Safety Differently

Human Factors for a New Era, Second Edition

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482241994

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 4687

The second edition of a bestseller, Safety Differently: Human Factors for a New Era is a complete update of Ten Questions About Human Error: A New View of Human Factors and System Safety. Today, the unrelenting pace of technology change and growth of complexity calls for a different kind of safety thinking. Automation and new technologies have resulted in new roles, decisions, and vulnerabilities whilst practitioners are also faced with new levels of complexity, adaptation, and constraints. It is becoming increasingly apparent that conventional approaches to safety and human factors are not equipped to cope with these challenges and that a new era in safety is necessary. In addition to new material covering changes in the field during the past decade, the book takes a new approach to discussing safety. The previous edition looked critically at the answers human factors would typically provide and compared/contrasted them with current research and insights at that time. The edition explains how to turn safety from a bureaucratic accountability back into an ethical responsibility for those who do our dangerous work, and how to embrace the human factor not as a problem to control, but as a solution to harness. See What’s in the New Edition: New approach reflects changes in the field Updated coverage of system safety and technology changes Latest human factors/ergonomics research applicable to safety Organizations, companies, and industries are faced with new demands and pressures resulting from the dynamics and nature of the modern marketplace and from the development and introduction of new technologies. This new era calls for a different kind of safety thinking, a thinking that sees people as the source of diversity, insight, creativity, and wisdom about safety, not as the source of risk that undermines an otherwise safe system. It calls for a kind of thinking that is quicker to trust people and mistrust bureaucracy, and that is more committed to actually preventing harm than to looking good. This book takes a forward-looking and assertively progressive view that prepares you to resolve current safety issues in any field.

Ten Questions About Human Error

A New View of Human Factors and System Safety

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1410612066

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 9290

Ten Questions About Human Error asks the type of questions frequently posed in incident and accident investigations, people's own practice, managerial and organizational settings, policymaking, classrooms, Crew Resource Management Training, and error research. It is one installment in a larger transformation that has begun to identify both deep-rooted constraints and new leverage points of views of human factors and system safety. The ten questions about human error are not just questions about human error as a phenomenon, but also about human factors and system safety as disciplines, and where they stand today. In asking these questions and sketching the answers to them, this book attempts to show where current thinking is limited--where vocabulary, models, ideas, and notions are constraining progress. This volume looks critically at the answers human factors would typically provide and compares/contrasts them with current research insights. Each chapter provides directions for new ideas and models that could perhaps better cope with the complexity of the problems facing human error today. As such, this book can be used as a supplement for a variety of human factors courses.

Behind Human Error

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Author: David D. Woods,Sidney Dekker,Richard Cook,Leila Johannesen,Nadine Sarter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317175530

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 8944

Human error is cited over and over as a cause of incidents and accidents. The result is a widespread perception of a 'human error problem', and solutions are thought to lie in changing the people or their role in the system. For example, we should reduce the human role with more automation, or regiment human behavior by stricter monitoring, rules or procedures. But in practice, things have proved not to be this simple. The label 'human error' is prejudicial and hides much more than it reveals about how a system functions or malfunctions. This book takes you behind the human error label. Divided into five parts, it begins by summarising the most significant research results. Part 2 explores how systems thinking has radically changed our understanding of how accidents occur. Part 3 explains the role of cognitive system factors - bringing knowledge to bear, changing mindset as situations and priorities change, and managing goal conflicts - in operating safely at the sharp end of systems. Part 4 studies how the clumsy use of computer technology can increase the potential for erroneous actions and assessments in many different fields of practice. And Part 5 tells how the hindsight bias always enters into attributions of error, so that what we label human error actually is the result of a social and psychological judgment process by stakeholders in the system in question to focus on only a facet of a set of interacting contributors. If you think you have a human error problem, recognize that the label itself is no explanation and no guide to countermeasures. The potential for constructive change, for progress on safety, lies behind the human error label.

Pre-Accident Investigations

An Introduction to Organizational Safety

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Author: Dr Todd Conklin

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409483541

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 150

View: 8587

This book is a set of new skills written for the managers that drive safety in their workplace. This is Human Performance theory made simple. If you are starting a new program, revamping an old program, or simply interested in understanding more about safety performance, this guide will be extremely helpful.

