Scipio Africanus

Rome's Greatest General

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Author: Richard A. Gabriel

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597979988

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 326

View: 3723

The world often misunderstands its greatest men while neglecting others entirely. Scipio Africanus, surely the greatest general that Rome produced, suffered both these fates. Today scholars celebrate the importance of Hannibal, even though Scipio defeated the legendary general in the Second Punic War and was the central military figure of his time. In this scholarly and heretofore unmatched military biography of the distinguished Roman soldier, Richard A. Gabriel establishes Scipio's rightful place in military history as the greater of the two generals. Before Scipio, few Romans would have dreamed of empire, and Scipio himself would have regarded such an ambition as a danger to his beloved republic. And yet, paradoxically, Scipio's victories in Spain and Africa enabled Rome to consolidate its hold over Italy and become the dominant power in the western Mediterranean, virtually ensuring a later confrontation with the Greco-Macedonian kingdoms to the east as well as the empire's expansion into North Africa and the Levant. The Roman imperium was being born, and it was Scipio who had sired it. Gabriel draws upon ancient texts, including those from Livy, Polybius, Diodorus, Silius Italicus, and others, as primary sources and examines all additional material available to the modern scholar in French, German, English, and Italian. His book offers a complete bibliography of all extant sources regarding Scipio's life. The result is a rich, detailed, and contextual treatment of the life and career of Scipio Africanus, one of Rome's greatest generals, if not the greatest of them all.

Hannibal

The Military Biography of Rome's Greatest Enemy

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Author: Richard A. Gabriel

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597976865

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 3141

The Romans' destruction of Carthage after the Third Punic War erased any Carthaginian historical record of Hannibal's life. What we know of him comes exclusively from Roman historians who had every interest in minimizing his success, exaggerating his failures, and disparaging his character. The charges leveled against Hannibal include greed, cruelty and atrocity, sexual indulgence, and even cannibalism. But even these sources were forced to grudgingly admit to Hannibal's military genius, if only to make their eventual victory over him appear greater. Yet there is no doubt that Hannibal was the greatest Carthaginian general of the Second Punic War. When he did not defeat them outright, he fought to a standstill the best generals Rome produced, and he sustained his army in the field for sixteen long years without mutiny or desertion. Hannibal was a first-rate tactician, only a somewhat lesser strategist, and the greatest enemy Rome ever faced. When he at last met defeat at the hands of the Roman general Scipio, it was against an experienced officer who had to strengthen and reconfigure the Roman legion and invent mobile tactics in order to succeed. Even so, Scipio's victory at Zama was against an army that was a shadow of its former self. The battle could easily have gone the other way. If it had, the history of the West would have been changed in ways that can only be imagined. Richard A. Gabriel's brilliant new biography shows how Hannibal's genius nearly unseated the Roman Empire.

From Republic to Empire

Scipio Africanus in the Punica of Silius Italicus

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Author: Raymond Marks

Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9783631545843

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 308

View: 6142

<I>From Republic to Empire challenges the long-held view that Silius Italicus' <I>Punica is a nostalgic epic and argues that it is, instead, centrally concerned with and fundamentally shaped by the contemporary Flavian world in which it was composed. The epic documents how Rome's Republic took its first steps toward becoming an Empire during the Second Punic War and identifies the leader Scipio Africanus as the critical impetus behind this development: his rise to prominence in the war's later stages brings about a change in Rome's power-structure, a shift toward one-man rule, Scipio's -rule-, that prefigures and paves the way for the political arrangement under which the poet himself lived, the Principate. In portraying Scipio as a good king and a virtuous <I>princeps, Silius, furthermore, offers the emperor of his own day, Domitian, a leadership-ideal to aspire to and emulate."

