of mathematics. Hadamard begins with hyperbolic geometry, which he compares with plane and spherical geometry. He discusses the corresponding isometry groups, introduces the idea of discrete subgroups, and shows that the corresponding quotient spaces are manifolds. In Chapter 2 he presents the appropriate automorphic functions, in particular, Fuchsian functions. He shows how to represent Fuchsian functions as quotients, and how Fuchsian functions invariant under the same group are related, and indicates how these functions can be used to solve differential equations. Chapter 4 is devoted to the outlines of the more complicated Kleinian case. Chapter 5 discusses algebraic functions and linear algebraic differential equations, and the last chapter sketches the theory of Fuchsian groups and geodesics. This unique exposition by Hadamard offers a fascinating and intuitive introduction to the subject of automorphic functions and illuminates its connection to differential equations, a connection not often found in other texts. This volume is one of an informal sequence of works within the History of Mathematics series. Volumes in this subset, ``Sources'', are classical mathematical works that served as cornerstones for modern mathematical thought.

5000 Jahre Geometrie

Geschichte Kulturen Menschen

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Author: Christoph J. Scriba,Peter Schreiber

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662045001

Category: Mathematics

Page: 596

View: 371

Lange bevor die Schrift entwickelt wurde, hat der Mensch geometrische Strukturen wahrgenommen und systematisch verwendet: ob beim Weben oder Flechten einfacher zweidimensionaler Muster oder beim Bauen mit dreidimensionalen Körpern. Das Buch liefert einen faszinierenden Überblick über die geometrischen Vorstellungen und Erkenntnisse der Menschheit von der Urgesellschaft bis hin zu den mathematischen und künstlerischen Ideen des 20. Jahrhunderts.

Numbers and Geometry

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Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387982892

Category: Mathematics

Page: 343

View: 7914

A beautiful and relatively elementary account of a part of mathematics where three main fields - algebra, analysis and geometry - meet. The book provides a broad view of these subjects at the level of calculus, without being a calculus book. Its roots are in arithmetic and geometry, the two opposite poles of mathematics, and the source of historic conceptual conflict. The resolution of this conflict, and its role in the development of mathematics, is one of the main stories in the book. Stillwell has chosen an array of exciting and worthwhile topics and elegantly combines mathematical history with mathematics. He covers the main ideas of Euclid, but with 2000 years of extra insights attached. Presupposing only high school algebra, it can be read by any well prepared student entering university. Moreover, this book will be popular with graduate students and researchers in mathematics due to its attractive and unusual treatment of fundamental topics. A set of well-written exercises at the end of each section allows new ideas to be instantly tested and reinforced.

A History of Geometrical Methods

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Author: Julian Lowell Coolidge

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486158535

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 409

Full, authoritative history of the techniques for dealing with geometric equations covers development of projective geometry from ancient to modern times, explaining the original works. 1940 edition.

Mathematics of the 19th Century

Geometry, Analytic Function Theory

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Author: Andrei N. Kolmogorov,Adolf-Andrei P. Yushkevich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764350482

Category: Mathematics

Page: 291

View: 8978

The general principles by which the editors and authors of the present edition have been guided were explained in the preface to the first volume of Mathemat ics of the 19th Century, which contains chapters on the history of mathematical logic, algebra, number theory, and probability theory (Nauka, Moscow 1978; En glish translation by Birkhiiuser Verlag, Basel-Boston-Berlin 1992). Circumstances beyond the control of the editors necessitated certain changes in the sequence of historical exposition of individual disciplines. The second volume contains two chapters: history of geometry and history of analytic function theory (including elliptic and Abelian functions); the size of the two chapters naturally entailed di viding them into sections. The history of differential and integral calculus, as well as computational mathematics, which we had planned to include in the second volume, will form part of the third volume. We remind our readers that the appendix of each volume contains a list of the most important literature and an index of names. The names of journals are given in abbreviated form and the volume and year of publication are indicated; if the actual year of publication differs from the nominal year, the latter is given in parentheses. The book History of Mathematics from Ancient Times to the Early Nineteenth Century [in Russian], which was published in the years 1970-1972, is cited in abbreviated form as HM (with volume and page number indicated). The first volume of the present series is cited as Bk. 1 (with page numbers).

Elementare Zahlentheorie

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Author: Edmund Landau

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821836528

Category: Mathematics

Page: 180

View: 7863

Landau's monumental treatise is a virtual encyclopedia of number theory and is universally recognized as the standard work on the subject. The text is in German.

The “Golden” Non-Euclidean Geometry

Hilbert's Fourth Problem, “Golden” Dynamical Systems, and the Fine-Structure Constant

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Author: Alexey Stakhov,Samuil Aranson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814678317

Category: Mathematics

Page: 308

View: 2304

This unique book overturns our ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and the fine-structure constant, and attempts to solve long-standing mathematical problems. It describes a general theory of "recursive" hyperbolic functions based on the "Mathematics of Harmony," and the "golden," "silver," and other "metallic" proportions. Then, these theories are used to derive an original solution to Hilbert's Fourth Problem for hyperbolic and spherical geometries. On this journey, the book describes the "golden" qualitative theory of dynamical systems based on "metallic" proportions. Finally, it presents a solution to a Millennium Problem by developing the Fibonacci special theory of relativity as an original physical-mathematical solution for the fine-structure constant. It is intended for a wide audience who are interested in the history of mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry, Hilbert's mathematical problems, dynamical systems, and Millennium Problems. Contents:The Golden Ratio, Fibonacci Numbers, and the "Golden" Hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas FunctionsThe Mathematics of Harmony and General Theory of Recursive Hyperbolic FunctionsHyperbolic and Spherical Solutions of Hilbert's Fourth Problem: The Way to the Recursive Non-Euclidean GeometriesIntroduction to the "Golden" Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems Based on the Mathematics of HarmonyThe Basic Stages of the Mathematical Solution to the Fine-Structure Constant Problem as a Physical Millennium ProblemAppendix: From the "Golden" Geometry to the Multiverse Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and theoretical physics, mathematicians and scientists of different specializations interested in history of mathematics and new mathematical ideas.

