Risk

A Sociological Theory

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Author: Niklas Luhmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135149290X

Category: Psychology

Page: 236

View: 8301

A great deal of attention has been devoted to risk research. Sociologists in general have limited themselves to varying recognitions of a society at risk and have traced out the paths to disaster. The detailed research has yet to be undertaken. In Risk, now available in paperback, Niklas Luhmann develops a theoretical program for such research. His premise is that the concept of risk projects essential aspects of our description of the future onto the present. Risk is conceived as the possibility of triggering unexpected, unlikely, and detrimental consequences by means of a decision attributable to a decision maker.

Observations on Modernity

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Author: Niklas Luhmann

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804732352

Category: Social Science

Page: 147

View: 800

This collection of five essays by Germany’s most prominent and influential social thinker both links Luhmann’s social theory to the question “What is modern about modernity?” and shows the origins and context of his theory. In the introductory essay, “Modernity in Contemporary Society,” Luhmann develops the thesis that the modern epistemological situation can be seen as the consequence of a radical change in social macrostructures that he calls “social differentiation,” thereby designating the juxtaposition of and interaction between a growing number of social subsystems without any hierarchical structure. “European Rationality” defines rationality as the capacity to see the difference between systems and their environment as a unity. Luhmann argues that, in a world characterized by contingency, rationality tends to become coextensive with imagination, a view that challenges their classical binary opposition and opens up the possibility of seeing modern rationality as a paradox. In the third essay, “Contingency as Modern Society’s Defining Attribute,” Luhmann develops a further and probably even more important paradox: that the generalization of contingency or cognitive uncertainty is precisely what provides stability within modern societies. In the process, he argues that medieval and early modern theology can be seen as a “preadaptive advance” through which Western thinking prepared itself for the modern epistemological situation. In “Describing the Future,” Luhmann claims that neither the traditional hope of learning from history nor the complementary hope of cognitively anticipating the future can be maintained, and that the classical concept of the future should be replaced by the notion of risk, defined as juxtaposing the expectation of realizing certain projects and the awareness that such projects might fail. The book concludes with “The Ecology of Ignorance,” in which Luhmann outlines prospective research areas “for sponsors who have yet to be identified.”

Media, Society, World

Social Theory and Digital Media Practice

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Author: Nick Couldry

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745680763

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 7681

Media are fundamental to our sense of living in a social world. Since the beginning of modernity, media have transformed the scale on which we act as social beings. And now in the era of digital media, media themselves are being transformed as platforms, content, and producers multiply. Yet the implications of social theory for understanding media and of media for rethinking social theory have been neglected; never before has it been more important to understand those implications. This book takes on this challenge. Drawing on Couldry's fifteen years of work on media and social theory, this book explores how questions of power and ritual, capital and social order, and the conduct of political struggle, professional competition, and everyday life, are all transformed by today's complex combinations of traditional and 'new' media. In the concluding chapters Couldry develops a framework for global comparative research into media and for thinking collectively about the ethics and justice of our lives with media. The result is a book that is both a major intervention in the field and required reading for all students of media and sociology.

Contemporary Sociological Thinkers and Theories

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Author: Mr Sandro Segre

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 147240310X

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 1457

This book offers a comprehensive overview of the major theoretical perspectives in contemporary sociology, covering schools of thought or intellectual movements within the discipline, as well as the work of individual scholars. The author provides not only a rigorous exposition of each theory, but also an examination of the scholarly reception of the approach in question, considering both critical responses and defences in order to reach a balanced evaluation. Chapters cover the following theorists and perspectives: • Alexander • Bourdieu • Ethnomethodology • Exchange Theory • Foucault • Giddens • Goffman • Habermas • Luhmann • Merton • Network and Social Capital Theory • Parsons • Rational Choice Theory • Schutz and Phenomenalism • Structuralism • Symbolic Interactionism An accessible and informative treatment of the central approaches in sociology over the course of the last century, this volume marks a significant contribution to sociological theory and constitutes an essential addition to library collections in the areas of the history of sociology and contemporary social theory.

