Putting Crime in its Place

Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology

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Author: David Weisburd,Wim Bernasco,Gerben Bruinsma

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780387096889

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 7404

Putting Crime in its Place: Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology focuses on the units of analysis used in geographic criminology. While crime and place studies have been a part of criminology from the early 19th century, growing interest in crime places over the last two decades demands critical reflection on the units of analysis that should form the focus of geographic analysis of crime. Should the focus be on very small units such as street addresses or street segments, or on larger aggregates such as census tracts or communities? Academic researchers, as well as practical crime analysts, are confronted routinely with the dilemma of deciding what the unit of analysis should be when reporting on trends in crime, when identifying crime hot spots or when mapping crime in cities. In place-based crime prevention, the choice of the level of aggregation plays a particularly critical role. This peer reviewed collection of essays aims to contribute to crime and place studies by making explicit the problems involved in choosing units of analysis in geographic criminology. Written by renowned experts in the field, the chapters in this book address basic academic questions, and also provide real-life examples and applications of how they are resolved in cutting-edge research. Crime analysts in police and law enforcement agencies as well as academic researchers studying the spatial distributions of crime and victimization will learn from the discussions and tools presented.

The SAGE Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods

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Author: Malcolm Williams,W Paul Vogt

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446209636

Category: Social Science

Page: 664

View: 2242

Social research is a bourgeoning field. Of course it has many traditions and approaches, but there is a high premium upon thinking differently and thinking anew because social life is never static or wholly predictable. The Handbook, edited by internationally recognized scholars, provides a comprehensive, pitch-perfect critical assessment of the field. The main features of the Handbook are: Clear organization into 4 parts dealing with The Social Context of Research; Design and Data Collection; Integrating The Analysis of New Data Types; Sampling, Inference and Measurement Clear, cutting edge chapters on Objectivity; Causation; Organizing Social Research; Correspondence Analysis; Grounded Theory; Conversational Surveys; Mixed Methods; Meta-Analysis; Optimal Matching Analysis; GIS Analysis; Quantitative Narrative Analysis; Longitudinal Studies; SEM; MLM; Qualitative Comparative Analysis; Respondent Driven Sampling Brings together a glittering assembly of the key figures working in the field of research methods Demonstrates the continuities and productive tensions between classical traditions and real world research. The result is a superbly organized text which will be required reading for anyone interested in the routes and future of social research. It is an unparalleled teaching resource and a 'must have' for serious social researchers.

The Science of Crime Measurement

Issues for Spatially-Referenced Crime Data

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Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006261

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 6546

Crime statistics are ubiquitous in modern society – but how accurate are they? This book investigates the science of crime measurement focussing on four main questions: how do we count crime? How do we calculate crime rates? Are there other measurements of crime? What are the issues surrounding crime statistics? All too often we take the measurement of crime at face value when there is, in fact, a science behind it. This book specifically deals with issues related to spatially-referenced crime data that are used to analyse crime patterns across the urban environment. The first section of the book considers alternative crime rate calculations. The second section of the book contains a thorough discussion of a measure of crime specialisation. Finally, the third section of the book addresses a number of aggregation issues that are present with such data: crime type aggregations, temporal aggregations of crime data, the stability of crime patterns over time, and the importance of spatial scale. This book builds on a growing body of literature on the science of crime measurement and offers a comprehensive account of this growing subfield of criminology. The book speaks to wider debates in the fields of crime analysis, environmental criminology and crime prevention and will be perfect reading for advanced level undergraduate and graduate students looking to find out more about the measurement of crime.

Guarding Against Crime

Measuring Guardianship within Routine Activity Theory

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Author: Dr Danielle M Reynald

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409494853

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 8838

This ground-breaking book examines the critical role that citizens play in guarding against crime. By focusing on the ways in which residents are able to capably guard their residential environments from crime, Reynald shows how local residents function (or fail to function) as effective crime controllers. The studies contained herein are aimed at developing our theoretical, empirical and practical understanding of the function of the capable guardian as a critical, yet elusive actor in the crime event model. In lieu of utilizing secondary data sources for proxy measures, this book argues in favour of new, more direct measures of guardianship, employing direct methods of primary data collection in order to capture the action dimensions of capable guardianship, as well as various other environmental and contextual factors that affect it. It features observations of guardianship in action and interviews with guardians to elucidate the factors that empower guardians to make them capable of crime control.

Policing

A Text/Reader

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Author: Carol A. Archbold

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412993695

Category: Political Science

Page: 608

View: 4003

Part of the SAGE Text/Reader Series in Criminology and Criminal Justice, this book provides an overview of the field of policing, including a collection of carefully selected classic and contemporary articles that have previously appeared in leading journals, along with original material in a mini-chapter format that contextualizes the concepts. It provides strong coverage on the basics of policing plus current and relevant topics such as female, gay and lesbian, and racial/ethnic minorities officers, policing issues in both rural and urban settings, police misconduct, accountability and ethics, and more.

