Putting Crime in its Place

Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: David Weisburd,Wim Bernasco,Gerben Bruinsma

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780387096889

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 5502

Putting Crime in its Place: Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology focuses on the units of analysis used in geographic criminology. While crime and place studies have been a part of criminology from the early 19th century, growing interest in crime places over the last two decades demands critical reflection on the units of analysis that should form the focus of geographic analysis of crime. Should the focus be on very small units such as street addresses or street segments, or on larger aggregates such as census tracts or communities? Academic researchers, as well as practical crime analysts, are confronted routinely with the dilemma of deciding what the unit of analysis should be when reporting on trends in crime, when identifying crime hot spots or when mapping crime in cities. In place-based crime prevention, the choice of the level of aggregation plays a particularly critical role. This peer reviewed collection of essays aims to contribute to crime and place studies by making explicit the problems involved in choosing units of analysis in geographic criminology. Written by renowned experts in the field, the chapters in this book address basic academic questions, and also provide real-life examples and applications of how they are resolved in cutting-edge research. Crime analysts in police and law enforcement agencies as well as academic researchers studying the spatial distributions of crime and victimization will learn from the discussions and tools presented.

Putting Crime in its Place

Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: David Weisburd,Wim Bernasco,Gerben Bruinsma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387096876

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 9487

Putting Crime in its Place: Units of Analysis in Geographic Criminology focuses on the units of analysis used in geographic criminology. While crime and place studies have been a part of criminology from the early 19th century, growing interest in crime places over the last two decades demands critical reflection on the units of analysis that should form the focus of geographic analysis of crime. Should the focus be on very small units such as street addresses or street segments, or on larger aggregates such as census tracts or communities? Academic researchers, as well as practical crime analysts, are confronted routinely with the dilemma of deciding what the unit of analysis should be when reporting on trends in crime, when identifying crime hot spots or when mapping crime in cities. In place-based crime prevention, the choice of the level of aggregation plays a particularly critical role. This peer reviewed collection of essays aims to contribute to crime and place studies by making explicit the problems involved in choosing units of analysis in geographic criminology. Written by renowned experts in the field, the chapters in this book address basic academic questions, and also provide real-life examples and applications of how they are resolved in cutting-edge research. Crime analysts in police and law enforcement agencies as well as academic researchers studying the spatial distributions of crime and victimization will learn from the discussions and tools presented.

The Science of Crime Measurement

Issues for Spatially-Referenced Crime Data

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006261

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 7264

Crime statistics are ubiquitous in modern society – but how accurate are they? This book investigates the science of crime measurement focussing on four main questions: how do we count crime? How do we calculate crime rates? Are there other measurements of crime? What are the issues surrounding crime statistics? All too often we take the measurement of crime at face value when there is, in fact, a science behind it. This book specifically deals with issues related to spatially-referenced crime data that are used to analyse crime patterns across the urban environment. The first section of the book considers alternative crime rate calculations. The second section of the book contains a thorough discussion of a measure of crime specialisation. Finally, the third section of the book addresses a number of aggregation issues that are present with such data: crime type aggregations, temporal aggregations of crime data, the stability of crime patterns over time, and the importance of spatial scale. This book builds on a growing body of literature on the science of crime measurement and offers a comprehensive account of this growing subfield of criminology. The book speaks to wider debates in the fields of crime analysis, environmental criminology and crime prevention and will be perfect reading for advanced level undergraduate and graduate students looking to find out more about the measurement of crime.

The SAGE Handbook of Innovation in Social Research Methods

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Malcolm Williams,W Paul Vogt

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446209636

Category: Social Science

Page: 664

View: 6449

Social research is a bourgeoning field. Of course it has many traditions and approaches, but there is a high premium upon thinking differently and thinking anew because social life is never static or wholly predictable. The Handbook, edited by internationally recognized scholars, provides a comprehensive, pitch-perfect critical assessment of the field. The main features of the Handbook are: Clear organization into 4 parts dealing with The Social Context of Research; Design and Data Collection; Integrating The Analysis of New Data Types; Sampling, Inference and Measurement Clear, cutting edge chapters on Objectivity; Causation; Organizing Social Research; Correspondence Analysis; Grounded Theory; Conversational Surveys; Mixed Methods; Meta-Analysis; Optimal Matching Analysis; GIS Analysis; Quantitative Narrative Analysis; Longitudinal Studies; SEM; MLM; Qualitative Comparative Analysis; Respondent Driven Sampling Brings together a glittering assembly of the key figures working in the field of research methods Demonstrates the continuities and productive tensions between classical traditions and real world research. The result is a superbly organized text which will be required reading for anyone interested in the routes and future of social research. It is an unparalleled teaching resource and a 'must have' for serious social researchers.