The End of Heaven

Disaster and Suffering in a Scientific Age

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351819208

Category: Psychology

Page: 106

View: 8564

In this unique book, Sidney Dekker tackles a largely unexplored dilemma. Our scientific age has equipped us ever better to explain why things go wrong. But this increasing sophistication actually makes it harder to explain why we suffer. Accidents and disasters have become technical problems without inherent purpose. When told of a disaster, we easily feel lost in the steely emptiness of technical languages of engineering or medicine. Or, in our drive to pinpoint the source of suffering, we succumb to the hunt for a scapegoat, possibly inflicting even greater suffering on others around us. How can we satisfactorily deal with suffering when the disaster that caused it is no more than the dispassionate sum of utterly mundane, imperfect human decisions and technical failures? Broad in its historical sweep and ambition, The End of Heaven is also Dekker's most personal book to date.

Safety at the Sharp End

A Guide to Non-Technical Skills

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Author: Rhona Flin,Paul O'Connor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317059948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 330

View: 3891

Many 21st century operations are characterised by teams of workers dealing with significant risks and complex technology, in competitive, commercially-driven environments. Informed managers in such sectors have realised the necessity of understanding the human dimension to their operations if they hope to improve production and safety performance. While organisational safety culture is a key determinant of workplace safety, it is also essential to focus on the non-technical skills of the system operators based at the 'sharp end' of the organisation. These skills are the cognitive and social skills required for efficient and safe operations, often termed Crew Resource Management (CRM) skills. In industries such as civil aviation, it has long been appreciated that the majority of accidents could have been prevented if better non-technical skills had been demonstrated by personnel operating and maintaining the system. As a result, the aviation industry has pioneered the development of CRM training. Many other organisations are now introducing non-technical skills training, most notably within the healthcare sector. Safety at the Sharp End is a general guide to the theory and practice of non-technical skills for safety. It covers the identification, training and evaluation of non-technical skills and has been written for use by individuals who are studying or training these skills on CRM and other safety or human factors courses. The material is also suitable for undergraduate and post-experience students studying human factors or industrial safety programmes.

Second Victim

Error, Guilt, Trauma, and Resilience

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146658341X

Category: Medical

Page: 128

View: 3210

How do people cope with having "caused" a terrible accident? How do they cope when they survive and have to live with the consequences ever after? We tend to blame and forget professionals who cause incidents and accidents, but they are victims too. They are second victims whose experiences of an incident or adverse event can be as traumatic as that of the first victims’. Yet information on second victimhood and its relationship to safety, about what is known and what organizations might need to do, is difficult to find. Thoroughly exploring an emerging topic with great relevance to safety culture, Second Victim: Error, Guilt, Trauma, and Resilience examines the lived experience of second victims. It goes through what we know about trauma, guilt, forgiveness, and injustice and how these might be felt by the second victim. The author discusses how to conduct investigations of incidents that do not alienate second victims or make them feel even worse. It explores the importance support and resilience and where the responsibilities for creating it may lie. Drawing on his unique background as psychologist, airline pilot, and safety specialist, and his own experiences with helping second victims from a variety of backgrounds, Sidney Dekker has written a powerful, moving account of the experience of the second victim. It forms compelling reading for practitioners, risk managers, human resources managers, safety experts, mental health workers, regulators, the judiciary, and many other professionals. Dekker provides a strong theoretical background to promote understanding of the situation of the second victim and solid practical advice about how to deal with trauma that continues after an event leading to preventable harm or even avoidable death of a patient, consumer, or colleague. Listen to Sidney Dekker speak about his book

Challenging the Safety Quo

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Author: Craig Marriott

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351364669

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 168

View: 369

Safety is broken. The people who are responsible for helping you stay safe should be at the top of your Christmas card list but all too often they are despised, ridiculed and ignored. But safety management is beginning to be challenged. Businesses have begun to realise that what they have been doing is no longer providing any additional value. The same issues are repeatedly raised by corporate leadership: How do we get our workforce engaged in safety? How do we improve safety systems to gain commitment from all employees? How do we improve safety understanding to make the case for change? How do we embed safety as an integral part of culture in an environment of ongoing change and cost pressure? Challenging the Safety Quo makes the case for change based on stagnating performance, identifies areas where there are problems and proposes alternative ways to progress. Provocative but practical, it outlines the business benefits to be gained from putting in place the right approaches to managing safety, although not in the way traditionally presented by most safety managers. This book translates theory into practice; putting an accessible, practical and usable spin on cutting edge thinking in safety.

