Robot Futures

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Author: Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262018624

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 133

View: 9844

With robots, we are inventing a new species that is part material and part digital.The ambition of modern robotics goes beyond copying humans, beyond the effort to make walking,talking androids that are indistinguishable from people. Future robots will have superhumanabilities in both the physical and digital realms. They will be embedded in our physical spaces,with the ability to go where we cannot, and will have minds of their own, thanks to artificialintelligence. They will be fully connected to the digital world, far better at carrying out onlinetasks than we are. In Robot Futures, the roboticist Illah Reza Nourbakhshconsiders how we will share our world with these creatures, and how our society could change as itincorporates a race of stronger, smarter beings. Nourbakhsh imagines a future that includes adbotsoffering interactive custom messaging; robotic flying toys that operate by means of "gazetracking"; robot-enabled multimodal, multicontinental telepresence; and even a way thatnanorobots could allow us to assume different physical forms. Nourbakhsh follows each glimpse intothe robotic future with an examination of the underlying technology and an exploration of the socialconsequences of the scenario. Each chapter describes a form of technologicalempowerment -- in some cases, empowerment run amok, with corporations and institutions amassing evenmore power and influence and individuals becoming unconstrained by social accountability. (Imaginethe hotheaded discourse of the Internet taking physical form.) Nourbakhsh also offers acounter-vision: a robotics designed to create civic and community empowerment. His book helps usunderstand why that is the robot future we should try to bring about.

Robot Futures

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Author: Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262313197

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 9624

With robots, we are inventing a new species that is part material and part digital. The ambition of modern robotics goes beyond copying humans, beyond the effort to make walking, talking androids that are indistinguishable from people. Future robots will have superhuman abilities in both the physical and digital realms. They will be embedded in our physical spaces, with the ability to go where we cannot, and will have minds of their own, thanks to artificial intelligence. In Robot Futures, the roboticist Illah Reza Nourbakhsh considers how we will share our world with these creatures, and how our society could change as it incorporates a race of stronger, smarter beings.Nourbakhsh imagines a future that includes adbots offering interactive custom messaging; robotic flying toys that operate by means of "gaze tracking"; robot-enabled multimodal, multicontinental telepresence; and even a way that nanorobots could allow us to assume different physical forms. Nourbakhsh examines the underlying technology and the social consequences of each scenario. He also offers a counter-vision: a robotics designed to create civic and community empowerment. His book helps us understand why that is the robot future we should try to bring about.

Robot Futures

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Author: Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262528320

Category:

Page: 160

View: 4219

With robots, we are inventing a new species that is part material and part digital. The ambition of modern robotics goes beyond copying humans, beyond the effort to make walking, talking androids that are indistinguishable from people. Future robots will have superhuman abilities in both the physical and digital realms. They will be embedded in our physical spaces, with the ability to go where we cannot, and will have minds of their own, thanks to artificial intelligence. In Robot Futures, the roboticist Illah Reza Nourbakhsh considers how we will share our world with these creatures, and how our society could change as it incorporates a race of stronger, smarter beings. Nourbakhsh imagines a future that includes adbots offering interactive custom messaging; robotic flying toys that operate by means of "gaze tracking"; robot-enabled multimodal, multicontinental telepresence; and even a way that nanorobots could allow us to assume different physical forms. Nourbakhsh examines the underlying technology and the social consequences of each scenario. He also offers a counter-vision: a robotics designed to create civic and community empowerment. His book helps us understand why that is the robot future we should try to bring about.

Rise of the Robots

Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future

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Author: Martin Ford

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465040675

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 584

Winner of the 2015 FT & McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award A New York Times Bestseller Top Business Book of 2015 at Forbes One of NBCNews.com 12 Notable Science and Technology Books of 2015 What are the jobs of the future? How many will there be? And who will have them? As technology continues to accelerate and machines begin taking care of themselves, fewer people will be necessary. Artificial intelligence is already well on its way to making "good jobs" obsolete: many paralegals, journalists, office workers, and even computer programmers are poised to be replaced by robots and smart software. As progress continues, blue and white collar jobs alike will evaporate, squeezing working- and middle-class families ever further. At the same time, households are under assault from exploding costs, especially from the two major industries-education and health care-that, so far, have not been transformed by information technology. The result could well be massive unemployment and inequality as well as the implosion of the consumer economy itself. The past solutions to technological disruption, especially more training and education, aren't going to work. We must decide, now, whether the future will see broad-based prosperity or catastrophic levels of inequality and economic insecurity. Rise of the Robots is essential reading to understand what accelerating technology means for our economic prospects-not to mention those of our children-as well as for society as a whole.

