Simulation and Its Discontents

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: MIT Press (MA)

ISBN: 9780262012706

Category: Computers

Page: 217

View: 4392

How the simulation and visualization technologies so pervasive in science,engineering, and design have changed our way of seeing the world.

Alone Together

Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465093663

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 3397

"Savvy and insightful." --New York Times Technology has become the architect of our intimacies. Online, we fall prey to the illusion of companionship, gathering thousands of Twitter and Facebook friends, and confusing tweets and wall posts with authentic communication. But this relentless connection leads to a deep solitude. MIT professor Sherry Turkle argues that as technology ramps up, our emotional lives ramp down. Based on hundreds of interviews and with a new introduction taking us to the present day, Alone Together describes changing, unsettling relationships between friends, lovers, and families.

The Second Self

Computers and the Human Spirit

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262250675

Category: Computers

Page: 386

View: 4922

In The Second Self, Sherry Turkle looks at the computer not as a "tool," but as part of our social and psychological lives; she looks beyond how we use computer games and spreadsheets to explore how the computer affects our awareness of ourselves, of one another, and of our relationship with the world. "Technology," she writes, "catalyzes changes not only in what we do but in how we think." First published in 1984, The Second Self is still essential reading as a primer in the psychology of computation. This twentieth anniversary edition allows us to reconsider two decades of computer culture -- to (re)experience what was and is most novel in our new media culture and to view our own contemporary relationship with technology with fresh eyes. Turkle frames this classic work with a new introduction, a new epilogue, and extensive notes added to the original text.Turkle talks to children, college students, engineers, AI scientists, hackers, and personal computer owners -- people confronting machines that seem to think and at the same time suggest a new way for us to think -- about human thought, emotion, memory, and understanding. Her interviews reveal that we experience computers as being on the border between inanimate and animate, as both an extension of the self and part of the external world. Their special place betwixt and between traditional categories is part of what makes them compelling and evocative. (In the introduction to this edition, Turkle quotes a PDA user as saying, "When my Palm crashed, it was like a death. I thought I had lost my mind.") Why we think of the workings of a machine in psychological terms -- how this happens, and what it means for all of us -- is the ever more timely subject of The Second Self.

Working on Mars

Voyages of Scientific Discovery with the Mars Exploration Rovers

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Author: William J. Clancey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304783

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 8886

Geologists in the field climb hills and hang onto craggy outcrops; they put their fingers in sand and scratch, smell, and even taste rocks. Beginning in 2004, however, a team of geologists and other planetary scientists did field science in a dark room in Pasadena, exploring Mars from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) by means of the remotely operated Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). Clustered around monitors, living on Mars time, painstakingly plotting each movement of the rovers and their tools, sensors, and cameras, these scientists reported that they felt as if they were on Mars themselves, doing field science. The MER created a virtual experience of being on Mars. In this book, William Clancey examines how the MER has changed the nature of planetary field science. Drawing on his extensive observations of scientists in the field and at the JPL, Clancey investigates how the design of the rover mission enables field science on Mars, explaining how the scientists and rover engineers manipulate the vehicle and why the programmable tools and analytic instruments work so well for them. He shows how the scientists felt not as if they were issuing commands to a machine but rather as if they were working on the red planet, riding together in the rover on a voyage of discovery.Learn more about the book here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZQSWSZnTYs&feature=youtube_gdata