Playing on the edge

sadomasochism, risk, and intimacy

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Author: Staci Newmahr

Publisher: Indiana Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 228

View: 3837

Representations of consensual sadomasochism range from the dark, seedy undergrounds of crime thrillers to the fetishized pornographic images of sitcoms and erotica. In this pathbreaking book, ethnographer Staci Newmahr delves into the social space of a public, pansexual SM community to understand sadomasochism from the inside out. Based on four years of in-depth and immersive participant observation, she juxtaposes her experiences in the field with the life stories of community members, providing a richly detailed portrait of SM as a social space in which experiences of "violence" intersect with experiences of the erotic. She shows that SM is a recreational and deeply gendered risk-taking endeavor, through which participants negotiate boundaries between chaos and order. Playing on the Edge challenges our assumptions about sadomasochism, sexuality, eroticism, and emotional experience, exploring what we mean by intimacy, and how, exactly, we achieve it.

Social Structure and Emotion

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Author: Jody Clay-Warner,Dawn T. Robinson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080559827

Category: Psychology

Page: 384

View: 6124

As a reference that contains original and innovative research on the sociology of emotion, this book will not only appeal to sociologists but also to scholars of psychology, psychiatry, anthropology, history, social work, and business/management. With contributions from experts in the field, this text examines the role and influence of emotion in everyday social circumstances. It poses clear questions and presents the contemporary theoretical developments and empirical research linking social structure and emotion. Comparable books are narrowly focused and less comprehensive, the breadth and depth of this new work is unmatched. *Explores the roles played by emotion in social arrangements (i.e., the power of emotions in psychology, finance, economics, etc...) *Poses clear questions and presents the newest theoretical developments and empirical research linking social structure and emotion *Contributions from experts in the field

Consumer Safety Regulation

Putting a Price on Life and Limb

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Author: Peter Asch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195364200

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 190

View: 8192

Advocates of consumer safety regulation, an active and controversial area of public policy in the United States, contend that markets do not adequately protect the interests of vulnerable consumers; market traditionalists respond that public agencies increasingly make risk/safety decisions that individual citizens ought to be making for themselves. This book, written by an economist, critically assesses the rationales for, and the effects of, our major consumer safety programs. Addressed to a general audience, and incorporating relevant literature on cognitive psychology as well as economics, the author argues that although legitimate reasons for public protection of consumers exist in some markets, the particular programs we adopt often produce results that fall far short of what their advocates desire, and at least occasionally yield perverse outcomes.

Social Theories of Risk and Uncertainty

An Introduction

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Author: Jens O. Zinn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444301497

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 5935

Written by leading experts in the field, Social Theories of Risk and Uncertainty is an introduction to mainstream theorizing on risk and uncertainty in sociology. Provides an overview of the historical developments and conceptual aspects of risk Identifies why theorizing on risk is necessary and highlights specific sociological contributions to this field of research Explores key topics including risk society and reflexive modernization, culture and risk, governmentality and risk, systems theory and risk, and edgework and voluntary risk taking Offers a comprehensive look at the promises, pitfalls, and perspectives of risk theorizing

Risk

A Sociological Theory

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Author: Niklas Luhmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138532045

Category:

Page: 236

View: 4471

A great deal of attention has been devoted to risk research. Sociologists in general have limited themselves to varying recognitions of a society at risk and have traced out the paths to disaster. The detailed research has yet to be undertaken. In Risk, now available in paperback, Niklas Luhmann develops a theoretical program for such research. His premise is that the concept of risk projects essential aspects of our description of the future onto the present. Risk is conceived as the possibility of triggering unexpected, unlikely, and detrimental consequences by means of a decision attributable to a decision maker.

Risk

Man-made Hazards to Man

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Author: M. G. Cooper

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Environmental health

Page: 141

View: 4748

Modern science and industry have prolonged human life and expanded its scope to an almost incalculable degree, but the disaster in Bhopal, India, is only the latest and most horrible reminder that a balanced view of benefits and dangers and a wise application of risk-control measures are vital to any large human undertaking. In this timely and easy-to-read book, eight distinguished scientists examine the issues involved in risk management, focusing on the psychology of risk and on actual and potential risks in medicine, biological research, industry (especially in energy production), and environmental change. They show what careful analysis reveals about many well-publicized dangers and about some much larger risks that make no headlines, and describe the skilled efforts devoted to minimizing risk and maximizing benefits in many fields. While providing a balanced overview for researchers in risk management, this book will be of immediate interest to politicians, industrialists, and lay readers who wish to understand the most pressing issues in an area of great controversy.

