Set Theory An Introduction To Independence Proofs


Author: K. Kunen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080570585

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 3175

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing. The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and easy consistency proofs, including relativization, absoluteness, reflection theorems, properties of well-founded sets, and induction and recursion on well-founded relations. The publication examines constructible sets, forcing, and iterated forcing. Topics include Easton forcing, general iterated forcing, Cohen model, forcing with partial functions of larger cardinality, forcing with finite partial functions, and general extensions. The manuscript is a dependable source of information for mathematicians and researchers interested in set theory.

An Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Type Theory


Author: Peter B. Andrews

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402007637

Category: Computers

Page: 390

View: 1516

In case you are considering to adopt this book for courses with over 50 students, please contact [email protected] for more information. This introduction to mathematical logic starts with propositional calculus and first-order logic. Topics covered include syntax, semantics, soundness, completeness, independence, normal forms, vertical paths through negation normal formulas, compactness, Smullyan's Unifying Principle, natural deduction, cut-elimination, semantic tableaux, Skolemization, Herbrand's Theorem, unification, duality, interpolation, and definability. The last three chapters of the book provide an introduction to type theory (higher-order logic). It is shown how various mathematical concepts can be formalized in this very expressive formal language. This expressive notation facilitates proofs of the classical incompleteness and undecidability theorems which are very elegant and easy to understand. The discussion of semantics makes clear the important distinction between standard and nonstandard models which is so important in understanding puzzling phenomena such as the incompleteness theorems and Skolem's Paradox about countable models of set theory. Some of the numerous exercises require giving formal proofs. A computer program called ETPS which is available from the web facilitates doing and checking such exercises. Audience: This volume will be of interest to mathematicians, computer scientists, and philosophers in universities, as well as to computer scientists in industry who wish to use higher-order logic for hardware and software specification and verification.

Set Theory

An Introduction to Independence Proofs


Author: Kenneth Kunen

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: 9780444854018

Category: Mathematics

Page: 313

View: 6045

Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives in Metaphysics


Author: Daniel D. Novotný,Lukáš Novák

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134630093

Category: Philosophy

Page: 342

View: 5389

This volume re-examines some of the major themes at the intersection of traditional and contemporary metaphysics. The book uses as a point of departure Francisco Suárez’s Metaphysical Disputations published in 1597. Minimalist metaphysics in empiricist/pragmatist clothing have today become mainstream in analytic philosophy. Independently of this development, the progress of scholarship in ancient and medieval philosophy makes clear that traditional forms of metaphysics have affinities with some of the streams in contemporary analytic metaphysics. The book brings together leading contemporary metaphysicians to investigate the viability of a neo-Aristotelian metaphysics.

Einführung in die Kategorientheorie

Mit ausführlichen Erklärungen und zahlreichen Beispielen


Author: Martin Brandenburg

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662535211

Category: Mathematics

Page: 343

View: 1451

Die Kategorientheorie deckt die innere Architektur der Mathematik auf. Dabei werden die strukturellen Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen mathematischen Disziplinen und ihren spezifischen Konstruktionen herausgearbeitet. Dieses Buch gibt eine systematische Einführung in die Grundbegriffe der Kategorientheorie. Zahlreiche ausführliche Erklärungstexte sowie die große Menge an Beispielen helfen beim Einstieg in diese verhältnismäßig abstrakte Theorie. Es werden viele konkrete Anwendungen besprochen, welche die Nützlichkeit der Kategorientheorie im mathematischen Alltag belegen. Jedes Kapitel wird mit einem motivierenden Text eingeleitet und mit einer großen Aufgabensammlung abgeschlossen. An Vorwissen muss der Leser lediglich ein paar Grundbegriffe des Mathematik-Studiums mitbringen. Die vorliegende zweite vollständig durchgesehene Auflage ist um ausführliche Lösungen zu ausgewählten Aufgaben ergänzt.

Characterizing the Robustness of Science

After the Practice Turn in Philosophy of Science


Author: Léna Soler,Emiliano Trizio,Thomas Nickles,William Wimsatt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400727585

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 8913

Mature sciences have been long been characterized in terms of the “successfulness”, “reliability” or “trustworthiness” of their theoretical, experimental or technical accomplishments. Today many philosophers of science talk of “robustness”, often without specifying in a precise way the meaning of this term. This lack of clarity is the cause of frequent misunderstandings, since all these notions, and that of robustness in particular, are connected to fundamental issues, which concern nothing less than the very nature of science and its specificity with respect to other human practices, the nature of rationality and of scientific progress; and science’s claim to be a truth-conducive activity. This book offers for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the problem of robustness, and in general, that of the reliability of science, based on several detailed case studies and on philosophical essays inspired by the so-called practical turn in philosophy of science.

Principia Mathematica.


Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A


Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 167

View: 7294

The Joy of Sets

Fundamentals of Contemporary Set Theory


Author: Keith Devlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387940946

Category: Mathematics

Page: 194

View: 7705

This text covers the parts of contemporary set theory relevant to other areas of pure mathematics. After a review of "naïve" set theory, it develops the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of the theory before discussing the ordinal and cardinal numbers. It then delves into contemporary set theory, covering such topics as the Borel hierarchy and Lebesgue measure. A final chapter presents an alternative conception of set theory useful in computer science.

