Ordered Sets

An Introduction

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Author: Bernd Schroeder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461200539

Category: Mathematics

Page: 391

View: 9044

An introduction to the basic tools of the theory of (partially) ordered sets such as visualization via diagrams, subsets, homomorphisms, important order-theoretical constructions and classes of ordered sets. Using a thematic approach, the author presents open or recently solved problems to motivate the development of constructions and investigations for new classes of ordered sets. The text can be used as a focused follow-up or companion to a first proof (set theory and relations) or graph theory course.

Programming with Sets

An Introduction to SETL

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Author: J.T. Schwartz,R.B.K. Dewar,E. Dubinsky,E. Schonberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461395755

Category: Computers

Page: 493

View: 5320

The programming language SETL is a relatively new member of the so-called "very-high-level" class of languages, some of whose other well-known mem bers are LISP, APL, SNOBOL, and PROLOG. These languages all aim to reduce the cost of programming, recognized today as a main obstacle to future progress in the computer field, by allowing direct manipulation of large composite objects, considerably more complex than the integers, strings, etc., available in such well-known mainstream languages as PASCAL, PL/I, ALGOL, and Ada. For this purpose, LISP introduces structured lists as data objects, APL introduces vectors and matrices, and SETL introduces the objects characteristic for it, namely general finite sets and maps. The direct availability of these abstract, composite objects, and of powerful mathematical operations upon them, improves programmer speed and pro ductivity significantly, and also enhances program clarity and readability. The classroom consequence is that students, freed of some of the burden of petty programming detail, can advance their knowledge of significant algorithms and of broader strategic issues in program development more rapidly than with more conventional programming languages.

Sets

An Introduction

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Author: Michael D. Potter

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198533993

Category: Ensembles, Théorie des

Page: 241

View: 2171

This book is an introduction to set theory in which the author develops the subject from first principles and presupposes little more than an elementary grounding in logic. Throughout much attention is paid to the historical and philosophical background which illuminates the subject's development. This book differs from most by providing a particularly elegant and intuitive approach based on Scott's formulation of standard set theory in which sets are built up stage by stage. This approach has the advantage of introducing the axioms of set theory in a natural way and shows how they come to take the form they do. The book covers all the basic tools of set theory: the natural numbers, cardinals, ordinals, and the axiom of choice in some detail. It also provides an account of the representation theory of lattices and how this is closely connected with the various forms of the axiom of choice.

Sets of Finite Perimeter and Geometric Variational Problems

An Introduction to Geometric Measure Theory

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Author: Francesco Maggi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107021030

Category: Mathematics

Page: 454

View: 8757

An engaging graduate-level introduction that bridges analysis and geometry. Suitable for self-study and a useful reference for researchers.

An Introduction to Random Sets

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Author: Hung T. Nguyen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420010619

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 578

The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped. An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed. Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.

Ordered Sets

An Introduction with Connections from Combinatorics to Topology

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Author: Bernd Schröder

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3319297880

Category: Mathematics

Page: 420

View: 426

An introduction to the basic tools of the theory of (partially) ordered sets such as visualization via diagrams, subsets, homomorphisms, important order-theoretical constructions and classes of ordered sets. Using a thematic approach, the author presents open or recently solved problems to motivate the development of constructions and investigations for new classes of ordered sets. The text can be used as a focused follow-up or companion to a first proof (set theory and relations) or graph theory course.

Set Theory

With an Introduction to Real Point Sets

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Author: Abhijit Dasgupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461488540

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

View: 4467

What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.

Introduction to the Theory of Sets

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Author: Joseph Breuer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486154874

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 4854

This undergraduate text develops its subject through observations of the physical world, covering finite sets, cardinal numbers, infinite cardinals, and ordinals. Includes exercises with answers. 1958 edition.

Topology

An Introduction to the Point-set and Algebraic Areas

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Author: Donald W. Kahn

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486686097

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

View: 7009

Comprehensive coverage of elementary general topology as well as algebraic topology, specifically 2-manifolds, covering spaces and fundamental groups. Problems, with selected solutions. Bibliography. 1975 edition.