The Inner History of Devices

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262291568

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 5822

For more than two decades, in such landmark studies as The Second Self and Life on the Screen, Sherry Turkle has challenged our collective imagination with her insights about how technology enters our private worlds. In The Inner History of Devices, she describes her process, an approach that reveals how what we make is woven into our ways of seeing ourselves. She brings together three traditions of listening -- that of the memoirist, the clinician, and the ethnographer. Each informs the others to compose an inner history of devices. We read about objects ranging from cell phones and video poker to prosthetic eyes, from Web sites and television to dialysis machines. In an introductory essay, Turkle makes the case for an "intimate ethnography" that challenges conventional wisdom. One personal computer owner tells Turkle: "This computer means everything to me. It's where I put my hope." Turkle explains that she began that conversation thinking she would learn how people put computers to work. By its end, her question has changed: "What was there about personal computers that offered such deep connection? What did a computer have that offered hope?" The Inner History of Devices teaches us to listen for the answer. In the memoirs, ethnographies, and clinical cases collected in this volume, we read about an American student who comes to terms with her conflicting identities as she contemplates a cell phone she used in Japan ("Tokyo sat trapped inside it"); a troubled patient who uses email both to criticize her therapist and to be reassured by her; a compulsive gambler who does not want to win steadily at video poker because a pattern of losing and winning keeps her more connected to the body of the machine. In these writings, we hear untold stories. We learn that received wisdom never goes far enough.

Artificial Intelligence and Learning Environments

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Author: William J. Clancey,Elliot Soloway

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262530903

Category: Computers

Page: 162

View: 8309

These essays explore cognitively oriented empirical trials that use AI programmingas a modeling methodology and that can provide valuable insight into a variety of learningproblems.

Counterrevolution and Revolt

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Author: Herbert Marcuse

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807096563

Category: Philosophy

Page: 152

View: 7923

In this book Herbert Marcuse makes clear that capitalism is now reorganizing itself to meet the threat of a revolution that, if realized, would be the most radical of revolutions: the first truly world-historical revolution. Capitalism's counterrevolution, however, is largely preventive, and in the Western world altogether preventive. Yet capitalism is producing its own grave-diggers, and Marcuse suggests that their faces may be very different from those of the wretched of the earth. The future revolution will be characterized by its enlarged scope, for not only the economic and political structure, not only class relatoins, but also humanity's relation to nature (both human and external nature) tend toward radical transformation. For the author, the "liberation of nature" is the connecting thread between the economic-political and the cultural revolution, between "changing the world" and personal emancipation.

The Death of Drawing

Architecture in the Age of Simulation

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Author: David Ross Scheer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317803043

Category: Architecture

Page: 258

View: 826

The Death of Drawing explores the causes and effects of the epochal shift from drawing to computation as the chief design and communication medium in architecture. Drawing both framed the thinking of architects and organized the design and construction process to place architects at its center. Its displacement by building information modeling (BIM) and computational design recasts both the terms in which architects think and their role in building production. Author David Ross Scheer explains that, whereas drawing allowed architects to represent ideas in form, BIM and computational design simulate experience, making building behavior or performance the primary object of design. The author explores many ways in which this displacement is affecting architecture: the dominance of performance criteria in the evaluation of design decisions; the blurring of the separation of design and construction; the undermining of architects’ authority over their projects by automated information sharing; the elimination of the human body as the common foundation of design and experience; the transformation of the meaning of geometry when it is performed by computers; the changing nature of design when it requires computation or is done by a digitally-enabled collaboration. Throughout the book, Scheer examines both the theoretical bases and the practical consequences of these changes. The Death of Drawing is a clear-eyed account of the reasons for and consequences of the displacement of drawing by computational media in architecture. Its aim is to give architects the ability to assess the impact of digital media on their own work and to see both the challenges and opportunities of this historic moment in the history of their discipline.

Evocative Objects

Things We Think With

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262291644

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 4525

For Sherry Turkle, "We think with the objects we love; we love the objects we think with." In Evocative Objects, Turkle collects writings by scientists, humanists, artists, and designers that trace the power of everyday things. These essays reveal objects as emotional and intellectual companions that anchor memory, sustain relationships, and provoke new ideas.These days, scholars show new interest in the importance of the concrete. This volume's special contribution is its focus on everyday riches: the simplest of objects -- an apple, a datebook, a laptop computer--are shown to bring philosophy down to earth. The poet contends, "No ideas but in things." The notion of evocative objects goes further: objects carry both ideas and passions. In our relations to things, thought and feeling are inseparable.Whether it's a student's beloved 1964 Ford Falcon (left behind for a station wagon and motherhood), or a cello that inspires a meditation on fatherhood, the intimate objects in this collection are used to reflect on larger themes -- the role of objects in design and play, discipline and desire, history and exchange, mourning and memory, transition and passage, meditation and new vision.In the interest of enriching these connections, Turkle pairs each autobiographical essay with a text from philosophy, history, literature, or theory, creating juxtapositions at once playful and profound. So we have Howard Gardner's keyboards and Lev Vygotsky's hobbyhorses; William Mitchell's Melbourne train and Roland Barthes' pleasures of text; Joseph Cevetello's glucometer and Donna Haraway's cyborgs. Each essay is framed by images that are themselves evocative. Essays by Turkle begin and end the collection, inviting us to look more closely at the everyday objects of our lives, the familiar objects that drive our routines, hold our affections, and open out our world in unexpected ways.