Hannibal's Last Battle

Zama and the Fall of Carthage

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Author: Brian Todd Carey

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 1473814812

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 9600

At Zama in what is now Tunisia in 202 BC the armies of two empires clashed. The Romans under Scipio Africanus won a bloody, decisive victory over Hannibal's Carthaginians. Scipio's victory signalled a shift in the balance of power in the ancient world. Brian Todd Carey's compelling reconstruction of the battle, and of the gruelling war that led up to it, gives a fascinating insight into the Carthaginian and Roman methods of waging war. And it offers a critical assessment of the contrasting qualities and leadership styles of Hannibal and Scipio, the two most celebrated commanders of their age.

Pride of Carthage

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Author: David Anthony Durham

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 9780307276995

Category: Fiction

Page: 592

View: 2153

This epic retelling of the legendary Carthaginian military leader’s assault on the Roman empire begins in Ancient Spain, where Hannibal Barca sets out with tens of thousands of soldiers and 30 elephants. After conquering the Roman city of Saguntum, Hannibal wages his campaign through the outposts of the empire, shrewdly befriending peoples disillusioned by Rome and, with dazzling tactics, outwitting the opponents who believe the land route he has chosen is impossible. Yet Hannibal’s armies must take brutal losses as they pass through the Pyrenees mountains, forge the Rhone river, and make a winter crossing of the Alps before descending to the great tests at Cannae and Rome itself. David Anthony Durham draws a brilliant and complex Hannibal out of the scant historical record–sharp, sure-footed, as nimble among rivals as on the battlefield, yet one who misses his family and longs to see his son grow to manhood. Whether portraying the deliberations of a general or the calculations of a common soldier, vast multilayered scenes of battle or moments of introspection when loss seems imminent, Durham brings history alive.

The Roman Hannibal

Remembering the Enemy in Silius Italicus' Punica

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Author: Claire Stocks

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1781380287

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 5988

Silius Italicus' Punica, the longest surviving epic in Latin literature, has seen a resurgence of interest among scholars in recent years. A celebration of Rome's triumph over Hannibal and Carthage during the second Punic war, Silius' poem presents a plethora of familiar names to its readers: Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and, of course, Rome's 'ultimate enemy' - Hannibal. Where most recent scholarship on the Punica has focused its attention of the problematic portrayal of Scipio Africanus as a hero for Rome, this book shifts the focus to Carthage and offers a new reading of Hannibal's place in Silius' epic, and in Rome's literary culture at large. Celebrated and demonised in equal measure, Hannibal became something of an anti-hero for Rome; a man who acquired mythic status, and was condemned by Rome's authors for his supposed greed and cruelty, yet admired for his military acumen. For the first time this book provides a comprehensive overview of this multi-faceted Hannibal as he appears in the Punica and suggests that Silius' portrayal of him can be read as the culmination to Rome's centuries-long engagement with the Carthaginian in its literature. Through detailed consideration of internal focalisation, Silius' Hannibal is revealed to be a man striving to create an eternal legacy, becoming the Hannibal whom a Roman, and a modern reader, would recognise. The works of Polybius, Livy, Virgil, and the post Virgilian epicists all have a bit-part in this book, which aims to show that Silius Italicus' Punica is as much an example of how Rome remembered its past, as it is a text striving to join Rome's epic canon.

The Ghosts of Cannae

Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic

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Author: Robert L. O'Connell

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0812978676

Category: History

Page: 310

View: 8791

A dramatic account of the violent ancient battle traces the massive defeat of the huge but inexperienced Roman army by Hannibal's forces, interpreting the larger course of the Second Punic War and the often-disastrous ways in which the battle has been imitated throughout history.

Scipio Africanus

Greater Than Napoleon

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Author: Basil Henry Liddell Hart

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780306805837

Category: Consuls, Roman

Page: 281

View: 3654

"In the future, even more than in the past, the need is to study and understand the interplay of the military, economic, and political forces, which are inseparable in strategy. Because Scipio more than any other great captain understood and combined these forces in his strategy, despite the very 'modern' handicap of being the servant of a republic -- not, like Alexander, Frederick, Napoleon, a despot, -- the study of his life is peculiarly apposite today. Above all, because the moral objective was the aim of all his plans, whether political, strategical, or tactical"--Preface.

