Risk and Blame

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Author: Professor Mary Douglas,Mary Douglas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136490116

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 835

First published in 1992, this volume follows on from the programme for studying risk and blame that was implied in Purity and Danger. The first half of the book Douglas argues that the study of risk needs a systematic framework of political and cultural comparison. In the latter half she examines questions in cultural theory. Through the eleven essays contained in Risk and Blame, Douglas argues that the prominence of risk discourse will force upon the social sciences a programme of rethinking and consolidation that will include anthropological approaches.

Risk and Culture

An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers

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Author: Mary Douglas,Aaron Wildavsky

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520907393

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 3637

Can we know the risks we face, now or in the future? No, we cannot; but yes, we must act as if we do. Some dangers are unknown; others are known, but not by us because no one person can know everything. Most people cannot be aware of most dangers at most times. Hence, no one can calculate precisely the total risk to be faced. How, then, do people decide which risks to take and which to ignore? On what basis are certain dangers guarded against and others relegated to secondary status? This book explores how we decide what risks to take and which to ignore, both as individuals and as a culture.

Blaming Mothers

American Law and the Risks to Children’s Health

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Author: Linda C. Fentiman

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814724825

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 8890

A gripping explanation of the biases that lead to the blaming of pregnant women and mothers. Are mothers truly a danger to their children’s health? In 2004, a mentally disabled young woman in Utah was charged by prosecutors with murder after she declined to have a Caesarian section and subsequently delivered a stillborn child. In 2010, a pregnant woman who attempted suicide when the baby’s father abandoned her was charged with murder and attempted feticide after the daughter she delivered prematurely died. These are just two of the many cases that portray mothers as the major source of health risk for their children. The American legal system is deeply shaped by unconscious risk perception that distorts core legal principles to punish mothers who “fail to protect” their children. In Blaming Mothers, Professor Fentiman explores how mothers became legal targets. She explains the psychological processes we use to confront tragic events and the unconscious race, class, and gender biases that affect our perceptions and influence the decisions of prosecutors, judges, and jurors. Fentiman examines legal actions taken against pregnant women in the name of “fetal protection” including court ordered C-sections and maintaining brain-dead pregnant women on life support to gestate a fetus, as well as charges brought against mothers who fail to protect their children from an abusive male partner. She considers the claims of physicians and policymakers that refusing to breastfeed is risky to children’s health. And she explores the legal treatment of lead-poisoned children, in which landlords and lead paint manufacturers are not held responsible for exposing children to high levels of lead, while mothers are blamed for their children’s injuries. Blaming Mothers is a powerful call to reexamine who - and what - we consider risky to children’s health. Fentiman offers an important framework for evaluating childhood risk that, rather than scapegoating mothers, provides concrete solutions that promote the health of all of America’s children.

How Institutions Think

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Author: Mary Douglas

Publisher: Syracuse University Press

ISBN: 9780815602064

Category: Social Science

Page: 146

View: 9382

Crime, Risk and Insecurity

Law and Order in Everyday Life and Political Discourse

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Author: Tim Hope,Richard Sparks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135131163

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 1507

This book presents new empirical and conceptual work on the questions of fear, anxiety, risk and trust - both as problems of everyday living and as key themes in the culture and politics of contemporary Western societies. The volume includes contributions from distinguished social researchers from Britain, the United States, Germany and Italy and will be of interest to academics and students in the areas of criminology and sociology.

Risk, Culture, and Health Inequality

Shifting Perceptions of Danger and Blame

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Author: Barbara Herr Harthorn,Laury Oaks

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275978693

Category: Medical

Page: 241

View: 5485

Examines uses and abuses of "risk" by social actors in sites around the globe, with a particular focus on health inequality. Ethnographic accounts demonstrate how people make sense of everyday health risks as they confront urgent health concerns ranging from safe sex to global food security.