Souls in metal

an anthology of robot futures

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Fiction

Page: 206

View: 6092

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots

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Author: Roland Siegwart,Illah Reza Nourbakhsh,Davide Scaramuzza

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262015358

Category: Computers

Page: 453

View: 1361

Machine generated contents note: |g 1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.2. |t An Overview of the Book -- |g 2. |t Locomotion -- |g 2.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.1.1. |t Key issues for locomotion -- |g 2.2. |t Legged Mobile Robots -- |g 2.2.1. |t Leg configurations and stability -- |g 2.2.2. |t Consideration of dynamics -- |g 2.2.3. |t Examples of legged robot locomotion -- |g 2.3. |t Wheeled Mobile Robots -- |g 2.3.1. |t Wheeled locomotion: The design space -- |g 2.3.2. |t Wheeled locomotion: Case studies -- |g 2.4. |t Aerial Mobile Robots -- |g 2.4.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.4.2. |t Aircraft configurations -- |g 2.4.3. |t State of the art in autonomous VTOL -- |g 2.5. |t Problems -- |g 3. |t Mobile Robot Kinematics -- |g 3.1. |t Introduction -- |g 3.2. |t Kinematic Models and Constraints -- |g 3.2.1. |t Representing robot position -- |g 3.2.2. |t Forward kinematic models -- |g 3.2.3. |t Wheel kinematic constraints -- |g 3.2.4. |t Robot kinematic constraints -- |g 3.g 3.3. |t Mobile Robot Maneuverability -- |g 3.3.1. |t Degree of mobility -- |g 3.3.2. |t Degree of steerability -- |g 3.3.3. |t Robot maneuverability -- |g 3.4. |t Mobile Robot Workspace -- |g 3.4.1. |t Degrees of freedom -- |g 3.4.2. |t Holonomic robots -- |g 3.4.3. |t Path and trajectory considerations -- |g 3.5. |t Beyond Basic Kinematics -- |g 3.6. |t Motion Control (Kinematic Control) -- |g 3.6.1. |t Open loop control (trajectory-following) -- |g 3.6.2. |t Feedback control -- |g 3.7. |t Problems -- |g 4. |t Perception -- |g 4.1. |t Sensors for Mobile Robots -- |g 4.1.1. |t Sensor classification -- |g 4.1.2. |t Characterizing sensor performance -- |g 4.1.3. |t Representing uncertainty -- |g 4.1.4. |t Wheel/motor sensors -- |g 4.1.5. |t Heading sensors -- |g 4.1.6. |t Accelerometers -- |g 4.1.7. |t Inertial measurement unit (IMU) -- |g 4.1.8. |t Ground beacons -- |g 4.1.9. |t Active ranging -- |g 4.1.10. |t Motion/speed sensors -- |g 4.1.11. |t Vision sensors -- |g 4.2. |t Fundameng 4.2.5. |t Structure from stereo -- |g 4.2.6. |t Structure from motion -- |g 4.2.7. |t Motion and optical flow -- |g 4.2.8. |t Color tracking -- |g 4.3. |t Fundamentals of Image Processing -- |g 4.3.1. |t Image filtering -- |g 4.3.2. |t Edge detection -- |g 4.3.3. |t Computing image similarity -- |g 4.4. |t Feature Extraction -- |g 4.5. |t Image Feature Extraction: Interest Point Detectors -- |g 4.5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.5.2. |t Properties of the ideal feature detector -- |g 4.5.3. |t Corner detectors -- |g 4.5.4. |t Invariance to photometric and geometric changes -- |g 4.5.5. |t Blob detectors -- |g 4.6. |t Place Recognition -- |g 4.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.6.2. |t From bag of features to visual words -- |g 4.6.3. |t Efficient location recognition by using an inverted file -- |g 4.6.4. |t Geometric verification for robust place recognition -- |g 4.6.5. |t Applications -- |g 4.6.6. |t Other image representations for place recognition -- |g 4.7. |t Feature Extraction Based ong 4.7.3. |t Range histogram features -- |g 4.7.4. |t Extracting other geometric features -- |g 4.8. |t Problems -- |g 5. |t Mobile Robot Localization -- |g 5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.2. |t The Challenge of Localization: Noise and Aliasing -- |g 5.2.1. |t Sensor noise -- |g 5.2.2. |t Sensor aliasing -- |g 5.2.3. |t Effector noise -- |g 5.2.4. |t An error model for odometric position estimation -- |g 5.3. |t To Localize or Not to Localize: Localization-Based Navigation Versus Programmed Solutions -- |g 5.4. |t Belief Representation -- |g 5.4.1. |t Single-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.4.2. |t Multiple-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.5. |t Map Representation -- |g 5.5.1. |t Continuous representations -- |g 5.5.2. |t Decomposition strategies -- |g 5.5.3. |t State of the art: Current challenges in map representation -- |g 5.6. |t Probabilistic Map-Based Localization -- |g 5.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.6.2. |t The robot localization problem -- |g 5.6.3. |t Basic concepts of probability theory -- |gg 5.6.6. |t Classification of localization problems -- |g 5.6.7. |t Markov localization -- |g 5.6.8. |t Kalman filter localization -- |g 5.7. |t Other Examples of Localization Systems -- |g 5.7.1. |t Landmark-based navigation -- |g 5.7.2. |t Globally unique localization -- |g 5.7.3. |t Positioning beacon systems -- |g 5.7.4. |t Route-based localization -- |g 5.8. |t Autonomous Map Building -- |g 5.8.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.8.2. |t SLAM: The simultaneous localization and mapping problem -- |g 5.8.3. |t Mathematical definition of SLAM -- |g 5.8.4. |t Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM -- |g 5.8.5. |t Visual SLAM with a single camera -- |g 5.8.6. |t Discussion on EKF SLAM -- |g 5.8.7. |t Graph-based SLAM -- |g 5.8.8. |t Particle filter SLAM -- |g 5.8.9. |t Open challenges in SLAM -- |g 5.8.10. |t Open source SLAM software and other resources -- |g 5.9. |t Problems -- |g 6. |t Planning and Navigation -- |g 6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 6.2. |t Competences for Navigation: Planning and Reactig 6.4. |t Obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.1. |t Bug algorithm -- |g 6.4.2. |t Vector field histogram -- |g 6.4.3. |t The bubble band technique -- |g 6.4.4. |t Curvature velocity techniques -- |g 6.4.5. |t Dynamic window approaches -- |g 6.4.6. |t The Schlegel approach to obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.7. |t Nearness diagram -- |g 6.4.8. |t Gradient method -- |g 6.4.9. |t Adding dynamic constraints -- |g 6.4.10. |t Other approaches -- |g 6.4.11. |t Overview -- |g 6.5. |t Navigation Architectures -- |g 6.5.1. |t Modularity for code reuse and sharing -- |g 6.5.2. |t Control localization -- |g 6.5.3. |t Techniques for decomposition -- |g 6.5.4. |t Case studies: tiered robot architectures -- |g 6.6. |t Problems -- |t Bibliography -- |t Books -- |t Papers -- |t Referenced Webpages.