Just Culture

Balancing Safety and Accountability

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409440605

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 171

View: 9230

While many organizations see the value of creating a just culture they struggle when it comes to developing it. In this Second Edition, Dekker expands his views, additionally tackling the key issue of how justice is created inside organizations. Dekker also introduces new material on ethics and on caring for the' second victim' (the professional at the centre of the incident). Consequently, we have a natural evolution of the author's ideas.

The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351889753

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 252

View: 680

When faced with a human error problem, you may be tempted to ask 'Why didn't they watch out better? How could they not have noticed?'. You think you can solve your human error problem by telling people to be more careful, by reprimanding the miscreants, by issuing a new rule or procedure. These are all expressions of 'The Bad Apple Theory', where you believe your system is basically safe if it were not for those few unreliable people in it. This old view of human error is increasingly outdated and will lead you nowhere. The new view, in contrast, understands that a human error problem is actually an organizational problem. Finding a 'human error' by any other name, or by any other human, is only the beginning of your journey, not a convenient conclusion. The new view recognizes that systems are inherent trade-offs between safety and other pressures (for example: production). People need to create safety through practice, at all levels of an organization. Breaking new ground beyond its successful predecessor, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error guides you through the traps and misconceptions of the old view. It explains how to avoid the hindsight bias, to zoom out from the people closest in time and place to the mishap, and resist the temptation of counterfactual reasoning and judgmental language. But it also helps you look forward. It suggests how to apply the new view in building your safety department, handling questions about accountability, and constructing meaningful countermeasures. It even helps you in getting your organization to adopt the new view and improve its learning from failure. So if you are faced by a human error problem, abandon the fallacy of a quick fix. Read this book.

Drift into Failure

From Hunting Broken Components to Understanding Complex Systems

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351942913

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 234

View: 3297

What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.

Safety-II in Practice

Developing the Resilience Potentials

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Author: Erik Hollnagel

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 135178076X

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 648

Safety-I is defined as the freedom from unacceptable harm. The purpose of traditional safety management is therefore to find ways to ensure this 'freedom'. But as socio-technical systems steadily have become larger and less tractable, this has become harder to do. Resilience engineering pointed out from the very beginning that resilient performance - an organisation's ability to function as required under expected and unexpected conditions alike - required more than the prevention of incidents and accidents. This developed into a new interpretation of safety (Safety-II) and consequently a new form of safety management. Safety-II changes safety management from protective safety and a focus on how things can go wrong, to productive safety and a focus on how things can and do go well. For Safety-II, the aim is not just the elimination of hazards and the prevention of failures and malfunctions but also how best to develop an organisation's potentials for resilient performance - the way it responds, monitors, learns, and anticipates. That requires models and methods that go beyond the Safety-I toolbox. This book introduces a comprehensive approach for the management of Safety-II, called the Resilience Assessment Grid (RAG). It explains the principles of the RAG and how it can be used to develop the resilience potentials. The RAG provides four sets of diagnostic and formative questions that can be tailored to any organisation. The questions are based on the principles of resilience engineering and backed by practical experience from several domains. Safety-II in Practice is for both the safety professional and academic reader. For the professional, it presents a workable method (RAG) for the management of Safety-II, with a proven track record. For academic and student readers, the book is a concise and practical presentation of resilience engineering.