Hyperbolic geometry

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Author: James W. Anderson

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: 9781852331566

Category: Mathematics

Page: 230

View: 9600

The geometry of the hyperbolic plane has been an active and fascinating field of mathematical inquiry for most of the past two centuries. This book provides a self-contained introduction to the subject, taking the approach that hyperbolic geometry consists of the study of those quantities invariant under the action of a natural group of transformations. Topics covered include the upper half-space model of the hyperbolic plane, Mvbius transformations, the general Mvbius group and the subgroup preserving path length in the upper half-space model, arc-length and distance, the Poincari disc model, convex subsets of the hyperbolic plane, and the Gauss-Bonnet formula for the area of a hyperbolic polygon and its applications. The style and level of the book, which assumes few mathematical prerequisites, make it an ideal introduction to this subject, providing the reader with a firm grasp of the concepts and techniques of this beautiful area of mathematics.

Using History to Teach Mathematics

An International Perspective

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Author: Victor J. Katz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883851630

Category: Mathematics

Page: 261

View: 7747

This volume examines how the history of mathematics can find application in the teaching of mathematics itself.

Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences

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Author: I. Grattan-Guinness

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801873973

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1806

View: 4770

Mathematics is one of the most basic -- and most ancient -- types of knowledge. Yet the details of its historical development remain obscure to all but a few specialists. The two-volume Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences recovers this mathematical heritage, bringing together many of the world's leading historians of mathematics to examine the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences in a cultural context, tracing their evolution from ancient times to the twentieth century. In 176 concise articles divided into twelve parts, contributors describe and analyze the variety of problems, theories, proofs, and techniques in all areas of pure and applied mathematics, including probability and statistics. This indispensable reference work demonstrates the continuing importance of mathematics and its use in physics, astronomy, engineering, computer science, philosophy, and the social sciences. Also addressed is the history of higher education in mathematics. Carefully illustrated, with annotated bibliographies of sources for each article, The Companion Encyclopedia is a valuable research tool for students and teachers in all branches of mathematics. Contents of Volume 1: •Ancient and Non-Western Traditions •The Western Middle Ages and the Renaissance •Calculus and Mathematical Analysis •Functions, Series, and Methods in Analysis •Logic, Set Theories, and the Foundations of Mathematics •Algebras and Number Theory Contents of Volume 2: •Geometries and Topology •Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering •Physics, Mathematical Physics, and Electrical Engineering •Probability, Statistics, and the Social Sciences •Higher Education and Institutions •Mathematics and Culture •Select Bibliography, Chronology, Biographical Notes, and Index

A Course in Modern Geometries

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Author: Judith Cederberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387989723

Category: Mathematics

Page: 441

View: 2368

Designed for a junior-senior level course for mathematics majors, including those who plan to teach in secondary school. The first chapter presents several finite geometries in an axiomatic framework, while Chapter 2 continues the synthetic approach in introducing both Euclids and ideas of non-Euclidean geometry. There follows a new introduction to symmetry and hands-on explorations of isometries that precedes an extensive analytic treatment of similarities and affinities. Chapter 4 presents plane projective geometry both synthetically and analytically, and the new Chapter 5 uses a descriptive and exploratory approach to introduce chaos theory and fractal geometry, stressing the self-similarity of fractals and their generation by transformations from Chapter 3. Throughout, each chapter includes a list of suggested resources for applications or related topics in areas such as art and history, plus this second edition points to Web locations of author-developed guides for dynamic software explorations of the Poincaré model, isometries, projectivities, conics and fractals. Parallel versions are available for "Cabri Geometry" and "Geometers Sketchpad".

Non-Euclidean Geometries

János Bolyai Memorial Volume

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Author: János Bolyai,András Prékopa,Emil Molnár

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387295541

Category: Mathematics

Page: 506

View: 5365

"From nothing I have created a new different world,” wrote János Bolyai to his father, Wolgang Bolyai, on November 3, 1823, to let him know his discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, as we call it today. The results of Bolyai and the co-discoverer, the Russian Lobachevskii, changed the course of mathematics, opened the way for modern physical theories of the twentieth century, and had an impact on the history of human culture. The papers in this volume, which commemorates the 200th anniversary of the birth of János Bolyai, were written by leading scientists of non-Euclidean geometry, its history, and its applications. Some of the papers present new discoveries about the life and works of János Bolyai and the history of non-Euclidean geometry, others deal with geometrical axiomatics; polyhedra; fractals; hyperbolic, Riemannian and discrete geometry; tilings; visualization; and applications in physics. Audience This book is intended for those who teach, study, and do research in geometry and history of mathematics. Cultural historians, physicists, and computer scientists will also find it an important source of information.

Geometry from a Differentiable Viewpoint

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Author: John McCleary

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521116074

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 8019

A thoroughly revised second edition of a textbook for a first course in differential/modern geometry that introduces methods within a historical context.