The Sciences of the Artificial

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Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262264495

Category: Computers

Page: 248

View: 4890

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools—chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms—for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen

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Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709193839

Category: Computers

Page: 241

View: 9248

Die Wissenschaften vom Künstlichen von Herbert A. Simon gilt seit dem Erscheinen der ersten Ausgabe im Jahr 1969 als "Klassiker" der Literatur zum Thema Künstliche Intelligenz. Simon hat zusammen mit den Computerwissenschaftlern Allen Newell, Marvin Minsky und John McCarthy Mitte der fünfziger Jahre das so bezeichnete - von Alan Turing antizipierte - Forschungsgebiet der Computerwissenschaft und der Psychologie ins Leben gerufen. Seine herausragende, allgemeinverständliche Darstellung von Grundüberlegungen und philosophischen Aspekten der Künstlichen Intelligenz ist heute aktueller denn je, nicht nur wegen der ständig zunehmenden Bedeutung der Forschung und Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet, sondern auch aufgrund des verbreiteten Mangels an Grundkenntnissen für eine kritische Auseinandersetzung mit der Künstlichen Intelligenz.

The Idea of Design

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Author: Victor Margolin,Richard Buchanan,Professor of Design Management & Information Systems George Richard Buchanan

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262631662

Category: Design

Page: 285

View: 7430

An anthology of essays addressing the nature and practice of contemporary product and graphic design, selected from volumes four through nine of the international journal Design Issues. Themes include reflection on the nature of design, the meaning of products, and the place of design in world culture. Includes b & w photos and illustrations. c. Book News Inc.

The Politics of the Artificial

Essays on Design and Design Studies

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Author: Victor Margolin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226505046

Category: Art

Page: 273

View: 3198

Emerging from the world of commercial art and product styling, design has now become completely integrated into human life. Its marks are all around us, from the chairs we sit on to the Web sites on our computer screens. One of the pioneers of design studies and still one of its most distinguished practitioners, Victor Margolin here offers a timely meditation on design and its study at the turn of the millennium and charts new directions for the future development of both fields. Divided into sections on the practice and study of design, the essays in The Politics of the Artificial cover such topics as design history, design research, design as a political tool, sustainable design, and the problems of design's relation to advanced technologies. Margolin also examines the work of key practitioners such as the matrix designer Ken Isaacs. Throughout the book Margolin demonstrates the underlying connections between the many ways of reflecting on and practicing design. He argues for the creation of an international, interdisciplinary field of design research and proposes a new ethical agenda for designers and researchers that encompasses the responsibility to users, the problems of sustainability, and the complicated questions of how to set boundaries for applying advanced technology to solve the problems of human life. Opinionated and erudite, Victor Margolin's The Politics of the Artificial breaks fresh ground in its call for a new approach to design research and practice. Designers, engineers, architects, anthropologists, sociologists, and historians will all benefit from its insights.

Contemplating Minds

A Forum for Artificial Intelligence

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Author: William J. Clancey,Stephen W. Smoliar,Mark Stefik

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262531191

Category: Computers

Page: 543

View: 7723

One place where the scientific debate has been written for a broad audience is in the book review column of the international journal Artificial Intelligence, which has evolved from simple reviews to a multidisciplinary forum where reviewers and authors debate the latest, often competing, theories of human and artificial intelligence.

KI 2009: Advances in Artificial Intelligence

32nd Annual German Conference on AI, Paderborn, Germany, September 15-18, 2009, Proceedings

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Author: Bärbel Mertsching,Marcus Hund,Zaheer Aziz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642046169

Category: Computers

Page: 737

View: 2020

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 32nd Annual German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, KI 2009, held in Paderborn, Germany, in September 2009. The 76 revised full papers presented together with 15 posters were carefully reviewed and selected from 126 submissions. The papers are divided in topical sections on planning and scheduling; vision and perception; machine learning and data mining; evolutionary computing; natural language processing; knowledge representation and reasoning; cognition; history and philosophical foundations; AI and engineering; automated reasoning; spatial and temporal reasoning; agents and intelligent virtual environments; experience adn knowledge management; and robotics.