Implicit Meanings

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Author: Professor Mary Douglas,Mary Douglas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134626886

Category: Social Science

Page: 342

View: 9145

Implicit Meanings was first published to great acclaim in 1975. It includes writings on the key themes which are associated with Mary Douglas' work and which have had a major influence on anthropological thought, such as food, pollution, risk, animals and myth. The papers in this text demonstrate the importance of seeking to understand beliefs and practices that are implicit and a priori within what might seem to be alien cultures.

Risk

Second Edition

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Author: Deborah Lupton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135090319

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 4727

Risk (second edition) is a fully revised and expanded update of a highly-cited, influential and well-known book. It reviews the three major approaches to risk in social and cultural theory, devoting a chapter to each one. These approaches were first identified and described by Deborah Lupton in the original edition and have since become widely used as a categorisation of risk perspectives. The first draws upon the work of Mary Douglas to articulate the ‘cultural/symbolic’ perspective on risk. The second approach is that of the ‘risk society’ perspective, based on the writings of Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens. The third approach explored here is that of the ‘governmentality’ perspective, which builds on Michel Foucault’s work. Other chapters examine in detail the relationship between concepts of risk and concepts of selfhood and the body, the notion of Otherness and how this influences the ways in which people respond to and think about risk, and the pleasures of voluntary risk-taking, including discussion of edgework. This new edition examines these themes in relation to the newly emerging threats of the twenty-first century, such as climate change, extreme weather events, terrorism and global financial crises. It will appeal to students and scholars throughout the social sciences and humanities.

Process Risk and Reliability Management

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Author: Ian Sutton

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 0128017961

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 798

View: 5993

In the last twenty years considerable progress has been made in process risk and reliability management, particularly in regard to regulatory compliance. Many companies are now looking to go beyond mere compliance; they are expanding their process safety management (PSM) programs to improve performance not just in safety, but also in environmental compliance, quality control and overall profitability. Techniques and principles are illustrated with numerous examples from chemical plants, refineries, transportation, pipelines and offshore oil and gas. This book helps executives, managers and technical professionals achieve not only their current PSM goals, but also to make the transition to a broader operational integrity strategy. The book focuses on the energy and process industries- from refineries, to pipelines, chemical plants, transportation, energy and offshore facilities. The techniques described in the book can also be applied to a wide range of non-process industries. The book is both thorough and practical. It discusses theoretical principles in a wide variety of areas such as management of change, risk analysis and incident investigation, and then goes on to show how these principles work in practice, either in the design office or in an operating facility. The second edition has been expanded, revised and updated and many new sections have been added including: The impact of resource limitations, a review of some recent major incidents, the value of story-telling as a means of conveying process safety values and principles, and the impact of the proposed changes to the OSHA PSM standard. Learn how to develop a thorough and complete process safety management program. Go beyond traditional hazards analysis and risk management programs to explore a company's entire range of procedures, processes and management issues. Understand how to develop a culture of process safety and operational excellence that goes beyond simple rule compliance. Develop process safety programs for both onshore facilities (EPA, OSHA) and offshore platforms and rigs (BSEE) and to meet Safety Case requirements.

Thinking in Circles

An Essay on Ring Composition

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Author: Mary Douglas

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300134957

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 169

View: 9172

Immanuel Kant's views on politics, peace, and history have lost none of their relevance since their publication more than two centuries ago. This volume contains a comprehensive collection of Kant's writings on international relations theory and political philosophy, superbly translated and accompanied by stimulating essays. Pauline Kleingeld provides a lucid introduction to the main themes of the volume, and three essays by distinguished contributors follow: Jeremy Waldron on Kant's theory of the state; Michael W. Doyle on the implications of Kant's political theory for his theory of international relations; and Allen W. Wood on Kant's philosophical approach to history and its current relevance.

Risk and Society

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Author: David Denney

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761947400

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 3526

What does it mean to live in `risk society'? How does the idea of risk change how we live with each other? Risk currently dominates individual and collective consciousness. Globally, insecurity is related to terrorism, pollution, global epidemics and famine, yet smoking, sunlight and travel have also become major preoccupations. This book provides a powerful and lucid account of risk in society today. Denney critically examines the social construction of risk, by considering a range of social theories, addressing the literature and providing an authoritative guide to the key issues raised. An analysis of the nature of risk to aspects of everyday life – of the meanings which have been assigned to notions of risk – is also considered. Finally, global themes such as terrorism, global regulation governance and developments in international relations are examined. This book will be required reading for students of risk within the fields of Sociology, International Relations and Media, Culture and Communications.

