Showdown at Gucci Gulch

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Author: Alan Murray

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307761746

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 6883

The Tax Reform Act of 1986 was the single most sweeping change in the history of America's income tax. It was also the best political and economic story of its time. Here, in the anecdotal style of The Making of the President, two Wall Street Journal reporters provide the first complete picture of how this tax revolution went from an improbable dream to a widely hailed reality. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Failure of U. S. Tax Policy

Revenue and Politics

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Author: Sheldon D. Pollack

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271038896

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 867

Shifting the Burden

The Struggle Over Growth and Corporate Taxation

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Author: Cathie J. Martin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226508320

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 251

View: 6065

Since World War II, the corporate tax burden has, overall, decreased enormously as a percentage of the government's total revenue. Until now, however, no explanation of this phenomenon has accounted for the periodic reforms—such as the dramatic 1986 Tax Reform Act—which significantly increase some corporate taxes. Remarkably accessible and rich in historical evidence, Shifting the Burden is the most compelling explanation to date of how our nation's tax policy is formulated. Cathie J. Martin shows how presidents' cultivation of allies within the business community and struggles within that community itself combine to shape tax policy.

Mr. Chairman

Power in Dan Rostenkowski's America

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Author: James L. Merriner

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809324736

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 360

View: 4021

A sympathetic portrait of the former House Ways and Means Committee chairman who was ousted and indicted in 1994 reveals Rostenkowski as a man who openly sought power and wealth, but who was also victimized by the system he served.

Parallel Politics

Economic Policymaking in Japan and the United States

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Author: Samuel Kernell

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815717805

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 3771

While much has been written about economic competition between the United States and Japan, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that their relationship is founded essentially on each sides' domestic political concerns. Many critics have concluded that to gain a new equilibrium in relations, the two counties must develop a sophisticated appreciation of each other's political dynamics. Because budgets, taxes and macroeconomic policy are so central to activities of both governments, this book, by Japanese and American experts, focuses on the role of political institutions in formulating economic policy. Despite the differences in the two counties political systems—one-party/parliamentary versus two-party/presidential—there are striking similarities in the way politics is transacted in Japan and the United States. In particular, politicians in both countries are motivated primarily by the desire to serve local constituencies, which leads to overly parochial public policies. Combining case studies and discussions, the contributors provide an overview of the Japanese and American political systems, particularly those aspects that are most relevant to economic policymaking. In addition, they offer a comparative analysis of the politics of budgeting, tax reform, and structural policies

The Business of America is Lobbying

How Corporations Became Politicized and Politics Became More Corporate

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Author: Lee Drutman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190215534

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 2744

Corporate lobbyists are everywhere in Washington. Of the 100 organizations that spend the most on lobbying, 95 represent business. The largest companies now have upwards of 100 lobbyists representing them. How did American businesses become so invested in politics? And what does all their money buy? Drawing on extensive data and original interviews with corporate lobbyists, The Business of America is Lobbying provides a fascinating and detailed picture of what corporations do in Washington, why they do it, and why it matters. Prior to the 1970s, very few corporations had Washington offices. But a wave of new government regulations and declining economic conditions mobilized business leaders. Companies developed new political capacities, and managers soon began to see public policy as an opportunity, not just a threat. Ever since, corporate lobbying has become increasingly more pervasive, more proactive, and more particularistic. Lee Drutman argues that lobbyists drove this development, helping managers to see why politics mattered, and how proactive and aggressive engagement could help companies' bottom lines. All this lobbying doesn't guarantee influence. Politics is a messy and unpredictable bazaar, and it is more competitive than ever. But the growth of lobbying has driven several important changes that make business more powerful. The status quo is harder to dislodge; policy is more complex; and, as Congress increasingly becomes a farm league for K Street, more and more of Washington's policy expertise now resides in the private sector. These and other changes increasingly raise the costs of effective lobbying to a level only businesses can typically afford. Lively and engaging, rigorous and nuanced, The Business of America is Lobbying will change how we think about lobbying-and how we might reform it.

The Tools of Government

A Guide to the New Governance

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Author: Lester M. Salamon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881278

Category: Political Science

Page: 688

View: 5689

The Tools of Government is the first professional guide to the principles and practices of public administration in an age when governments no longer provide many services--but arrange for others to do so. Characterized by extensive collaboration among levels of government and between government and the private sector, this new approach to solving public problems presents many new important issues. Comprehensive in scope, this new book offers a first hand look at the challenges faced by contracting out to nonprofit and profit sectors for grants, insurance, regulation, vouchers, cooperative arrangements, tax data, grants-in-aid, and others. The chapters examine over 20 different tools in use today and summarizes their basic features, patterns of usage, key tasks, political and substantive rational, and the major management challenges that each one poses. International in coverage and application, this book is ideal for students, teachers, and scholars in public administration, management, public policy, economics, political science, and nonprofit management; managers and heads of state, local, and federal agencies; executives in foundations and other nonprofit organizations; and academic, government, and research libraries.