The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure

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Author: Brian Skyrms

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521533928

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 149

View: 3526

Brian Skyrms, author of the successful Evolution of the Social Contract (which won the prestigious Lakatos Award) has written a sequel. The book is a study of ideas of cooperation and collective action. The point of departure is a prototypical story found in Rousseau's A Discourse on Inequality. Rousseau contrasts the pay-off of hunting hare where the risk of non-cooperation is small but the reward is equally small, against the pay-off of hunting the stag where maximum cooperation is required but where the reward is so much greater. Thus, rational agents are pulled in one direction by considerations of risk and in another by considerations of mutual benefit. Written with Skyrms's characteristic clarity and verve, this intriguing book will be eagerly sought out by students and professionals in philosophy, political science, economics, sociology and evolutionary biology.

Governance of Risk, Hazards and Disasters

Trends in Theory and Practice

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Author: Giuseppe Forino,Sara Bonati,Lina Maria Calandra

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315463873

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 5639

Growing debates around governance are taking place among academic, policy-making, and practice-based communities. In light of the increasing focus on governance, this book presents and discusses governance as a framework that is able to both conceptualize and contextualize risks and disasters as currently experienced and managed into social systems. Contributions offer a variety of perspectives, experiences and socio-cultural contexts which have identified the challenges, opportunities and critiques of promoting governance. Part I explores approaches, models, and keywords as applied to risk and disaster governance theory. Part II investigates practices of risk governance and associated issues by focusing on disaster risk reduction policy and practice. Finally, Part III explores practices of disaster governance and associated issues, by focusing on disaster recovery experiences. This book highlights cutting-edge recent theoretical and empirical trends and is a valuable resource for students, academics, practitioners and policy-makers interested in risk and disaster governance.

Risk and Sociocultural Theory

New Directions and Perspectives

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Author: Deborah Lupton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521645546

Category: Social Science

Page: 191

View: 334

This 1999 book presents a variety of exciting perspectives on the perception of risk and the strategies that people adopt to cope with it. Using the framework of recent social and cultural theory, it reflects the fact that risk has become integral to contemporary understandings of selfhood, the body and social relations, and is central to the work of writers such as Douglas, Beck, Giddens and the Foucauldian theorists. The contributors are all leading scholars in the fields of sociology, cultural and media studies and cultural anthropology. Combining empirical analyses with metatheoretical critiques, they tackle an unusually diverse range of topics including drug use, risk in the workplace, fear of crime and the media, risk and pregnant embodiment, the social construction of danger in childhood, anxieties about national identity, the governmental uses of risk and the relationship between risk phenomena and social order.

Risk and Health Communication in an Evolving Media Environment

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Author: H Dan O'Hair

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351687115

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 352

View: 2583

Broadcast media has a particular fascination with stories that involve risk and health crisis events-disease outbreaks, terrorist acts, and natural disasters-contexts where risk and health communication play a critical role. An evolving media landscape introduces both challenges and opportunities for using communication to manage extreme events and hazardous contexts. Risk and Health Communication in an Evolving Media Environment addresses issues of risk and health communication with a collection of chapters that reflect state-of-the-art discussion by top scholars in the field. The authors in this volume develop unique and insightful perspectives by employing the best available research on topics such as brand awareness in healthcare communication, occupational safety, climate change communication, local broadcasts of weather emergencies, terrorism, and the Ebola outbreak, among many other areas. It features analysis of new and traditional media that connects disasters, crises, risks, and public policy issues into a coherent fabric. This book bridges a substantial, but sometimes disconnected body of literature, and by doing so asks how contexts related to risk and health communication are best approached, how researchers balance scientific findings with cultural issues, and how scholars study an increasingly media-savvy society with traditional research methods.