The Punic Wars 264–146 BC

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Author: Nigel Bagnall

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472809971

Category: History

Page: 96

View: 1854

The three Punic Wars lasted over 100 years, between 264 BC and 146 BC. They represented a struggle for supremacy in the Mediterranean between the bludgeoning land power of Rome, bent on imperial conquest, and the great maritime power of Carthage with its colonies and trading posts spread around the Mediterranean. This book reveals how the dramas and tragedies of the Punic Wars exemplify many political and military lessons which are as relevant today as when Hannibal and Scipio Africanus fought to determine the course of history in the Mediterranean.

The War with Hannibal

The History of Rome from its Foundation

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Author: Livy

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141963069

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 1951

In The War with Hannibal, Livy (59 BC-AD 17) chronicles the events of the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage, until the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. He vividly recreates the immense armies of Hannibal, complete with elephants, crossing the Alps; the panic as they approached the gates of Rome; and the decimation of the Roman army at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. Yet it is also the clash of personalities that fascinates Livy, from great debates in the Senate to the historic meeting between Scipio and Hannibal before the decisive battle. Livy never hesitates to introduce both intense drama and moral lessons into his work, and here he brings a turbulent episode in history powerfully to life.

Hannibal's Road

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Author: Mike Roberts

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781473855953

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 8000

Many books have been written on the Second Punic War and Hannibal in particular but few give much space to his campaigns in the years from 213 - 203 BC'. Most studies concentrate on Hannibal's series of stunning victories in the early stages of the war, culminating at Cannae in 216 BC, then refocus on the activities of his nemesis, Scipio Africanus, in Spain until the two meet in the final showdown at Zama. But this has led to the neglect of some of the Carthaginian genius' most remarkable campaigns. By 212 the wider war was definitely going against the Carthaginians. Yet Hannibal, despite being massively outnumbered and with little support from home, was able to sustain his polyglot army and campaign actively across southern Italy for another ten years. His skillful maneuvering and victory in numerous engagements kept several veteran armies of the normally aggressive Romans tied up and on the defensive, until Scipio's invasion of North Africa pulled him home to defend Carthage. Mike Roberts follows the course of these remarkable events in detail, analyzing Hannibal's strategy and aims in this phase of the war and revealing a genius that had lost none of its luster in adversity.

Hannibal's War

A Military History of the Second Punic War

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Author: John Francis Lazenby

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 9780806130040

Category: History

Page: 340

View: 6059

Hannibal is acknowledged to be one of history's greatest generals, and his crossing of the Alps - complete with elephants - to make war against Rome on its home soil is legendary. But even Hannibal met his match in Scipio, and ultimately Carthage was defeated by the rising power of Rome. In Hannibal's War, J. F. Lazenby provides the first scholarly account in English since 1886 solely devoted to the Second Punic War - what some have called the first "world war" for mastery of the Mediterranean world. By closely examining the accounts of Livy and Polybius, supplemented with the fruits of modern research, Lazenby provides a detailed military history of the entire war as it was fought in Italy, Spain, Greece, and North Africa. This edition includes a new preface covering recent research on Hannibal's war against Rome.

The Roman Army of the Punic Wars 264–146 BC

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Author: Nic Fields

Publisher: Osprey Publishing

ISBN: 9781846031458

Category: History

Page: 96

View: 4344

Long before the Second Punic War (218 - 201 BC), Rome's influence extended no further than the Alps, and the wars that it fought consisted of small-scale raids and cattle rustling, with perhaps the occasional battle between armies. Nevertheless, within a century the seeds of an empire had been sown in Iberia, Africa, and the Greek east, and the Roman Republican army became the most successful of its day, establishing standards of discipline, organization, and efficiency that set a bench mark for the later armies of Rome. With the evolution of the Roman Republic came the adoption of the Manipular legion, a formation taken from the hoplite phalanx and first used in mass deployment against the North African nation of Carthage, during the Punic Wars. In this book Nic Fields examines the evolution of the Roman army from its defeat at Cannae through to their final success at Zama which saw a small city-based force evolve into a Mediterranean powerhouse, demonstrating how and why it became the most highly organized, sophisticated force in the ancient world.