The Benefit and The Burden

Tax Reform-Why We Need It and What It Will Take

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Author: Bruce Bartlett

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1451646267

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 6064

A thoughtful and surprising argument for American tax reform, arguably the most overdue political debate facing the nation, from one of the most respected political and economic thinkers, advisers, and writers of our time. THE UNITED STATES TAX CODE HAS UNDERGONE NO SERIOUS REFORM SINCE 1986. Since then, loopholes, exemptions, credits, and deductions have distorted its clarity, increased its inequity, and frustrated our ability to govern ourselves. By tracing the history of our own tax system and assessing the way other countries have solved similar problems, Bruce Bartlett explores the surprising answers to all these issues, giving a sense of the tax code’s many benefits—and its inevitable burdens. From one of the most respected political and economic thinkers, advisers, and writers of our time, The Benefit and the Burden is a thoughtful and surprising argument for American tax reform.

Exzession

Roman

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Author: Iain Banks

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641163773

Category: Fiction

Page: N.A

View: 2632

Eine Reise an die Grenzen des Vorstellbaren In einem entlegenen Sektor des Weltraums taucht eines Tages ein rätselhaftes Artefakt auf – eine riesige schwarze Kugel, die sich allen Kontaktversuchen verweigert. Messungen ergeben, dass das Objekt tausend Milliarden Jahre alt sein muss, älter also als unser Universum. Doch wie ist das möglich? Und wer oder was steckt dahinter?

Ökonomische Theorie der Demokratie

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Author: Anthony Downs

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783165290523

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 303

View: 5572

English summary: It was Anthony Downs' objective to create a model dealing with voter and government behavior. In order to do so, he established goals which governments, parties and lobbyists as well as the voters can pursue. To motivate all those concerned, he introduced the self-interest axiom and called for rationality in order to attain these goals. With the help of marginal analysis, each voter determines his/her party differential, which will help to determine each voter's choice at the ballot box and to decide which party's rule will give him/her greater utility in the future. Downs describes how crucial the concept of ideology is to his theory. He maintains that a two-party democracy could not provide stable and effective government unless there is a large measure of ideological consensus amongst its citizens, and that political parties encouraged voters to be irrational by remaining vague and ambiguous. German description: Anthony Downs' inzwischen klassisches Demokratie-Modell des Wahler- und Regierungsverhaltens orientiert sich an der okonomischen Theorie. Er nimmt an, dass politische Parteien und Wahler in der Verfolgung bestimmter, deutlich spezifizierter Ziele optimal handeln. So treffen die Wahler unter Ungewissheit uber den Wahlvorgang und die zukunftige Regierungsbildung ihre Wahl nach dem mutmasslichen Nutzen. Die Regierung versucht, mit Hilfe der Manipulation des Budgets ihre Wiederwahl zu erreichen.Ideologien der Parteien auf der einen Seite, Interessengruppen auf der anderen stellen den Wahlern bzw. der Regierung Informationen zur rationalen Entscheidungsfindung zur Verfugung. Dabei wird deutlich, dass Mehrparteiensysteme und Verhaltniswahlrecht jedes Wahl-Kalkul unlosbar werden lassen. Auf die weiteren Folgerungen fur Demokratie-Forschung und -Verstandnis geht Downs im letzten Teil seines Werkes ausfuhrlich ein.

The Classics of Interest Group Behavior

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Author: Robert M. Alexander

Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780534643843

Category: Political Science

Page: 401

View: 1678

An edited collection of articles on interest group behavior, this reader includes a combination of classic and contemporary readings with topics including group formation and mobilization, group behavior, and influence. An introductory chapter to the book includes a general overview and discussion of research in the area of Interest Groups and in each chapter there is a brief overview to each section, a summary chapter that discusses the future of research as well as suggestions for further reading, including internet resources.

The Lobbyists

How Influence Peddlers Work Their Way in Washington

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Author: Jeffrey Birnbaum

Publisher: Three Rivers Press

ISBN: 0804152306

Category: Political Science

Page: 334

View: 9825

Jeffrey H. Birnbaum's The Lobbyists exposes the world of Washington's most influential players -- the more than eighty thousand who descend upon our national government, informing and bartering with Congress and blocking legislation on behalf of the richest business interests in the country. This acclaimed work -- now with a new introduction that analyzes the changes in lobbying in 1990s -- provides a shocking view of how our government really works.