Risk Society

Towards a New Modernity

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Author: Ulrich Beck

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803983465

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 4890

An analysis of the condition of Western societies that will take its place as a core text of contemporary sociology alongside earlier typifications of society as postindustrial, and current debates about the social dimensions of the postmodern

The Constitution of Society

Outline of the Theory of Structuration

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Author: Anthony Giddens

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745665284

Category: Social Science

Page: 438

View: 5535

Anthony Giddens has been in the forefront of developments in social theory for the past decade. In The Constitution of Society he outlines the distinctive position he has evolved during that period and offers a full statement of a major new perspective in social thought, a synthesis and elaboration of ideas touched on in previous works but described here for the first time in an integrated and comprehensive form. A particular feature is Giddens's concern to connect abstract problems of theory to an interpretation of the nature of empirical method in the social sciences. In presenting his own ideas, Giddens mounts a critical attack on some of the more orthodox sociological views. The Constitution of Society is an invaluable reference book for all those concerned with the basic issues in contemporary social theory.

Taming Risk

Uncertainty, Trust and the Sociological Discourse of Modernity

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Author: Jan Burzynski,Tomasz Burzynski

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443856088

Category: Social Science

Page: 175

View: 4159

This interdisciplinary and multifaceted work investigates the traumatic character of (late) modernity from the perspectives of risk and trust regarded as correlates to human actions, as well as forms of social consciousness and cultural production in contemporary, post-industrial societies. In this way, the book gestures towards an interpretative framework in which modern social structures and systems may be effectively conceptualised in an overtly phenomenological context that entails the understanding of risk and trust as significant elements of human experience, social knowledge and a personal motivation to take goal-oriented actions. Being focused upon searching for inter-subjective mechanisms fostering the inherent societal dynamism of risk societies, the volume offers an integrative perspective in risk studies in which risk and trust-related considerations are perceived in terms of sociological theories aiming to reconcile the dimensions of agency and structure. Methodologically speaking, the text advances a comfortable theoretical vantage point for observing the ontology of late modernity in the context of an interplay between agential experiences of uncertainty, as well as systemic and structural frameworks of exposures to technological risks. Needless to say, the work is a must-read for scholars and researchers in the fields of theoretical sociology, risk studies, modernization theories, and cultural studies.

Social Science of the Syringe

A Sociology of Injecting Drug Use

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Author: Nicole Vitellone

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317223861

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 138

View: 3984

This book addresses the history of harm reduction. It evaluates the consequences and constraints, stakes and costs of the policy of needle exchange for the purposes of harm prevention and health research. Vitellone situates the syringe at the centre of empirical research and theoretical analysis, challenging existing accounts of drug injecting which treat the syringe as a dead device that simply facilitates social action between humans. Instead, this book complicates the relationship between human and object – injecting drug user and syringe – to ask what happens if we see the object as an intra-active part of the sociality that constitutes injecting practices. And what kinds of methods are required to generate a social science of the syringe that is able to measure injecting sociality? Social Science of the Syringe develops material methodologies and epistemologies of injecting drug use to enact the syringe as an object of intellectual inquiry. It draws on the methodologies of social anthropology, Actor-Network-Theory, Deleuze’s empiricism and new feminist materialism to move towards materially-engaged knowledge production. This interdisciplinary approach improves understandings of the causes and effects of injecting behaviour and the problem of needle sharing, as well as providing a more robust empirical framework to evaluate the motivations and consequences of drug use and drug policy. This book will appeal to researchers and students interested in the sociology of health and illness, STS, Actor-Network Theory, empirical sociology, medical anthropology, social and cultural anthropology, addiction theory and harm reduction.

Communication and Social Order

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Author: Hugh Dalziel Duncan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135152755X

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 4240

In this highly influential study of art forms as models for a theory of communications, Hugh Dalziel Duncan demonstrates that without understanding of the role of symbols in society, social scientists cannot hope to develop adequate models for social analysis. He reviews critically major contributions to communication theory during the past century: Freud's analysis of dream symbolism, Simmel's concept of sociability, James' insights into religious experience, and Dewey's relating of art to experience.