Falling for Science

Objects in Mind

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262201720

Category: Education

Page: 318

View: 1545

"This is a book about science, technology, and love," writes Sherry Turkle. In it, we learn how a love for science can start with a love for an object—a microscope, a modem, a mud pie, a pair of dice, a fishing rod. Objects fire imagination and set young people on a path to a career in science. In this collection, distinguished scientists, engineers, and designers as well as twenty-five years of MIT students describe how objects encountered in childhood became part of the fabric of their scientific selves. In two major essays that frame the collection, Turkle tells a story of inspiration and connection through objects that is often neglected in standard science education and in our preoccupation with the virtual. The senior scientists' essays trace the arc of a life: the gears of a toy car introduce the chain of cause and effect to artificial intelligence pioneer Seymour Papert; microscopes disclose the mystery of how things work to MIT President and neuroanatomist Susan Hockfield; architect Moshe Safdie describes how his boyhood fascination with steps, terraces, and the wax hexagons of beehives lead him to a life immersed in the complexities of design. The student essays tell stories that echo these narratives: plastic eggs in an Easter basket reveal the power of centripetal force; experiments with baking illuminate the geology of planets; LEGO bricks model worlds, carefully engineered and colonized. All of these voices—students and mentors—testify to the power of objects to awaken and inform young scientific minds. This is a truth that is simple, intuitive, and easily overlooked. Introductory and concluding essays by: Sherry Turkle. Mentor essays by: Susan Hockfield, Donald Ingber, Alan Kay, Sarah Kuhn, Donald Norman, Seymour Papert, Rosalind Picard, Moshe Safdie.

The Laws of Simplicity

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Author: John Antonelli

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262260956

Category: Design

Page: 117

View: 5308

Finally, we are learning that simplicity equals sanity. We're rebelling against technology that's too complicated, DVD players with too many menus, and software accompanied by 75-megabyte "read me" manuals. The iPod's clean gadgetry has made simplicity hip. But sometimes we find ourselves caught up in the simplicity paradox: we want something that's simple and easy to use, but also does all the complex things we might ever want it to do. In The Laws of Simplicity, John Maeda offers ten laws for balancing simplicity and complexity in business, technology, and design -- guidelines for needing less and actually getting more.Maeda -- a professor in MIT's Media Lab and a world-renowned graphic designer -- explores the question of how we can redefine the notion of "improved" so that it doesn't always mean something more, something added on.Maeda's first law of simplicity is "Reduce." It's not necessarily beneficial to add technology features just because we can. And the features that we do have must be organized (Law 2) in a sensible hierarchy so users aren't distracted by features and functions they don't need. But simplicity is not less just for the sake of less. Skip ahead to Law 9: "Failure: Accept the fact that some things can never be made simple." Maeda's concise guide to simplicity in the digital age shows us how this idea can be a cornerstone of organizations and their products -- how it can drive both business and technology. We can learn to simplify without sacrificing comfort and meaning, and we can achieve the balance described in Law 10. This law, which Maeda calls "The One," tells us: "Simplicity is about subtracting the obvious, and adding the meaningful."