Québec Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Part II: Biology, Psychology, Cognitive Science and Economics Essays in Honor of Hugues Leblanc

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Author: Mathieu Marion,Robert S. Cohen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400901135

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 1564

By North-American standards, philosophy is not new in Quebec: the first men tion of philosophy lectures given by a Jesuit in the College de Quebec (founded 1635) dates from 1665, and the oldest logic manuscript dates from 1679. In English-speaking universities such as McGill (founded 1829), philosophy began to be taught later, during the second half of the 19th century. The major influence on English-speaking philosophers was, at least initially, that of Scottish Empiricism. On the other hand, the strong influence of the Catholic Church on French-Canadian society meant that the staff of the facultes of the French-speaking universities consisted, until recently, almost entirely of Thomist philosophers. There was accordingly little or no work in modern Formal Logic and Philosophy of Science and precious few contacts between the philosophical communities. In the late forties, Hugues Leblanc was a young student wanting to learn Formal Logic. He could not find anyone in Quebec to teach him and he went to study at Harvard University under the supervision of W. V. Quine. His best friend Maurice L' Abbe had left, a year earlier, for Princeton to study with Alonzo Church. After receiving his Ph. D from Harvard in 1948, Leblanc started his profes sional career at Bryn Mawr College, where he stayed until 1967. He then went to Temple University, where he taught until his retirement in 1992, serving as Chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1973 until 1979.

Leben 3.0

Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz

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Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage

ISBN: 3843716706

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 6436

Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

Artificial Intelligence

Current Status and Future Potential

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Author: Herbert Alexander Simon

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 24

View: 3495

It Began with Babbage

The Genesis of Computer Science

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Author: Subrata Dasgupta

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199309434

Category: Computers

Page: 304

View: 5127

As a field, computer science occupies a unique scientific space, in that its subject matter can exist in both physical and abstract realms. An artifact such as software is both tangible and not, and must be classified as something in between, or "liminal." The study and production of liminal artifacts allows for creative possibilities that are, and have been, possible only in computer science. In It Began with Babbage, computer scientist and writer Subrata Dasgupta examines the distinct history of computer science in terms of its creative innovations, reaching back to Charles Babbage in 1819. Since all artifacts of computer science are conceived with a use in mind, the computer scientist is not concerned with the natural laws that govern disciplines like physics or chemistry; instead, the field is more concerned with the concept of purpose. This requirement lends itself to a type of creative thinking that, as Dasgupta shows us, has exhibited itself throughout the history of computer science. More than any other, computer science is the science of the artificial, and has a unique history to accompany its unique focus. The book traces a path from Babbage's Difference Engine in the early 19th century to the end of the 1960s by when a new academic discipline named "computer science" had come into being. Along the way we meet characters like Babbage and Ada Lovelace, Turing and von Neumann, Shannon and Chomsky, and a host of other people from a variety of backgrounds who collectively created this new science of the artificial. And in the end, we see how and why computer science acquired a nature and history all of its own.

Artificial Intelligence and Creativity

An Interdisciplinary Approach

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Author: T. Dartnall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792330615

Category: Psychology

Page: 458

View: 8968

Creativity is one of the least understood aspects of intelligence and is often seen as `intuitive' and not susceptible to rational enquiry. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in the area, principally in artificial intelligence and cognitive science, but also in psychology, philosophy, computer science, logic, mathematics, sociology, and architecture and design. This volume brings this work together and provides an overview of this rapidly developing field. It addresses a range of issues. Can computers be creative? Can they help us to understand human creativity? How can artificial intelligence (AI) enhance human creativity? How, in particular, can it contribute to the `sciences of the artificial', such as design? Does the new wave of AI (connectionism, geneticism and artificial life) offer more promise in these areas than classical, symbol-handling AI? What would the implications be for AI and cognitive science if computers could not be creative? These issues are explored in five interrelated parts, each of which is introducted and explained by a leading figure in the field. - Prologue (Margaret Boden) - Part I: Foundational Issues (Terry Dartnall) - Part II: Creativity and Cognition (Graeme S. Halford and Robert Levinson) - Part III: Creativity and Connectionism (Chris Thornton) - Part IV: Creativity and Design (John Gero) - Part V: Human Creativity Enhancement (Ernest Edmonds) - Epilogue (Douglas Hofstadter) For researchers in AI, cognitive science, computer science, philosophy, psychology, mathematics, logic, sociology, and architecture and design; and anyone interested in the rapidly growing field of artificial intelligence and creativity.

The Sciences of Cognition

Theory and Research in Psychology and Artificial Intelligence

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Author: Morton Wagman

Publisher: Praeger Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 167

View: 1147

...articulates a general unified theory of intelligence directed toward integrated understanding of the nature of intelligence, whether human or artificial.

Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences

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Author: Richard Mattessich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027708373

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 627

This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.

Artificial Societies

The Computer Simulation Of Social Life

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Author: Nigel Gilbert University of Surrey; Rosaria Conte National Research Council of Italy.,

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135367310

Category: Social Science

Page: 316

View: 2155

An exploration of the implications of developments in artificial intelligence for social scientific research, which builds on the theoretical and methodological insights provided by "Simulating societies".; This book is intended for worldwide library market for social science subjects such as sociology, political science, geography, archaeology/anthropology, and significant appeal within computer science, particularly artificial intelligence. Also personal reference for researchers.

