Reconstructing the Criminal

Culture, Law, and Policy in England, 1830-1914

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Author: Martin J. Wiener

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521478823

Category: History

Page: 381

View: 4404

An account of changing conceptions and treatments of criminality in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.

Crime and Society in England

1750 - 1900

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Author: Clive Emsley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317864492

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 2027

Acknowledged as one of the best introductions to the history of crime in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 examines thedevelopments in policing, the courts, and the penal system as England became increasingly industrialised and urbanised. The book challenges the old but still influential idea that crime can be attributed to the behaviour of a criminal class and that changes in the criminal justice system were principally the work of far-sighted, humanitarian reformers. In this fourth edition of his now classic account, Professor Emsley draws on new research that has shifted the focus from class to gender, from property crime to violent crime and towards media constructions of offenders, while still maintaining a balance with influential early work in the area. Wide-ranging and accessible, the new edition examines: the value of criminal statistics the effect that contemporary ideas about class and gender had on perceptions of criminality changes in the patterns of crime developments in policing and the spread of summary punishment the increasing formality of the courts the growth of the prison as the principal form of punishment and debates about the decline in corporal and capital punishments Thoroughly updated throughout, the fourth edition also includes, for the first time, illuminating contemporary illustrations.

Inventing the Criminal

A History of German Criminology, 1880-1945

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Author: Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807861049

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 6163

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of biological research into the causes of crime, but the origins of this kind of research date back to the late nineteenth century. Here, Richard Wetzell presents the first history of German criminology from Imperial Germany through the Weimar Republic to the end of the Third Reich, a period that provided a unique test case for the perils associated with biological explanations of crime. Drawing on a wealth of primary sources from criminological, legal, and psychiatric literature, Wetzell shows that German biomedical research on crime predominated over sociological research and thus contributed to the rise of the eugenics movement and the eventual targeting of criminals for eugenic measures by the Nazi regime. However, he also demonstrates that the development of German criminology was characterized by a constant tension between the criminologists' hereditarian biases and an increasing methodological sophistication that prevented many of them from endorsing the crude genetic determinism and racism that characterized so much of Hitler's regime. As a result, proposals for the sterilization of criminals remained highly controversial during the Nazi years, suggesting that Nazi biological politics left more room for contention than has often been assumed.

Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England

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Author: Louise A. Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134736649

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 4819

Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England is the first detailed investigation of the way that child abuse was discovered, debated, diagnosed and dealt with in the Victorian and Edwardian periods. The focus is placed on the child and his or her experience of court procedure and welfare practice, thereby providing a unique and important evaluation of the treatment of children in the courtroom. Through a series of case studies, including analyses of the criminal courts, the author examines the impact of legislation at grass roots level, and demonstrates why this was a formative period in the legal definition of sexual abuse. Providing a much-needed insight into Victorian attitudes, including that of Christian morality, this book makes a distinctive contribution to the history of crime, social welfare and the family. It also offers a valuable critique of current work on the history of children's homes and institutions, arguing that the inter-personal relationships of children and carers is a crucial area of study.

Victorians Against the Gallows

Capital Punishment and the Abolitionist Movement in Nineteenth Century Britain

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Author: James Gregory

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857730886

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 7478

By the time that Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, the list of crimes liable to attract the death penalty had effectively been reduced to murder. Yet, despite this, the gallows remained a source of controversy in Victorian Britain and there was a growing unease in liberal quarters surrounding the question of capital punishment. In this book, James Gregory examines organised efforts to abolish capital punishment in Britain and the Empire in the Victorian era, focusing particularly on the activities of the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment. The amelioration of the notoriously ‘Bloody Code’ of the British state may have limited capital punishment effectively to a small number of murderers after 1840 but, despite this, capital punishment was a matter of perennial debate, from the local arena of school debating societies to the ‘imperial Parliament’, and a topic to trouble the minds of thoughtful Victorians across the British world. Drawing on a wide range of sources, from pamphlets by abolitionists or their opponents to gallows broadsides, official inquiries, provincial newspapers, novels and short stories, Gregory studies a movement acknowledged by contemporaries to be agitating one of the ‘questions of the day’ - challenging as it did contemporary theology, state infliction of violence, and prevalent ideas about punishment. He explores important aspects such as: capital punishment debates in the ‘Lex Britannica’ of British colonies and dominions, the role of women abolitionists and the class and gendered inflexions to the ‘gallows question’, the representation of the problem of capital punishment in Victorian fiction, and the relationship between abolitionists and the Home Office which exercised the royal prerogative of mercy. While the abolitionism of Nonconformist reformers such as the Quakers and Unitarians is familiar, Gregory introduces the reader to the abolitionist debates in Jewish, secularist and spiritualist circles, and explores themes such as the imagined role of the Queen as ‘fount of mercy’ and the disturbing figure of the hangman. Studying the provincial, national and international aspects to the movement, Victorians Against the Gallows offers an important contribution to our understanding of Victorian reform activities, and Victorian culture.

Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America

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Author: Carlos A. Aguirre,Robert Buffington

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 146164187X

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 555

The only reader currently available on criminality in Latin America, Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America reconstructs the way in which different Latin American societies have viewed, described, defined, and reacted to criminal behavior. Crime in Latin America is explored in terms of gender, race, class, and criminological theory. The highly readable essays in this book explore how Catholic notions of sin, natural law, the "divine" rights of absolutist monarchs, liberal rights of "man," positivism, and social Darwinism received a sympathetic, even enthusiastic, endorsement from policy makers throughout Latin America. Reconstructing Criminality in Latin America also shows how new methodologies have given scholars deeper insight into the significance of crime in Latin American societies. The selections testify that the insights of scholars like Eric Hobsbawm and Michel Foucault are the foundations of modern histories of crime in Latin America. This book is ideal for criminal justice, sociology, and Latin American social history courses.

Identifying the English

A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present

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Author: Edward Higgs

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441138013

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 1412

Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.

Inventing the Public Enemy

The Gangster in American Culture, 1918-1934

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Author: David E. Ruth

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226732183

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 5331

In this richly detailed account of mass media images, David Ruth looks at Al Capone and other "invented" gangsters of the 1920s and 1930s. The subject of innumerable newspaper and magazine articles, scores of novels, and hundreds of Hollywood movies, the gangster was a compelling figure for Americans preoccupied with crime and the social turmoil it symbolized. Ruth shows that the media gangster was less a reflection of reality than a projection created from Americans' values, concerns, and ideas about what would sell. We see efficient criminal executives demonstrating the multifarious uses of organization; dapper, big-spending gangsters highlighting the promises and perils of the emerging consumer society; and gunmen and molls guiding an uncertain public through the shifting terrain of modern gender roles. In this fascinating study, Ruth reveals how the public enemy provides a far-ranging critique of modern culture.

Essays in the History of Canadian Law

Quebec and the Canadas

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Author: George Blaine Baker,Donald Fyson

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442670061

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 4821

The essays in this volume deal with the legal history of the Province of Quebec, Upper and Lower Canada, and the Province of Canada between the British conquest of 1759 and confederation of the British North America colonies in 1867. The backbone of the modern Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec, this geographic area was unified politically for more than half of the period under consideration. As such, four of the papers are set in the geographic cradle of modern Quebec, four treat nineteenth-century Ontario, and the remaining four deal with the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes watershed as a whole. The authors come from disciplines as diverse as history, socio-legal studies, women’s studies, and law. The majority make substantial use of second-language sources in their essays, which shade into intellectual history, social and family history, regulatory history, and political history.

Property Crime in London, 1850–Present

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Author: W. Meier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230119689

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 1935

This book examines London's transformation from the mid-Victorian "miracle" of low crime to a high-crime society, treating six different types of misdeed as representative of phases in the evolution of crime to argue that lawbreaking must be explained by connecting all types of offenses to their social and economic contexts.

Intoxication and Society

Problematic Pleasures of Drugs and Alcohol

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Author: Phil Withington,Darin Weinberg,Ciaran Regan,Jonathan Herring

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137161833

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 7975

Intoxicants, substances that alter a person's mental and physiological state, are a continuing obsession. In their effect on the mind and body, intoxicants go to the heart of what it means to be human. In the tensions between 'free' and uninhibited consumption on the one hand, and the pressures of social regulation and personal responsibility on the other, they also illuminate the daily paradoxes, and sheer complexity, of living in modern Western societies. Yet this complexity, and the rich history that underpins it, is often lost in the current debates over public policy. Intoxication and Society sets out to supplement the contemporary discourse surrounding intoxication with a more nuanced appreciation of the history and nature of what is very much a multidimensional problem. It does so by employing an interdisciplinary framework that includes contributions from leading academics in law, sociology, anthropology, history, literature, neuroscience and social psychology. The result is a subtle historical and contemporary rereading of the social construction of intoxication that will provide a secure basis for analysis as society continues to respond to the problematic pleasures of intoxication

The Origins of Modern Financial Crime

Historical foundations and current problems in Britain

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Author: Sarah Wilson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136237739