Learning to Reason

An Introduction to Logic, Sets, and Relations

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Author: Nancy Rodgers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118165705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 454

View: 6770

Learn how to develop your reasoning skills and how to write well-reasoned proofs Learning to Reason shows you how to use the basic elements of mathematical language to develop highly sophisticated, logical reasoning skills. You'll get clear, concise, easy-to-follow instructions on the process of writing proofs, including the necessary reasoning techniques and syntax for constructing well-written arguments. Through in-depth coverage of logic, sets, and relations, Learning to Reason offers a meaningful, integrated view of modern mathematics, cuts through confusing terms and ideas, and provides a much-needed bridge to advanced work in mathematics as well as computer science. Original, inspiring, and designed for maximum comprehension, this remarkable book: * Clearly explains how to write compound sentences in equivalent forms and use them in valid arguments * Presents simple techniques on how to structure your thinking and writing to form well-reasoned proofs * Reinforces these techniques through a survey of sets--the building blocks of mathematics * Examines the fundamental types of relations, which is "where the action is" in mathematics * Provides relevant examples and class-tested exercises designed to maximize the learning experience * Includes a mind-building game/exercise space at www.wiley.com/products/subject/mathematics/

Lattices and Ordered Sets

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Author: Steven Roman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387789019

Category: Mathematics

Page: 305

View: 7051

This book is intended to be a thorough introduction to the subject of order and lattices, with an emphasis on the latter. It can be used for a course at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level or for independent study. Prerequisites are kept to a minimum, but an introductory course in abstract algebra is highly recommended, since many of the examples are drawn from this area. This is a book on pure mathematics: I do not discuss the applications of lattice theory to physics, computer science or other disciplines. Lattice theory began in the early 1890s, when Richard Dedekind wanted to know the answer to the following question: Given three subgroups EF , and G of an abelian group K, what is the largest number of distinct subgroups that can be formed using these subgroups and the operations of intersection and sum (join), as in E?FßÐE?FÑ?GßE?ÐF?GÑ and so on? In lattice-theoretic terms, this is the number of elements in the relatively free modular lattice on three generators. Dedekind [15] answered this question (the answer is #)) and wrote two papers on the subject of lattice theory, but then the subject lay relatively dormant until Garrett Birkhoff, Oystein Ore and others picked it up in the 1930s. Since then, many noted mathematicians have contributed to the subject, including Garrett Birkhoff, Richard Dedekind, Israel Gelfand, George Grätzer, Aleksandr Kurosh, Anatoly Malcev, Oystein Ore, Gian-Carlo Rota, Alfred Tarski and Johnny von Neumann.

An Introduction to Fuzzy Sets

Analysis and Design

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Author: Witold Pedrycz,Fernando Gomide

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262161718

Category: Computers

Page: 465

View: 3777

"The Pedrycz and Gomide text is superb in all respects. Its exposition of fuzzy-neural networks and fuzzy-genetic systems adds much to its value as a textbook" -- Lotfi A. Zadeh, University of California, Berkeley. The concept of fuzzy sets is one of the most fundamental and influential tools in computational intelligence. Fuzzy sets can provide solutions to a broad range of problems of control, pattern classification, reasoning, planning, and computer vision. This book bridges the gap that has developed between theory and practice. The authors explain what fuzzy sets are, why they work, when they should be used (and when they shouldn't), and how to design systems using them. The authors take an unusual top-down approach to the design of detailed algorithms. They begin with illustrative examples, explain the fundamental theory and design methodologies, and then present more advanced case studies dealing with practical tasks. While they use mathematics to introduce concepts, they ground them in examples of real-world problems that can be solved through fuzzy set technology. The only mathematics prerequisites are a basic knowledge of introductory calculus and linear algebra.

An Introduction to Statistical Learning

with Applications in R

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Author: Gareth James,Daniela Witten,Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461471389

Category: Mathematics

Page: 426

View: 7765

An Introduction to Statistical Learning provides an accessible overview of the field of statistical learning, an essential toolset for making sense of the vast and complex data sets that have emerged in fields ranging from biology to finance to marketing to astrophysics in the past twenty years. This book presents some of the most important modeling and prediction techniques, along with relevant applications. Topics include linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and more. Color graphics and real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods presented. Since the goal of this textbook is to facilitate the use of these statistical learning techniques by practitioners in science, industry, and other fields, each chapter contains a tutorial on implementing the analyses and methods presented in R, an extremely popular open source statistical software platform. Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.