Digital Phoenix

Why the Information Economy Collapsed and How It Will Rise Again

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Author: Bruce Abramson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262261449

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 3422

While we were waiting for the Internet to make us rich -- back when we thought all we had to do was to buy lottery tickets called dotcom shares -- we missed the real story of the information economy. That story, says Bruce Abramson in Digital Phoenix, took place at the intersection of technology, law, and economics. It unfolded through Microsoft's manipulation of software markets, through open source projects like Linux, and through the file-sharing adventures that Napster enabled. Linux and Napster in particular exploited newly enabled business models to make information sharing cheap and easy; both systems met strong opposition from entrenched interests intent on preserving their own profits. These scenarios set the stage for the future of the information economy, a future in which each new technology will threaten powerful incumbents -- who will, in turn, fight to retard this "dangerous new direction" of progress.Disentangling the technological, legal, and economic threads of the story, Abramson argues that the key to the entire information economy -- understanding the past and preparing for the future -- lies in our approach to intellectual property and idea markets. The critical challenge of the information age, he says, is to motivate the creation and dissemination of ideas. After discussing relevant issues in intellectual property and antitrust law, the economics of competition, and artificial intelligence and software engineering, Abramson tells the information economy's formative histories: the Microsoft antitrust trial, the open-source movement, and (in a chapter called "The Computer Ate My Industry") the advent of digital music. Finally, he looks toward the future, examining some ways that intellectual property reform could power economic growth and showing how the information economy will reshape the ways we think about business, employment, society, and public policy -- how the information economy, in fact, can make us all rich, as consumers and producers, if not as investors.

Artifacts and Artificial Science

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Author: Bo Dahlbom,Svante Beckman,Göran B. Nilsson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 137

View: 1602

In three essays, examine the idea of an artificial science, the nature of artifacts, our artificial world and the example of history as an artificial science.

Intelligent Data Mining in Law Enforcement Analytics

New Neural Networks Applied to Real Problems

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Author: Paolo Massimo Buscema,William J. Tastle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400749147

Category: Social Science

Page: 518

View: 2375

This book provides a thorough summary of the means currently available to the investigators of Artificial Intelligence for making criminal behavior (both individual and collective) foreseeable, and for assisting their investigative capacities. The volume provides chapters on the introduction of artificial intelligence and machine learning suitable for an upper level undergraduate with exposure to mathematics and some programming skill or a graduate course. It also brings the latest research in Artificial Intelligence to life with its chapters on fascinating applications in the area of law enforcement, though much is also being accomplished in the fields of medicine and bioengineering. Individuals with a background in Artificial Intelligence will find the opening chapters to be an excellent refresher but the greatest excitement will likely be the law enforcement examples, for little has been done in that area. The editors have chosen to shine a bright light on law enforcement analytics utilizing artificial neural network technology to encourage other researchers to become involved in this very important and timely field of study.

The Discovery of the Artificial

Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics

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Author: R. Cordeschi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401598703

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 8033

This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and to computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The present volume offers a broad and imaginative approach to the study of the mind, which emphasizes several themes, namely: the importance of functional organization apart from the specific material by means of which it may be implemented; the use of modeling to simulate these functional processes and subject them to certain kinds of tests; the use of mentalistic language to describe and predict the behavior of artifacts; and the subsumption of processes of adaptation, learning, and intelligence by means of explanatory principles. The author has produced a rich and complex, lucid and readable discussion that clarifies and illuminates many of the most difficult problems arising within this difficult domain.

Wissenschaftstheorie und gestaltungsorientierte Wirtschaftsinformatik

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Author: Jörg Becker,Helmut Krcmar,Björn Niehaves

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 379082335X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 243

View: 5114

Die deutschsprachige Wirtschaftsinformatik kann auf eine reiche Tradition gestaltungsorientierter Arbeiten zurückblicken. Im Zuge der zunehmenden Forschungsinternationalisierung bietet sich hier die Chance, zum internationalen Diskurs im Information Systems und vor allem im Design Science Research beizutragen. Herausforderungen und Entwicklungspotenziale liegen für die gestaltungsorientierte Forschung jedoch vor allem in ihrer wissenschaftstheoretischen und methodischen Fundierung. Die Beiträge des Herausgeberbands „Wissenschaftstheorie und gestaltungsorientierte Wirtschaftsinformatik" stärken den theoretischen und methodischen Diskurs in der gestaltungsorientierten Wirtschaftsinformatik. Sie bieten Perspektiven und Ansatzpunkte für Wissenschaftler, Studenten sowie Praktiker an der Schnittstelle zwischen gestaltungsorientierter Forschung und betrieblicher Praxis.