Risk Modeling, Assessment, and Management

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Author: Yacov Y. Haimes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119017998

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 720

View: 8819

Presents systems-based theory, methodology, and applications in risk modeling, assessment, and management This book examines risk analysis, focusing on quantifying risk and constructing probabilities for real-world decision-making, including engineering, design, technology, institutions, organizations, and policy. The author presents fundamental concepts (hierarchical holographic modeling; state space; decision analysis; multi-objective trade-off analysis) as well as advanced material (extreme events and the partitioned multi-objective risk method; multi-objective decision trees; multi-objective risk impact analysis method; guiding principles in risk analysis); avoids higher mathematics whenever possible; and reinforces the material with examples and case studies. The book will be used in systems engineering, enterprise risk management, engineering management, industrial engineering, civil engineering, and operations research. The fourth edition of Risk Modeling, Assessment, and Management features: Expanded chapters on systems-based guiding principles for risk modeling, planning, assessment, management, and communication; modeling interdependent and interconnected complex systems of systems with phantom system models; and hierarchical holographic modeling An expanded appendix including a Bayesian analysis for the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity, and the Farmer’s Dilemma formulated and solved using a deterministic linear model Updated case studies including a new case study on sequential Pareto-optimal decisions for emergent complex systems of systems A new companion website with over 200 solved exercises that feature risk analysis theories, methodologies, and application Risk Modeling, Assessment, and Management, Fourth Edition, is written for both undergraduate and graduate students in systems engineering and systems management courses. The text also serves as a resource for academic, industry, and government professionals in the fields of homeland and cyber security, healthcare, physical infrastructure systems, engineering, business, and more.

Human Error

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Author: James Reason

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521314190

Category: Psychology

Page: 302

View: 7216

This 1991 book is a major theoretical integration of several previously isolated literatures looking at human error in major accidents.

40 Days of Dating

An Experiment

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Author: Timothy Goodman,Jessica Walsh

Publisher: ABRAMS

ISBN: 1613127154

Category: Self-Help

Page: 304

View: 2066

“What would happen if Harry met Sally in the age of Tinder and Snapchat? . . . A field guide to Millennial dating in New York City” (New York Daily News). When New York–based graphic designers and long-time friends Timothy Goodman and Jessica Walsh found themselves single at the same time, they decided to try an experiment. The old adage says that it takes 40 days to change a habit—could the same be said for love? So they agreed to date each other for 40 days, record their experiences in questionnaires, photographs, videos, texts, and artworks, and post the material on a website they would create for this purpose. What began as a small experiment between two friends became an Internet sensation, drawing 5 million unique (and obsessed) visitors from around the globe to their site and their story. 40 Days of Dating: An Experiment is a beautifully designed, expanded look at the experiment and the results, including a great deal of material that never made it onto the site, such as who they were as friends and individuals before the 40 days and who they have become since.

Safety-I and Safety-II

The Past and Future of Safety Management

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Author: Professor Erik Hollnagel

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472423070

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 4960

Safety has traditionally been defined as a condition where the number of adverse outcomes was as low as possible (Safety-I). From a Safety-I perspective, the purpose of safety management is to make sure that the number of accidents and incidents is kept as low as possible, or as low as is reasonably practicable. This means that safety management must start from the manifestations of the absence of safety and that - paradoxically - safety is measured by counting the number of cases where it fails rather than by the number of cases where it succeeds. This unavoidably leads to a reactive approach based on responding to what goes wrong or what is identified as a risk - as something that could go wrong. Focusing on what goes right, rather than on what goes wrong, changes the definition of safety from ‘avoiding that something goes wrong’ to ‘ensuring that everything goes right’. More precisely, Safety-II is the ability to succeed under varying conditions, so that the number of intended and acceptable outcomes is as high as possible. From a Safety-II perspective, the purpose of safety management is to ensure that as much as possible goes right, in the sense that everyday work achieves its objectives. This means that safety is managed by what it achieves (successes, things that go right), and that likewise it is measured by counting the number of cases where things go right. In order to do this, safety management cannot only be reactive, it must also be proactive. But it must be proactive with regard to how actions succeed, to everyday acceptable performance, rather than with regard to how they can fail, as traditional risk analysis does. This book analyses and explains the principles behind both approaches and uses this to consider the past and future of safety management practices. The analysis makes use of common examples and cases from domains such as aviation, nuclear power production, process management and health care. The final chapters explain the theoretical and practical consequences of the new perspective on the level of day-to-day operations as well as on the level of strategic management (safety culture). Safety-I and Safety-II is written for all professionals responsible for their organisation's safety, from strategic planning on the executive level to day-to-day operations in the field. It presents the detailed and tested arguments for a transformation from protective to productive safety management.