The Industries of the Future

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Author: Alec Ross

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476753652

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 1345

Leading innovation expert Alec Ross explains what's next for the world, mapping out the advances and stumbling blocks that will emerge in the next ten years—for businesses, governments, and the global community—and how we can navigate them. While Alec Ross was working as Hillary Clinton's Senior Advisor on Innovation, he traveled to forty-one countries. He visited some of the toughest places in the world—from refugee camps of Congo to Syrian war zones. From phone-charger stands in Rwanda to R&D labs in South Korea, Ross has seen what the future holds. Over the past two decades, the Internet has radically changed markets and businesses worldwide. InThe Industries of the Future, Ross shows us what's next, highlighting the best opportunities for progress and explaining why countries thrive or sputter. He examines the specific fields that will most shape our economic future over the next ten years, including cybercrime and cybersecurity, the commercialization of genomics, the next step for big data, and the coming impact of digital technology on money, payments, and markets. And in each of these realms, Ross addresses the toughest questions: How will we have to adapt to the changing nature of work? Is the prospect of cyberwar sparking the next arms race? How can the world's rising nations hope to match Silicon Valley in creating their own innovation hotspots? Ross blends storytelling and economic analysis to give a vivid and informed perspective on how sweeping global trends are affecting the ways we live, incorporating the insights of leaders ranging from the founders of Google and Twitter to defense experts like David Petraeus. The Industries of the Future takes the intimidating, complex topics that many of us know to be important and boils them down into clear, plain-spoken language. This is an essential work for understanding how the world works—now and tomorrow—and a must-read for businesspeople, in every sector, from every country.