Cannae

The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War

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Author: Gregory Daly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134507127

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 8385

On a hot and dusty summer's day in 216 BC, the forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal faced the Roman army in a dramatic encounter at Cannae. Massively outnumbered, the Carthaginians nevertheless won an astonishing victory - one that left more than 50,000 men dead. Gregory Daly's enthralling study considers the reasons that led the two armies to the field of battle, and why each followed the course that they did when they got there. It explores in detail the composition of the armies, and the tactics and leadership methods of the opposing generals. Finally, by focusing on the experiences of those who fought, Daly gives an unparalleled portrait of the true horror and chaos of ancient warfare. This striking and vivid account is the fullest yet of the bloodiest battle in ancient history.

Scipio Rising

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Author: Martin Tessmer

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781494305123

Category: Fiction

Page: 340

View: 2834

Three men, three vows: one to destroy Rome, another to protect it, a third to defeat the both of them. This is the saga of Scipio Africanus, one of history's greatest generals, and his history defining clash with Hannibal the Great and Cato the Elder. Born into a wealthy and powerful military family, Cornelius Scipio is a brilliant scholar who dreams of educating the common people of Rome. But he has promised his father he will become a soldier and defend Rome against Hannibal, its sworn enemy. Young Scipio soon finds himself fighting on two fronts: in Italia against the Carthaginians and in the Rome against Cato the Elder's austerity party. When all the veteran commanders fear to confront Hannibal and his brothers, Scipio steps forward to become Rome's boy general. Leaving his mother and betrothed to wage his political war at home, he sets forth to defeat the undefeated, relying on visionary genius to compensate for an outnumbered army of raw recruits. This is the first book in the Scipio Africanus Trilogy, based on his exploits during the Second Punic War. The second book, The Three Generals, will be out in mid-2014.

Famous Men of Rome

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Author: John Henry Haaren,Addison B. Poland

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography

Page: 269

View: 4310

In the Name of Rome

The Men Who Won the Roman Empire

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Author: Adrian Goldsworthy

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300221835

Category: History

Page: 488

View: 3111

A definitive history of the great commanders of ancient Rome, from bestselling author Adrian Goldsworthy. “In his elegantly accessible style, Goldsworthy offers gripping and swiftly erudite accounts of Roman wars and the great captains who fought them. His heroes are never flavorless and generic, but magnificently Roman. And it is especially Goldsworthy's vision of commanders deftly surfing the giant, irresistible waves of Roman military tradition, while navigating the floating logs, reefs, and treacherous sandbanks of Roman civilian politics, that makes the book indispensable not only to those interested in Rome and her battles, but to anyone who finds it astounding that military men, at once driven and imperiled by the odd and idiosyncratic ways of their societies, can accomplish great deeds.” —J. E. Lendon, author of Soldiers and Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity

The Three Generals

Book Two of the Scipio Africanus Trilogy

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Author: Martin Tessmer

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781505994636

Category: Fiction

Page: 402

View: 639

210 BCE. The Roman Republic battles the empire of Carthage for control of the Mediterranean. Mago, Gisgo, and Hasdrubal hold Iberia and its riches firmly within their grip, preparing to send Hannibal the Great enough resources to destroy Rome forever. As the course of western civilization hangs in the balance, young Scipio sails to Iberia with a raw and undermanned army, undertaking a mission no other general would assume: to wrest control of Iberia from the Three Generals, the men who killed his father and uncle.