Lessons from an Optical Illusion

On Nature and Nurture, Knowledge and Values

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Author: Edward M. Hundert

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674525412

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 4113

Facts are facts, we often say with certainty; but values--well, they're relative. But every day we are confronted with situations where these simple distinctions begin to blur--whether our concerns are the roots of crime and violence, the measure of intelligence, the causes of disease, the threat and promise of genetic engineering. Where do our "facts" end and our "values" begin? Recent developments in neuroscience have begun to shed light on this confusion, by radically revising our notions of where human nature ends and human nurture begins. As Edward Hundert--a philosopher, psychiatrist, and award-winning educator--makes clear in this eloquent interdisciplinary work, the newly emerging model for the interactions of brain and environment has enormous implications for our understanding of who we are, how we know, and what we value. Lessons from an Optical Illusion is a bold modern recasting of the age-old nature-nurture debate, informed by revolutionary insights from brain science, artificial intelligence, psychiatry, linguistics, evolutionary biology, child development, ethics, and even cosmology. As this radical new synthesis unfolds, we are introduced to characters ranging from Immanuel Kant to Gerald Edelman, from Charles Darwin to Sigmund Freud, from Jean Piaget to Stephen Hawking, from Socrates to Jonas Salk. Traversing the nature-nurture terrain, we encounter simulated robots, optical illusions, game theory, the anthropic principle, the prisoner's dilemma, and the language instinct. In the course of Hundert's wide-ranging exploration, the comfortable dichotomies that once made sense (objectivity-subjectivity, heredity-environment, fact-value) break down under sharp analysis, as he reveals the startling degree to which facts are our creations and values are woven into the fabric of the world. Armed with an updated understanding of how we became who we are and how we know what we know, readers are challenged to confront anew the eternal question of what it means to live a moral life.

SIMSOC: Simulated Society, Participant's Manual

Fifth Edition (Participant's Manual)

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Author: William A. Gamson

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439108676

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 3639

The official guide to SIMSOC, the dynamic group simulation game whose “potential for stimulating the learning process is staggering” (Teaching Sociology), in which players grapple with the challenge of governing society. In SIMSOC, players confront issues like abuse of power, justice, diversity, trust, and leadership as they negotiate their way through labor-management strife, political turmoil, and natural disasters. Success or failure is dependent upon decisions made by players and the creativity of the group—and every game is a teaching tool. To be successful, players must utilize every basic social process from cooperation and reward to threat and punishment. SIMSOC will make participants ask questions about social control, and bring everyday experience and deeper understanding to even the most arcane social and organizational theory. Included in this Fifth Edition of SIMSOC's Participant's Manual are instructions for playing, materials for play, study questions based on participation, and selected readings about simulation games, leadership, and social processes. New to the Fifth Edition are additional size levels to accommodate groups of up to ninety participants with simplified rules and readings by authors from Nicholas Lemann to Robert Putnam.

Mandala Stones

50 Inspirational Designs to Paint

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Author: Natasha Alexander

Publisher: St. Martin's Griffin

ISBN: 1250134749

Category: Art

Page: 128

View: 3127

"Mandala stones are meditative symbols that are created by painting smooth river rocks with intricate patterns of dots. The art and practice of creating the mandala is a form of meditation, a soothing ritual that allows the painter to express their creativity and find a sense of calmness. Featuring 50 stunning patterns ranging in skill level from beginner to advanced, Mandala Stones is the perfect introduction to the art of mandala painting. All of the designs in the book, including the most complex, are created by combining simple dots of color, so even inexperienced artists will be able to enjoy the calming, meditative process of painting. The book begins with a thorough explanation of the tools and techniques involved, and each design is clearly explained and beautifully photographed. From simple patterns of concentric circles to ornate mandalas based on the Fibonacci sequence, the concise and easy-to-follow directions and templates in Mandala Stones will have you crafting and painting your way to a calmer, more peaceful you in no time."--provided by Amazon.com.