AIDS and Accusation

Haiti and the Geography of Blame

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Author: Paul Farmer

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520933028

Category: Medical

Page: 372

View: 5628

Does the scientific "theory" that HIV came to North America from Haiti stem from underlying attitudes of racism and ethnocentrism in the United States rather than from hard evidence? Award-winning author and anthropologist-physician Paul Farmer answers with this, the first full-length ethnographic study of AIDS in a poor society. First published in 1992 this new edition has been updated and a new preface added.

Finding Alpha

The Search for Alpha When Risk and Return Break Down

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Author: Eric Falkenstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470495377

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 298

View: 551

Praise for Finding Alpha "Eric Falkenstein is more than one of the smartest and funniest people in finance. He's been a banker, a key model builder at a major rating agency, and a hedge fund trader. In this tour de force, he outlines the successes and failures of financial theory applications in the real world from the perspective of an aggressive early adopter of the best ideas in finance. To this day, I think Eric's private firm default model is one of the best papers ever published in applied finance, and this wonderful book falls into the same category." —Donald R. van Deventer, PhD, founder and Chief Executive Officer, Kamakura Corporation "People dismissed Columbus when he said the world was round. Thank goodness he persisted. Like Columbus, Falkenstein challenges standard thinking, only this time about risk and reward. As the meltdown of the capital markets has shown, the financial industry clearly missed something with regard to risk management. As an industry, we need to consider alternative theories on risk, and clearly Falkenstein is on to something here. Agree with him or not, Finding Alpha is worth a read." —Kevin M. Blakely, President and CEO,The Risk Management Association "Writing through the lens of an experienced practitioner, Falkenstein digests decades of research in capital markets, financial economics, and investment psychology that have shaped modern investment theory. This text is an excellent companion for portfolio managers, investment students, or anyone seeking to better understand the relationship between risk, returns, and financial reward." —Todd Houge, PhD, CFA, The University of Iowa How do we find alpha whenrisk does not correlate with return? Finding Alpha is a practical guide to achieving alpha when conventional measures of risk rarely correlate with higher returns. Author Eric Falkenstein-a PhD who has also been a risk manager and portfolio manager—tells the story of alpha from its beginnings to its current reversal, where risk is now evidenced by return as opposed to vice versa. Falkenstein begins by walking readers through the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), as well as other well-documented theories about risk and return, and explores how these theories measure up to current empirical evidence being documented by researchers and academics. He also outlines a novel approach to the issues of how benchmark risk and investor overconfidence affects expected asset returns, how to understand the nature of alpha and risk, and how to use practical applications of alpha-seeking strategies that he developed as a successful hedge fund manager. Finding Alpha concludes by outlining some real-life applications of alpha in finance and explains how the search for alpha affects the day-to-day life of all financial professionals.

Credit and Blame at Work

How Better Assessment Can Improve Individual, Team and Organizational Success

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Author: Ben Dattner

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781439169582

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 3481

Previously published as The Blame Game, this acclaimed guide by a leading workplace expert offers essential advice about how to succeed at work by avoiding the pitfalls of pervasive credit-grabbing and finger-pointing. Credit and Blame at Work, praised by bestselling management expert Robert Sutton as “a modern management classic; one of the most well-crafted business books I have ever read,” psychologist and workplace consultant Ben Dattner reveals that at the root of the worst problems at work is the skewed allocation of credit and blame. It’s human nature to resort to blaming others, as well as to take more credit for successes than we should. Many managers also foster a “blame or be blamed” culture that can turn a workplace into a smoldering battlefield and upend your career. Individuals are scapegoated, teams fall apart, projects get derailed, and people become disengaged because fear and resentment take hold. But Dattner shows that we can learn to understand the dynamics of this bad behavior so that we can inoculate ourselves against it. In lively prose, Dattner tells a host of true stories from individuals and teams he’s worked with, identifying the eleven personality types who are especially prone to credit and blame problems and introducing simple methods for dealing with each of them. The rich insights and powerful practical advice Dattner offers allow readers to master the vital skills necessary for rising above the temptations of the blame game, defusing the tensions, and achieving greater success.