Design Error

A Human Factors Approach

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Author: Ronald William Day

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315349345

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 92

View: 6289

This book shows how to identify potential design errors and modify procedures in the design process to mitigate design-induced error. Real life examples are used to demonstrate the points being made. Many of the concerns raised in the book have come from a worldwide study conducted with designers, managers, and end-users.

Distributed Cognition and Reality

How Pilots and Crews Make Decisions

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Author: Katherine L. Plant,Neville A. Stanton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317149416

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 250

View: 4119

Distributed Cognition and Reality puts theory into practice, as the first book to show how to apply the Perceptual Cycle Model in aviation decision making. Based on case studies, critical incident interviews and live observations in cockpits, the authors develop a new way to understand how pilots and crews make decisions. This book will be useful for practitioners involved in accident and incident investigations and decision-making training, researchers and students within the disciplines of Aviation, Human Factors, Ergonomics, Engineering, Computer Science, and Psychology. Dr Katherine L Plant is a New Frontiers Fellow in Human Factors Engineering at the University of Southampton in the UK. In 2014 she was awarded the Honourable Company of Air Pilots Prize for Aviation Safety Research. Professor Neville A Stanton holds the Chair in Human Factors Engineering at the University of Southampton in the UK. In 2007 The Royal Aeronautical Society awarded him the Hodgson Medal for his work on flight-deck safety.

Just Culture

Restoring Trust and Accountability in Your Organization, Third Edition

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Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317109899

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 168

View: 1691

A just culture is a culture of trust, learning and accountability. It is particularly important when an incident has occurred; when something has gone wrong. How do you respond to the people involved? What do you do to minimize the negative impact, and maximize learning? This third edition of Sidney Dekker’s extremely successful Just Culture offers new material on restorative justice and ideas about why your people may be breaking rules. Supported by extensive case material, you will learn about safety reporting and honest disclosure, about retributive just culture and about the criminalization of human error. Some suspect a just culture means letting people off the hook. Yet they believe they need to remain able to hold people accountable for undesirable performance. In this new edition, Dekker asks you to look at 'accountability' in different ways. One is by asking which rule was broken, who did it, whether that behavior crossed some line, and what the appropriate consequences should be. In this retributive sense, an 'account' is something you get people to pay, or settle. But who will draw that line? And is the process fair? Another way to approach accountability after an incident is to ask who was hurt. To ask what their needs are. And to explore whose obligation it is to meet those needs. People involved in causing the incident may well want to participate in meeting those needs. In this restorative sense, an 'account' is something you get people to tell, and others to listen to. Learn to look at accountability in different ways and your impact on restoring trust, learning and a sense of humanity in your organization could be enormous.

Simple Revolutionary Acts

Ideas to Revitalize Yourself and Your Workplace

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Author: Todd Conklin

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 0595320651

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 84

View: 1759

"My job is boring and my boss is an idiot." Stop thinking that way. You have the power to be more passionate about work. Never be satisfied with anything less then what you want from your career. Simple Revolutionary Acts: Ideas to revitalize yourself and your workplace is a valuable resource to anyone who feels some of the passion has gone away from work. Why accept the fact that you work in a less than satisfying way? Change your workplace. Why not lead a revolution? Every good workplace revolution needs a list of ideas to begin re-energizing the core of workplace happiness and satisfaction: Your relationships with customers, clients, and co-workers. Simple Revolutionary Acts: Ideas to revitalize yourself and your workplace provides that list! Author Dr. Todd Conklin brings over 20 years experience working with organizations that want to be more passionate. His creative and direct approach to changing the way people interact with each other comes from years of trial and error. Simple Revolutionary Acts: Ideas to revitalize yourself and your workplace provides valuable insight and suggestions to: Change the way you think Address how you communicate Try new ideas to make work more meaningful Simple Revolutionary Acts: Ideas to revitalize yourself and your workplace is a resource for all workers and managers.