Student Voice

A Companion to Democracy and Its Discontents

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Author: Karyn Cooper,Sardar M. Anwaruddin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9463004084

Category: Education

Page: 168

View: 376

Student Voice: A Companion to Democracy and Its Discontents serves two primary purposes. First, as the title of the volume suggests, it serves as a companion text to Democracy and Its Discontents: Critical Literacy across Global Contexts (Sense Publishers, 2015). Second, the volume features critical dialogues between emerging and established scholars in the field of critical literacy education, broadly defined. It brings together a collection of essays that speak to the possibilities of taking a critical approach to language and literacy education. The contributing authors draw on their life stories and professional experiences to make a strong case for taking a critical approach to education. They demonstrate that the act of teaching always involves a grappling with the entanglement of social, cultural and political forces. In this sense, education is always a normative and ethical enterprise. The authors featured in this book will encourage readers to re-imagine critical education and its emancipatory potential in an age of neo-conservative and corporate assaults on education. This volume, written in a lucid and accessible manner, will appeal to a broad readership interested in education. It will be an informative and engaging text in graduate and undergraduate courses on language and literacy education, teacher education, education policy studies, and curriculum studies. In-service teachers, teacher-educators, and school administrators will also find it to be a valuable resource. Karyn Cooper is an Associate Professor and Sardar M. Anwaruddin is a PhD candidate in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) of the University of Toronto.

Reclaiming Conversation

The Power of Talk in a Digital Age

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0143109790

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 448

View: 8534

Preeminent author and researcher Sherry Turkle has been studying digital culture for over thirty years. Long an enthusiast for its possibilities, here she investigates a troubling consequence: that we have stopped having face-to-face conversation in favour of technological connections such as texts or emails. Based on five years of research and interviews in homes, schools and the workplace, Turkle argues here that we now have a better understanding of this phenomenon, and that going forward, it's time we reclaim conversation, the most human thing that we do.

The Revenge of Analog

Real Things and Why They Matter

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Author: David Sax

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610395727

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 738

One of Michiko Kakutani's (New York Times) top ten books of 2016 A funny thing happened on the way to the digital utopia. We've begun to fall back in love with the very analog goods and ideas the tech gurus insisted that we no longer needed. Businesses that once looked outdated, from film photography to brick-and-mortar retail, are now springing with new life. Notebooks, records, and stationery have become cool again. Behold the Revenge of Analog. David Sax has uncovered story after story of entrepreneurs, small business owners, and even big corporations who've found a market selling not apps or virtual solutions but real, tangible things. As e-books are supposedly remaking reading, independent bookstores have sprouted up across the country. As music allegedly migrates to the cloud, vinyl record sales have grown more than ten times over the past decade. Even the offices of tech giants like Google and Facebook increasingly rely on pen and paper to drive their brightest ideas. Sax's work reveals a deep truth about how humans shop, interact, and even think. Blending psychology and observant wit with first-rate reportage, Sax shows the limited appeal of the purely digital life-and the robust future of the real world outside it.

Life on the Screen

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Author: Sherry Turkle

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439127115

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 6032

Life on the Screen is a book not about computers, but about people and how computers are causing us to reevaluate our identities in the age of the Internet. We are using life on the screen to engage in new ways of thinking about evolution, relationships, politics, sex, and the self. Life on the Screen traces a set of boundary negotiations, telling the story of the changing impact of the computer on our psychological lives and our evolving ideas about minds, bodies, and machines. What is emerging, Turkle says, is a new sense of identity—as decentered and multiple. She describes trends in computer design, in artificial intelligence, and in people’s experiences of virtual environments that confirm a dramatic shift in our notions of self, other, machine, and world. The computer emerges as an object that brings postmodernism down to earth.

Digital Online Culture, Identity, and Schooling in the Twenty-First Century

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Author: K. Rosenfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137442603

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 746

Digital Online Culture, Identity and Schooling in the Twenty-First Century provides a cultural, ideological critique of identity construction in the context of virtualization. Kimberly Rosenfeld explores the growing number of people who no longer reside in one physical reality but live, work, and play in multiple realities. Rosenfeld's critique of neo-liberal practices in the digital environment brings to light the on-going hegemonic and counter-hegemonic battles over control of education in the digital age. Rosenfeld draws conclusions for empowering the population through schooling, and how it should understand, respond to, and help individuals live out the information revolution.