The Blame Game

Spin, Bureaucracy, and Self-Preservation in Government

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Author: Christopher Hood

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400836819

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4820

The blame game, with its finger-pointing and mutual buck-passing, is a familiar feature of politics and organizational life, and blame avoidance pervades government and public organizations at every level. Political and bureaucratic blame games and blame avoidance are more often condemned than analyzed. In The Blame Game, Christopher Hood takes a different approach by showing how blame avoidance shapes the workings of government and public services. Arguing that the blaming phenomenon is not all bad, Hood demonstrates that it can actually help to pin down responsibility, and he examines different kinds of blame avoidance, both positive and negative. Hood traces how the main forms of blame avoidance manifest themselves in presentational and "spin" activity, the architecture of organizations, and the shaping of standard operating routines. He analyzes the scope and limits of blame avoidance, and he considers how it plays out in old and new areas, such as those offered by the digital age of websites and e-mail. Hood assesses the effects of this behavior, from high-level problems of democratic accountability trails going cold to the frustrations of dealing with organizations whose procedures seem to ensure that no one is responsible for anything. Delving into the inner workings of complex institutions, The Blame Game proves how a better understanding of blame avoidance can improve the quality of modern governance, management, and organizational design.

Risks and Legal Theory

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Author: Jenny Steele

Publisher: Hart Publishing

ISBN: 1841130893

Category: Law

Page: 216

View: 1452

Jenny Steele argues that ideas about risk and most areas of the law, whilst of interest to the legal profession, have not been widely addressed. The author explores the conceptual place of risk across a number of different fields of law.

Fatal Risk

A Cautionary Tale of AIG's Corporate Suicide

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Author: Roddy Boyd

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470889802

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 349

View: 1638

Describes what really went on at AIG during the financial crisis that saw the collapse of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers, with insider information including personal notes and records from the former chairman and a behind-the-scenes look at the U.S. Treasury.

What Happened

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Author: Hillary Rodham Clinton

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501175572

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 512

View: 8735

“An engaging, beautifully synthesized page-turner” (Slate). The #1 New York Times bestseller and Time #1 Nonfiction Book of the Year: Hillary Rodham Clinton’s most personal memoir yet, about the 2016 presidential election. In this “candid and blackly funny” (The New York Times) memoir, Hillary Rodham Clinton reveals what she was thinking and feeling during one of the most controversial and unpredictable presidential elections in history. She takes us inside the intense personal experience of becoming the first woman nominated for president by a major party in an election marked by rage, sexism, exhilarating highs and infuriating lows, stranger-than-fiction twists, Russian interference, and an opponent who broke all the rules. “At her most emotionally raw” (People), Hillary describes what it was like to run against Donald Trump, the mistakes she made, how she has coped with a shocking and devastating loss, and how she found the strength to pick herself back up afterward. She tells readers what it took to get back on her feet—the rituals, relationships, and reading that got her through, and what the experience has taught her about life. In this “feminist manifesto” (The New York Times), she speaks to the challenges of being a strong woman in the public eye, the criticism over her voice, age, and appearance, and the double standard confronting women in politics. Offering a “bracing... guide to our political arena” (The Washington Post), What Happened lays out how the 2016 election was marked by an unprecedented assault on our democracy by a foreign adversary. By analyzing the evidence and connecting the dots, Hillary shows just how dangerous the forces are that shaped the outcome, and why Americans need to understand them to protect our values and our democracy in the future. The election of 2016 was unprecedented and historic. What Happened is the story of that campaign, now with a new epilogue showing how Hillary grappled with many of her worst fears coming true in the Trump Era, while finding new hope in a surge of civic activism, women running for office, and young people marching in the streets.