Naive Mengenlehre


Author: Paul R. Halmos

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783525405277

Category: Arithmetic

Page: 132

View: 6507

Principles of Mathematical Logic


Author: David Hilbert,Wilhelm Ackermann,Robert E. Luce

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821820249

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 4233

David Hilbert was particularly interested in the foundations of mathematics. Among many other things, he is famous for his attempt to axiomatize mathematics. This now classic text is his treatment of symbolic logic. This translation is based on the second German edition and has been modified according to the criticisms of Church and Quine. In particular, the authors' original formulation of Godel's completeness proof for the predicate calculus has been updated. In the first half of the twentieth century, an important debate on the foundations of mathematics took place. Principles of Mathematical Logic represents one of Hilbert's important contributions to that debate. Although symbolic logic has grown considerably in the subsequent decades, this book remains a classic.

Set Theory

With an Introduction to Real Point Sets


Author: Abhijit Dasgupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461488540

Category: Mathematics

Page: 444

View: 4270

What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.

A Tour Through Mathematical Logic


Author: Robert S. Wolf

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 9780883850367

Category: Mathematics

Page: 397

View: 1694

The foundations of mathematics include mathematical logic, set theory, recursion theory, model theory, and Gdel's incompleteness theorems. Professor Wolf provides here a guide that any interested reader with some post-calculus experience in mathematics can read, enjoy, and learn from. It could also serve as a textbook for courses in the foundations of mathematics, at the undergraduate or graduate level. The book is deliberately less structured and more user-friendly than standard texts on foundations, so will also be attractive to those outside the classroom environment wanting to learn about the subject.

Surveys in Set Theory


Author: A. R. D. Mathias

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521277337

Category: Mathematics

Page: 247

View: 2565

This book comprises five expository articles and two research papers on topics of current interest in set theory and the foundations of mathematics. Articles by Baumgartner and Devlin introduce the reader to proper forcing. This is a development by Saharon Shelah of Cohen's method which has led to solutions of problems that resisted attack by forcing methods as originally developed in the 1960s. The article by Guaspari is an introduction to descriptive set theory, a subject that has developed dramatically in the last few years. Articles by Kanamori and Stanley discuss one of the most difficult concepts in contemporary set theory, that of the morass, first created by Ronald Jensen in 1971 to solve the gap-two conjecture in model theory, assuming Gödel's axiom of constructibility. The papers by Prikry and Shelah complete the volume by giving the reader the flavour of contemporary research in set theory. This book will be of interest to graduate students and research workers in set theory and mathematical logic.

Reverse mathematics 2001


Author: Stephen George Simpson

Publisher: A K Peters Ltd

ISBN: 9781568812632

Category: Mathematics

Page: 401

View: 2593

Reverse Mathematics is a program of research in the foundations of mathematics, motivated by the foundational questions of what are appropriate axioms for mathematics, and what are the logical strengths of particular axioms and particular theorems. The book contains 24 original papers by leading researchers. These articles exhibit the exciting recent developments in reverse mathematics and subsystems of second order arithmetic.

The Philosophy of Set Theory

An Historical Introduction to Cantor's Paradise


Author: Mary Tiles

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486138550

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 1599

DIVBeginning with perspectives on the finite universe and classes and Aristotelian logic, the author examines permutations, combinations, and infinite cardinalities; numbering the continuum; Cantor's transfinite paradise; axiomatic set theory, and more. /div

Set theory and the continuum problem


Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA


Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 7266

Set Theory and the Continuum Problem is a novel introduction to set theory, including axiomatic development, consistency, and independence results. It is self-contained and covers all the set theory that a mathematician should know. Part I introduces set theory, including basic axioms, development of the natural number system, Zorn's Lemma and other maximal principles. Part II proves the consistency of the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice, with material on collapsing mappings, model-theoretic results, and constructible sets. Part III presents a version of Cohen's proofs of the independence of the continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice. It also presents, for the first time in a textbook, the double induction and superinduction principles, and Cowen's theorem. The book will interest students and researchers in logic and set theory.

Logic, Mathematics, and Computer Science

Modern Foundations with Practical Applications


Author: Yves Nievergelt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493932233

Category: Mathematics

Page: 391

View: 2073

This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory. The focuses is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so unintuitive? Why are there no recipes to design proofs? Where do these numerous mathematical rules come from? What issues in logic, mathematics, and computer science still remain unresolved? And the perennial question: In what ways are we going to use this material? Additionally, the selection of topics presented reflects many major accomplishments from the twentieth century and includes applications in game theory and Nash's equilibrium, Gale and Shapley's match making algorithms, Arrow's Impossibility Theorem in voting, to name a few. From the reviews of the first edition: "...All the results are proved in full detail from first principles...remarkably, the arithmetic laws on the rational numbers are proved, step after step, starting from the very definitions!...This is a valuable reference text and a useful companion for anybody wondering how basic mathematical concepts can be rigorously developed within set theory." —MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS "Rigorous and modern in its theoretical aspect, attractive as a detective novel in its applied aspects, this paper book deserves the attention of both beginners and advanced students in mathematics, logic and computer sciences as well as in social sciences." —Zentralblatt MATH

Simple Theories and Hyperimaginaries


Author: Enrique Casanovas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521119553

Category: Mathematics

Page: 169

View: 9182

In the 1990s Kim and Pillay generalized stability, a major model theoretic idea developed by Shelah twenty-five years earlier, to the study of simple theories. This book is an up-to-date introduction to simple theories and hyperimaginaries, with special attention to Lascar strong types and elimination of hyperimaginary problems. Assuming only knowledge of general model theory, the foundations of forking, stability, and simplicity are presented in full detail. The treatment of the topics is as general as possible, working with stable formulas and types and assuming stability or simplicity of the theory only when necessary. The author offers an introduction to independence relations as well as a full account of canonical bases of types in stable and simple theories. In the last chapters the notions of internality and analyzability are discussed and used to provide a self-contained proof of elimination of hyperimaginaries in supersimple theories.