An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets

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Author: James J. Buckley,Esfandiar Eslami

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3790817996

Category: Computers

Page: 285

View: 2579

This book is an excellent starting point for any curriculum in fuzzy systems fields such as computer science, mathematics, business/economics and engineering. It covers the basics leading to: fuzzy clustering, fuzzy pattern recognition, fuzzy database, fuzzy image processing, soft computing, fuzzy applications in operations research, fuzzy decision making, fuzzy rule based systems, fuzzy systems modeling, fuzzy mathematics. It is not a book designed for researchers - it is where you really learn the "basics" needed for any of the above-mentioned applications. It includes many figures and problem sets at the end of sections.

Ordered Sets

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Author: Egbert Harzheim

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387242228

Category: Mathematics

Page: 386

View: 9107

This detailed textbook presents a great deal of material on ordered sets not previously published in the still rather limited textbook literature. It should be suitable as a text for a course on order theory.

An Introduction to Random Sets

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Author: Hung T. Nguyen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420010619

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 853

The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped. An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed. Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.

Game Theory

An Introduction

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Author: Steven Tadelis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845955

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 8123

This comprehensive textbook introduces readers to the principal ideas and applications of game theory, in a style that combines rigor with accessibility. Steven Tadelis begins with a concise description of rational decision making, and goes on to discuss strategic and extensive form games with complete information, Bayesian games, and extensive form games with imperfect information. He covers a host of topics, including multistage and repeated games, bargaining theory, auctions, rent-seeking games, mechanism design, signaling games, reputation building, and information transmission games. Unlike other books on game theory, this one begins with the idea of rationality and explores its implications for multiperson decision problems through concepts like dominated strategies and rationalizability. Only then does it present the subject of Nash equilibrium and its derivatives. Game Theory is the ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Throughout, concepts and methods are explained using real-world examples backed by precise analytic material. The book features many important applications to economics and political science, as well as numerous exercises that focus on how to formalize informal situations and then analyze them. Introduces the core ideas and applications of game theory Covers static and dynamic games, with complete and incomplete information Features a variety of examples, applications, and exercises Topics include repeated games, bargaining, auctions, signaling, reputation, and information transmission Ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students Complete solutions available to teachers and selected solutions available to students

Sets, Functions, and Logic

An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics, Third Edition

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Author: Keith Devlin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203498736

Category: Mathematics

Page: 160

View: 3394

Keith Devlin. You know him. You've read his columns in MAA Online, you've heard him on the radio, and you've seen his popular mathematics books. In between all those activities and his own research, he's been hard at work revising Sets, Functions and Logic, his standard-setting text that has smoothed the road to pure mathematics for legions of undergraduate students. Now in its third edition, Devlin has fully reworked the book to reflect a new generation. The narrative is more lively and less textbook-like. Remarks and asides link the topics presented to the real world of students' experience. The chapter on complex numbers and the discussion of formal symbolic logic are gone in favor of more exercises, and a new introductory chapter on the nature of mathematics--one that motivates readers and sets the stage for the challenges that lie ahead. Students crossing the bridge from calculus to higher mathematics need and deserve all the help they can get. Sets, Functions, and Logic, Third Edition is an affordable little book that all of your transition-course students not only can afford, but will actually read...and enjoy...and learn from. About the Author Dr. Keith Devlin is Executive Director of Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information and a Consulting Professor of Mathematics at Stanford. He has written 23 books, one interactive book on CD-ROM, and over 70 published research articles. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a World Economic Forum Fellow, and a former member of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board of the National Academy of Sciences,. Dr. Devlin is also one of the world's leading popularizers of mathematics. Known as "The Math Guy" on NPR's Weekend Edition, he is a frequent contributor to other local and national radio and TV shows in the US and Britain, writes a monthly column for the Web journal MAA Online, and regularly writes on mathematics and computers for the British newspaper The Guardian.

An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning

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Author: Peter J. Eccles

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521597180

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 7774

This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.