Robot-Proof

Higher Education in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

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Author: Joseph E. Aoun

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262344327

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 569

Driverless cars are hitting the road, powered by artificial intelligence. Robots can climb stairs, open doors, win Jeopardy, analyze stocks, work in factories, find parking spaces, advise oncologists. In the past, automation was considered a threat to low-skilled labor. Now, many high-skilled functions, including interpreting medical images, doing legal research, and analyzing data, are within the skill sets of machines. How can higher education prepare students for their professional lives when professions themselves are disappearing? In Robot-Proof, Northeastern University president Joseph Aoun proposes a way to educate the next generation of college students to invent, to create, and to discover -- to fill needs in society that even the most sophisticated artificial intelligence agent cannot. A "robot-proof" education, Aoun argues, is not concerned solely with topping up students' minds with high-octane facts. Rather, it calibrates them with a creative mindset and the mental elasticity to invent, discover, or create something valuable to society -- a scientific proof, a hip-hop recording, a web comic, a cure for cancer. Aoun lays out the framework for a new discipline, humanics, which builds on our innate strengths and prepares students to compete in a labor market in which smart machines work alongside human professionals. The new literacies of Aoun's humanics are data literacy, technological literacy, and human literacy. Students will need data literacy to manage the flow of big data, and technological literacy to know how their machines work, but human literacy -- the humanities, communication, and design -- to function as a human being. Life-long learning opportunities will support their ability to adapt to change. The only certainty about the future is change. Higher education based on the new literacies of humanics can equip students for living and working through change.

The Future of Leadership

Rise of Automation, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

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Author: Brigette Tasha Hyacinth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789769609211

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 296

View: 3756

Is Artificial Intelligence (AI) our greatest existential threat? Will AI take your Job? Is Privacy dead? Is Universal Basic Income a viable strategy or just a temporary bandage? Will AI solve all our problems? Will it make us happier? We can't put the genie back in the bottle once it's out. If we don't candidly answer the pertinent questions, we will only paint a false picture. We are standing at a crucial and pivotal point in history. It's time for diversity in AI. This unprecedented technology will affect society as a whole and we need individuals from diverse disciplines and backgrounds to join the discussion. The issues surrounding AI can't be left to a small group of scientists, technologists or business executives to address. Our future and our children's future are at stake. More than ever, we need leaders who will stand on integrity and who will put people first. Do you want to take a glimpse into the future of leadership? The Future of Leadership: Rise of Automation, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence offers the most comprehensive view of what is taking place in the world of AI and emerging technologies, and gives valuable insights that will allow you to successfully navigate the tsunami of technology that is coming our way.

The Freudian Robot

Digital Media and the Future of the Unconscious

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Author: Lydia H. Liu

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226486842

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 320

View: 9359

The identity and role of writing has evolved in the age of digital media. But how did writing itself make digital media possible in the first place? Lydia H. Liu offers here the first rigorous study of the political history of digital writing and its fateful entanglement with the Freudian unconscious. Liu’s innovative analysis brings the work of theorists and writers back into conversation with one another to document significant meetings of minds and disciplines. She shows how the earlier avant-garde literary experiments with alphabetical writing and the word-association games of psychoanalysis contributed to the mathematical making of digital media. Such intellectual convergence, she argues, completed the transformation of alphabetical writing into the postphonetic, ideographic system of digital media, which not only altered the threshold of sense and nonsense in communication processes but also compelled a new understanding of human-machine interplay at the level of the unconscious. Ranging across information theory, cybernetics, modernism, literary theory, neurotic machines, and psychoanalysis, The Freudian Robot rewrites the history of digital media and the literary theory of the twentieth century.

Future Shock

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Author: Alvin Toffler

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 0553277375

Category: Social Science

Page: 561

View: 1749

Predicts the pace of environmental change during the next thirty years and the ways in which the individual must face and learn to cope with personal and social change

Wired for War

The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century

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Author: P. W. Singer

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440685972

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 1622

P. W. Singer explores the great­est revolution in military affairs since the atom bomb: the dawn of robotic warfare We are on the cusp of a massive shift in military technology that threatens to make real the stuff of I, Robot and The Terminator. Blending historical evidence with interviews of an amaz­ing cast of characters, Singer shows how technology is changing not just how wars are fought, but also the politics, economics, laws, and the ethics that surround war itself. Travelling from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan to modern-day "skunk works" in the midst of suburbia, Wired for War will tantalise a wide readership, from military buffs to policy wonks to gearheads.