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 4530

The recent global financial crisis has been characterised as a turning point in the way we respond to financial crime. Focusing on this change and ‘crime in the commercial sphere’, this text considers the legal and economic dimensions of financial crime and its significance in societal consciousness in twenty-first century Britain. Considering how strongly criminal enforcement specifically features in identifying the post-crisis years as a ‘turning point’, it argues that nineteenth-century encounters with financial crime were transformative for contemporary British societal perceptions of ‘crime’ and its perpetrators, and have lasting resonance for legal responses and societal reactions today. The analysis in this text focuses primarily on how Victorian society perceived and responded to crime and its perpetrators, with its reactions to financial crime specifically couched within this. It is proposed that examining how financial misconduct became recognised as crime during Victorian times makes this an important contribution to nineteenth-century history. Beyond this, the analysis underlines that a historical perspective is essential for comprehending current issues raised by the ‘fight’ against financial crime, represented and analysed in law and criminology as matters of enormous intellectual and practical significance, even helping to illuminate the benefits and potential pitfalls which can be encountered in current moves for extending the reach of criminal liability for financial misconduct. Sarah Wilson’s text on this highly topical issue will be essential reading for criminologists, legal scholars and historians alike. It will also be of great interest to the general reader. The Origins of Modern Financial Crime was short-listed for the Wadsworth Prize 2015.

Warrior Race

A History of the British at War

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Author: Lawrence James

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1429975822

Category: History

Page: 880

View: 6098

Modern Britain is a nation shaped by wars. The boundaries of its separate parts are the outcome of conquest and resistance. The essence of its identity are the warrior heroes, both real and imagined, who still capture the national imagination: from Boadicea to King Arthur, Rob Roy to Henry V, the Duke of Wellington to Winston Churchill. It is a sense of identity that grew under careful cultivation during the global struggles of the eighteenth century, and found its most powerful expression during the world wars of the twentieth. In Warrior Race, Lawrence James investigates the role played by war in the making of Britain. Drawing on the latest historical and archaeological research, as well as numerous unfamiliar and untapped resources, he charts the full reach of British military history: the physical and psychological impact of Roman military occupation; the monarchy's struggle for mastery of the British Isles; the civil wars of the seventeenth century; the "total war" experience of twentieth-century conflict. But Warrior Race is more than just a compelling historical narrative. Lawrence James skillfully pulls together the momentous themes of his subject. He discusses how war has continually been a catalyst for social and political change, the rise, survival, and reinvention of chivalry, the literary quest for a British epic, the concept of birth and breeding as the qualifications for command in war, and the issues of patriotism and Britain's antiwar tradition. Warrior Race is popular history at its very best: incisive, informative, and accessible; immaculately researched and hugely readable. Balancing the broad sweep of history with an acute attention to detail, Lawrence James never loses sight of this most fascinating and enduring of subjects: the question of British national identity and character.

Never Again

Britain 1945-1951

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Author: Peter Hennessy

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141929324

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 5965

The first volume of Hennessy's postwar history of Britain concerns an age dominated by the shadow of war. With the beginnings of the Cold War, the foundations of the new Europe and the granting of independence of former colonies, Britain was forced to negotiate a new place in the world. It was also a time of rationing and of rebuilding, marked by the founding of the NHS and the welfare state. This comprehensive history embraces both high politics and everyday experience. It recreates the mood of the time and tells us where people lived, how they worked and what they wore.

The Truth Machine

A Social History of the Lie Detector

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Author: Geoffrey C. Bunn

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421406519

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 256

View: 8788

He examines how the machine emerged as a technology of truth, transporting readers back to the obscure origins of criminology itself, ultimately concluding that the lie detector owes as much to popular culture as it does to factual science.

Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community

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Author: Anthony H. Goodman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118312244

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 8648

Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community isa significant examination of the historical development of workwith offenders and their treatment by the state and society. Itoffers unique perspectives and a wealth of information drawn fromnumerous interviews with probation staff. Highlights how the work of probation staff has changed overtime and the reasons behind these changes Includes discourse with probation staff carried out over manyyears for a comprehensive, ‘insiders’ view of thesituation Focuses on contemporary issues, including the changes broughtin by the Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition Written by a leading academic with extensive experience in theprobation service

Femininity, Crime and Self-Defence in Victorian Literature and Society

From Dagger-Fans to Suffragettes

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Author: E. Godfrey

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284560

Category: Fiction

Page: 192

View: 1904

This exploration into the development of women's self-defence from 1850 to 1914 features major writers, including H.G. Wells, Elizabeth Robins and Richard Marsh, and encompasses an unusually wide-ranging number of subjects from hatpin crimes to the development of martial arts for women.

Engineering Society

The Role of the Human and Social Sciences in Modern Societies, 1880-1980

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Author: Kerstin Brückweh,Richard F. Wetzell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137284501

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 2896

Explaining crime by reference to abnormalities of the brain is just one example of how the human and social sciences have influenced the approach to social problems in Western societies since 1880. Focusing on applications such as penal policy, therapy, and marketing, this volume examines how these sciences have become embedded in society.

Begegnungen vor Gericht.

Eine Sozial- und Kulturgeschichte des englischen Arbeitsrechts (1850 -1925).

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Author: Willibald Steinmetz

Publisher: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag

ISBN: 9783486565898

Category: Labor laws and legislation

Page: 728

View: 4697