The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Research Methods

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Author: David Gadd,Susanne Karstedt,Steven F Messner

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446254461

Category: Social Science

Page: 552

View: 1439

Conducting research into crime and criminal justice carries unique challenges. This Handbook focuses on the application of 'methods' to address the core substantive questions that currently motivate contemporary criminological research. It maps a canon of methods that are more elaborated than in most other fields of social science, and the intellectual terrain of research problems with which criminologists are routinely confronted. Drawing on exemplary studies, chapters in each section illustrate the techniques (qualitative and quantitative) that are commonly applied in empirical studies, as well as the logic of criminological enquiry. Organized into five sections, each prefaced by an editorial introduction, the Handbook covers: • Crime and Criminals • Contextualizing Crimes in Space and Time: Networks, Communities and Culture • Perceptual Dimensions of Crime • Criminal Justice Systems: Organizations and Institutions • Preventing Crime and Improving Justice Edited by leaders in the field of criminological research, and with contributions from internationally renowned experts, The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Research Methods is set to become the definitive resource for postgraduates, researchers and academics in criminology, criminal justice, policing, law, and sociology. David Gadd is Professor of Criminology at Manchester University School of Law where he is also Director of the Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Susanne Karstedt has a Chair in Criminology and Criminological Justice at the University of Leeds. Steven F. Messner is Distinguished Teaching Professor of Sociology, University at Albany, State University of New York.

Social Ecology of Crime: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

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Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199805814

Category:

Page: 20

View: 1355

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

The Criminology of Place

Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem

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Author: David Weisburd,Elizabeth R. Groff,Sue-Ming Yang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199709106

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 845

The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.

Environmental Criminology

Evolution, Theory, and Practice

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Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006237

Category:

Page: 274

View: 6771

The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.

Kriminalsoziologie

Handbuch für Wissenschaft und Praxis

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Author: Dieter Hermann,Andreas Pöge

Publisher: Nomos Verlag

ISBN: 3845271841

Category: Social Science

Page: 494

View: 686

Die Kriminalsoziologie liegt an der Schnittstelle zwischen mehreren Wissenschaftsdisziplinen. Sie behandelt ein Feld, in dem das Thema Kriminalität im Kontext von Gesellschaft und Individuum aus verschiedenen Perspektiven und mit unterschiedlichen Methoden thematisiert wird. Aktuelle Forschungen aus den Kerndisziplinen der Kriminologie und Soziologie sind oftmals mit Fragestellungen aus der Psychologie, Rechtswissenschaft, Pädagogik, Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Theologie und Philosophie verknüpft. Diese Vielfalt hat eine bunte Forschungslandschaft erzeugt, die bislang nicht umfassend dargestellt wurde. Das Handbuch soll dies für ausgewählte Themengebiete leisten. Dazu stellen Expertinnen und Experten eines Fachgebiets ihre aktuellen Forschungsthemen systematisch und umfassend vor. Neben der Aufarbeitung des aktuellen Diskussions- und Forschungsstands liegt ein zusätzlicher Schwerpunkt auf der Präsentation eigener Studien, wobei großer Wert auf eine sehr gute Verständlichkeit gelegt wurde. Mit Beiträgen von Dirk Baier, Thomas Bliesener, Andreas Böttger, Hans-Bernd Brosius, Kai Bussmann, Frieder Dünkel, Stefanie Eifler, Peter Graeff, Volker Grundies, Dieter Hermann, Helmut Hirtenlehner, Dina Hummelsheim-Doss, Hans-Jürgen Kerner, Anna Sophie Kümpel, Heinz Leitgöb, Eva Link, Christiane Micus-Loos, Saskia Niproschke, Dietrich Oberwittler, Christina Peter, Andreas Pöge, Daniela Pollich, Jost Reinecke, Debbie Schepers, Sonja Schulz, Daniel Seddig, Klaus Sessar, Mark Stemmler, Holger Stroezel, Helmut Thome, Angelika Treibel, Christian Walburg, Susanne Wallner, Melanie Wegel, Per-Olof H. Wikström, Michael Windzio.

Sicherheit und Kriminalprävention in urbanen Räumen

Aktuelle Tendenzen und Entwicklungen

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Author: Joachim Häfele,Fritz Sack,Volker Eick,Hergen Hillen

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658163151

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8587

Der Sammelband liefert Befunde zu aktuellen Forschungsfeldern der (Un-)Sicherheit und Kriminalprävention in europäischen Städten. So lässt sich beobachten, dass insbesondere genuin urbane Formen abweichenden Verhaltens und abweichender Situationen zunehmend problematisiert, kriminalisiert und sanktioniert werden. Die klassisch europäische Utopie von Stadt als Möglichkeitsraum scheint so sukzessive ad absurdum geführt und durch eine Utopie der Sicherheit in prinzipiell unsicheren Räumen ersetzt zu werden. Neben ihrer wissenschaftlichen Bedeutung sind die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Beiträge vor allem für Praxisfelder relevant, die sich mit den Bereichen (Un-)Sicherheit, Kriminalität und Kriminalprävention in städtischen Räumen auseinandersetzen.