Herrschaft in den Internationalen Beziehungen

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Author: Christopher Daase,Nicole Deitelhoff,Ben Kamis,Jannik Pfister,Philip Wallmeier

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658160969

Category: Political Science

Page: 243

View: 7056

Der Band entfaltet eine Herrschaftsperspektive auf die internationalen Beziehungen und diskutiert verschiedene Formen, die Herrschaft im internationalen System annehmen kann, das Verhältnis von Herrschaft und Widerstand und die Konsequenzen, die sich aus einer solchen Perspektive für die Disziplin Internationale Beziehungen ergeben.Das internationale System gilt als der Ort, an dem politische Macht besonders eindrücklich studiert werden kann. Aber haben wir es nur mit Macht und Machtkonkurrenzen zu tun oder sind die Machtasymmetrien nicht längst so sehr verfestigt und institutionalisiert, dass wir von Herrschaftsverhältnissen sprechen sollten?

The Money Men

The Real Story of Fund-raising's Influence on Political Power in America

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Author: Jeffrey H. Birnbaum

Publisher: Times Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 287

View: 3054

A revealing look inside the workings of power in American government focuses on the new deal brokers--the people who raise campaign money and the contributors who expect access and even favors in return for their support. 25,000 first printing.

Applications of Neural Networks

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Author: Alan Murray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475723792

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 2115

Applications of Neural Networks gives a detailed description of 13 practical applications of neural networks, selected because the tasks performed by the neural networks are real and significant. The contributions are from leading researchers in neural networks and, as a whole, provide a balanced coverage across a range of application areas and algorithms. The book is divided into three sections. Section A is an introduction to neural networks for nonspecialists. Section B looks at examples of applications using `Supervised Training'. Section C presents a number of examples of `Unsupervised Training'. For neural network enthusiasts and interested, open-minded sceptics. The book leads the latter through the fundamentals into a convincing and varied series of neural success stories -- described carefully and honestly without over-claiming. Applications of Neural Networks is essential reading for all researchers and designers who are tasked with using neural networks in real life applications.

The Thumpin'

How Rahm Emanuel and the Democrats Learned to Be Ruthless and Ended the Republican Revolution

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Author: Naftali Bendavid

Publisher: Doubleday

ISBN: 9780307491923

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 4068

In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democratic party ended twelve years of electoral humiliation by seizing back Congress and putting an end to Republican rule. The Thumpin’ is the story of that historic victory and the man at the center on whom Democratic hopes hinged: Congressman Rahm Emanuel, head of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC). Chicago Tribune reporter Naftali Bendavid had exclusive access to Emanuel and the DCCC in the year and a half leading up to the elections and ended up with the story of a lifetime, the thrilling blow-by-blow account of how Emanuel remade the campaign in his own ferocious image. Responsible for everything from handpicking Congressional candidates to raising money for attack ads, Emanuel, a talented ballet dancer better known in Washington for his extraordinary intensity and his inexhaustible torrents of profanity, threw out the playbook on the way Democrats run elections. Instead of rallying the base, Rahm sought moderate-to-conservative candidates who could attract more traditional voters. Instead of getting caught in the Democrats’ endless arguments about their positions, he went on the attack, personally vilifying Republicans from Tom DeLay to Christopher Shays. And instead of abiding by the gentlemen’s agreements of good-old-boy Washington, he broke them, attacking his counterpart in the Republican party and challenging Howard Dean, the chairman of his own party. In 2005, no one believed victory was within the Democrats’ grasp. But as the months passed, Republicans were caught in wave after wave of scandal, support for the war in Iraq steadily declined, and the president’s poll numbers plummeted. And in Emanuel, the Democrats finally had a killer, a ruthless closer like Karl Rove or Lee Atwater, poised to seize the advantage and deliver what President Bush would call “a thumpin.’” Taking its cues from classic political page-turners like Showdown at Gucci Gulch and documentaries like The War Room, The Thumpin’ takes us inside the key races and the national strategy-making that moved the Democrats from forecasted gains of three seats in 2005 to a sweeping gain of thirty seats when the votes were finally counted. Through this masterful account of Rahm’s rout, Bendavid shows how the lessons the Democrats learned in 2006—to fight for every vote, to abandon litmus tests, and to take no prisoners—will be crucial to the party’s future electoral success, and shape the political course the nation will take in the twenty-first century. From the Hardcover edition.

Analyzing Intercultural Communication

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Author: Karlfried Knapp,Werner Enninger,Annelie Knapp-Potthoff

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110874288

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 327

View: 3405