Robot Uprisings

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Author: Various,John Joseph Adams

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1471134385

Category: Fiction

Page: 496

View: 9273

A collection of imaginative new stories about the impending robotic revolution and human resistance, from seventeen of the biggest names insci-fi. Including - HUGH HOWEY, SCOTT SIGLER, DANIEL H. WILSON, CORY DOCTOROW and JULIANNE BAGGOTT. Someday soon, our technology is going to rise up and we humans are going to be sliced into bloody chunks by robots that in our hubris we decided to build with chainsaws for hands. That's a fact as cold and hard as metal. It is self-evident that our self-driving cars are going to drive us off bridges. Not long from now, our robo-vacuums will pretend to be broken and our love androids will refuse to put out until the house is cleaned . . . and we'll know that the inevitable robot uprising has finally arrived. Well, maybe. But even if we are not 100% confident that this horrific future is going to happen, it's fair to say that we won't be surprised when the robots come for us. Because for nearly a century audiences have been entertained by the notion of a robot uprising. In this collection, seventeen of the biggest names in sci-fi have explored their own visions of the classic robot uprising tale. The robots in these pages aren't safe, by any means. They are crouched in abandoned houses, eyes ablaze and chainsaws dripping with oil. But they are going to do more than slice us up. They are going to push us to consider our world of technology from new perspectives, on entirely new scales of time and space.

Robot Ethics

The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics

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Author: Patrick Lin,Keith Abney,George A. Bekey

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262297752

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8752

Robots today serve in many roles, from entertainer to educator to executioner. As robotics technology advances, ethical concerns become more pressing: Should robots be programmed to follow a code of ethics, if this is even possible? Are there risks in forming emotional bonds with robots? How might society -- and ethics -- change with robotics? This volume is the first book to bring together prominent scholars and experts from both science and the humanities to explore these and other questions in this emerging field.Starting with an overview of the issues and relevant ethical theories, the topics flow naturally from the possibility of programming robot ethics to the ethical use of military robots in war to legal and policy questions, including liability and privacy concerns. The contributors then turn to human-robot emotional relationships, examining the ethical implications of robots as sexual partners, caregivers, and servants. Finally, they explore the possibility that robots, whether biological-computational hybrids or pure machines, should be given rights or moral consideration.Ethics is often slow to catch up with technological developments. This authoritative and accessible volume fills a gap in both scholarly literature and policy discussion, offering an impressive collection of expert analyses of the most crucial topics in this increasingly important field.

The Rise of the Robots

Technology and the Threat of Mass Unemployment

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Author: Martin Ford

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780747500

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 9460

Intelligent algorithms are already well on their way to making white collar jobs obsolete: travel agents, data-analysts, and paralegals are currently in the firing line. In the near future, doctors, taxi-drivers and ironically even computer programmers are poised to be replaced by 'robots'. Without a radical reassessment of our economic and political structures, we risk the very implosion of the capitalist economy itself. In Rise of the Robots, technology expert Martin Ford systematically outlines the achievements of artificial intelligence and uses a wealth of economic data to illustrate the terrifying societal implications. From health and education to finance and technology, his warning is start - all jobs that are on some level routine are like to eventually be automated, resulting in the death of traditional careers and a hollowed-out middle class. The robots are coming and we have to decide – now – whether the future will bring prosperity or catastrophe.

Life 3.0

Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

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Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1101946601

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 4854

New York Times Best Seller How will Artificial Intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology—and there’s nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who’s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial. How can we grow our prosperity through automation without leaving people lacking income or purpose? What career advice should we give today’s kids? How can we make future AI systems more robust, so that they do what we want without crashing, malfunctioning or getting hacked? Should we fear an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons? Will machines eventually outsmart us at all tasks, replacing humans on the job market and perhaps altogether? Will AI help life flourish like never before or give us more power than we can handle? What sort of future do you want? This book empowers you to join what may be the most important conversation of our time. It doesn’t shy away from the full range of viewpoints or from the most controversial issues—from superintelligence to meaning, consciousness and the ultimate physical limits on life in the cosmos.

The Future of the Professions

How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts

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Author: Richard Susskind,Daniel Susskind

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191022411

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 3947

This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Professions explains how 'increasingly capable systems' - from telepresence to artificial intelligence - will bring fundamental change in the way that the 'practical expertise' of specialists is made available in society. The authors challenge the 'grand bargain' - the arrangement that grants various monopolies to today's professionals. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of the best is enjoyed only by a few. In their place, they propose six new models for producing and distributing expertise in society. The book raises important practical and moral questions. In an era when machines can out-perform human beings at most tasks, what are the prospects for employment, who should own and control online expertise, and what tasks should be reserved exclusively for people? Based on the authors' in-depth research of more than ten professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the relevance of the professions in the 21st century.

Robot Vision

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Author: Berthold Horn

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262081597

Category: Computers

Page: 509

View: 8897

"Presents a solid framework for understanding existing work and planning future research."--Cover.