Außenseiter

Zur Soziologie abweichenden Verhaltens

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Author: Howard S. Becker

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658012544

Category: Social Science

Page: 197

View: 2858

​ „Der Mensch mit abweichendem Verhalten ist ein Mensch, auf den diese Bezeichnung erfolgreich angewandt worden ist; abweichendes Verhalten ist Verhalten, das Menschen als solches bezeichnen“: Es ist einer der klassischen Sätze der Devianzsoziologie in einem der Klassiker des Feldes. Howard S. Becker betont fernab von alten und simplistischen Fragen danach, „warum Menschen Regeln brechen“, welche Situationen und welche Prozesse dazu führen, dass Menschen in Positionen geraten, in denen sie als „Regelbrecher“ betitelt werden, wie sie mit diesen Positionen umgehen und sich auch gegen diese wehren. „Außenseiter“ erschien erstmals 1963 in New York und wurde 1981 bei S. Fischer in deutscher Übersetzung publiziert. Seit den frühen neunziger Jahren vergriffen, liegt hier nun eine von Michael Dellwing überarbeitete und herausgegebene Version vor.

Internationales Handbuch der Kriminologie

Besondere Probleme der Kriminologie. Bd. 2

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Author: Hans Joachim Schneider

Publisher: Gruyter, De, Rechtswissenschaften

ISBN: 9783899491319

Category: Social Science

Page: 1076

View: 1381

x The second volume considers the particular problems of criminology and is divided into seven sections. Section 1 examines international problems. Political and community problems are dealt with in the second section. This is followed by social and personal issues as well as theory and method problems. The fifth section focuses on issues of violence. Section 6 deals with sexual and violence problems. Issues relating to gang delinquency are taking into account in section 7. The second volume concludes with an article on prison terms.

Empirische Polizeiforschung

Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven in einem sich entwickelnden Forschungsfeld

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Author: Karlhans Liebl,Thomas Ohlemacher

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3862268772

Category: Political Science

Page: 236

View: 9895

Als empirische Polizeiforschung kann jede im weitesten Sinne sozialwissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Polizei gelten, die basierend auf der Methodologie und Methodik empirischer Sozialforschung theoretisch inspiriert und methodisch kontrolliert Daten erhebt, analysiert und/oder interpretiert. Dieser Band dokumentiert die Beiträge einer Tagung aus dem Herbst 1999 an der Fachhochschule für Polizei Sachsen in Rothenburg. In ihm finden sich aktuelle Beiträge der empirischen Polizeiforschung zu den Themenbereichen Polizeikultur, Konstruktionen von Kriminalität, Polizei und Bevölkerung sowie innovative Projekte. Eine besondere Stärke dieses Bandes liegt in der Zusammenführung unterschiedlicher interdisziplinärer Perspektiven und verschiedener methodischer Zugänge, so daß er für Sozialwissenschaftler und Psychologen, aber auch für Polizeipraktiker von Interesse sein dürfte. Mit Beiträgen von: Rafael Behr, Manfred Bornewasser, Rainer Dollase, Gisbert van Elsbergen, Kai Freitag, Kurt H.G. Groll, Bettina Lander, Jörg Hüttermann, Werner K. Kunisch, Martina Kant, Karlhans Liebel, Thomas Ohlemacher, Karl-Heinz Reuband, Jürgen Stock, Hans Schneider, Willi Stadler. Die Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. Karlhans Liebl ist Professor für Kriminologie an der Fachhochschule für Polizei Sachsen (Rothenburg). PD Dr. Thomas Ohlemacher ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Kriminologischen Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen (Hannover) und Privatdozent am Institut für Soziologie der Universität Hamburg.

Täterprofilerstellung

ein methodenkritischer Vergleich aus rechtspsychologischer Perspektive

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Author: Markus Föhl

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783935979016

Category:

Page: 184

View: 4505

Fraktale Sicherheiten

Eine Kritik der kommunalen Kriminalprävention

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Author: Verena Schreiber

Publisher: transcript Verlag

ISBN: 3839418127

Category: Political Science

Page: 302

View: 4850

Quer durch alle gesellschaftlichen Bereiche besitzt das Konzept der Prävention ein hohes Maß an Akzeptanz. Das Bedürfnis nach Sicherheit tritt besonders in der kommunalen Kriminalprävention in Erscheinung und konkretisiert sich dort in Form eines Konglomerats aus diskursiver Wahrheitsproduktion und ortsgebundenen Alltagspraktiken. Im Anschluss an Michel Foucault und Algirdas Julien Greimas regt Verena Schreiber zu einem spekulativen Denken über unser Verhältnis zur Prävention an und spürt jenen Zusammenhängen nach, welche die Kriminalprävention zu einem Freiheitsversprechen werden lassen, das aus keiner Perspektive mehr in Frage steht.