Policing

A Text/Reader

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Carol A. Archbold

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412993695

Category: Political Science

Page: 608

View: 8853

Part of the SAGE Text/Reader Series in Criminology and Criminal Justice, this book provides an overview of the field of policing, including a collection of carefully selected classic and contemporary articles that have previously appeared in leading journals, along with original material in a mini-chapter format that contextualizes the concepts. It provides strong coverage on the basics of policing plus current and relevant topics such as female, gay and lesbian, and racial/ethnic minorities officers, policing issues in both rural and urban settings, police misconduct, accountability and ethics, and more.

The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Brandon C. Welsh,David P. Farrington

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0195398823

Category: Social Science

Page: 543

View: 9120

The Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention is the most reliable and the only comprehensive source on research and experience on the prevention of crime in the United States and across the Western world.

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199592845

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 479

View: 8782

Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.

Social Ecology of Crime: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199805814

Category:

Page: 20

View: 1479

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

The Criminology of Place

Street Segments and Our Understanding of the Crime Problem

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: David Weisburd,Elizabeth R. Groff,Sue-Ming Yang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199709106

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 1844

The study of crime has focused primarily on why particular people commit crime or why specific communities have higher crime levels than others. In The Criminology of Place, David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff, and Sue-Ming Yang present a new and different way of looking at the crime problem by examining why specific streets in a city have specific crime trends over time. Based on a 16-year longitudinal study of crime in Seattle, Washington, the book focuses our attention on small units of geographic analysis-micro communities, defined as street segments. Half of all Seattle crime each year occurs on just 5-6 percent of the city's street segments, yet these crime hot spots are not concentrated in a single neighborhood and street by street variability is significant. Weisburd, Groff, and Yang set out to explain why. The Criminology of Place shows how much essential information about crime is inevitably lost when we focus on larger units like neighborhoods or communities. Reorienting the study of crime by focusing on small units of geography, the authors identify a large group of possible crime risk and protective factors for street segments and an array of interventions that could be implemented to address them. The Criminology of Place is a groundbreaking book that radically alters traditional thinking about the crime problem and what we should do about it.

Criminology and Public Policy

Putting Theory to Work

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Hugh Barlow,Scott H. Decker

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439900086

Category: Law

Page: 306

View: 9370

Examines the links between criminological theory and criminal justice policy and practice.

Policing Problem Places

Crime Hot Spots and Effective Prevention

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Anthony Allan Braga,David Weisburd

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195341961

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 728

In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that crime is not spread evenly across city landscapes. Rather, there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or "hot spots," that generate a vastly disproportionate number of criminal events. Even within the most crime-ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be addressed more efficiently if police officers focus their attention on these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If crime can be prevented at these problem places, then police will be well positioned to lower citywide crime rates. In Policing Problem Places, Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd make the case that hotspots policing is an effective approach to crime prevention that should be engaged by police departments in the United States and other countries. There is a strong and growing body of rigorous scientific evidence that the police can control crime hot spots without simply displacing crime problems to other places. Indeed, putting police officers in high crime locations is an old and well-established idea. However, the age and popularity of this idea does not necessarily mean that it is being done properly. Police officers should strive to use problem-oriented policing and situational crime prevention techniques to address the place dynamics, situations, and characteristics that cause a "spot" to be "hot." Braga and Weisburd further suggest that the strategies used to police problem places can have more or less desirable effects on police-community relations. Particularly in minority neighborhoods where residents have long suffered from elevated crime problems and historically poorpolice service, police officers should make an effort to develop positive and collaborative relationships with residents and not engage strategies that will undermine the legitimacy of police agencies, such as indiscriminant enforcement tactics. This book argues that it is time for police departments to shift away from a focus on catching criminal offenders and move towards dealing with crime at problem places as a central crime prevention strategy.

Environmental Criminology

Evolution, Theory, and Practice

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006237

Category:

Page: 274

View: 2127

The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.

Geographic Profiling

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: D. Kim Rossmo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048780

Category: Law

Page: 378

View: 753

As any police officer who has ever walked a beat or worked a crime scene knows, the street has its hot spots, patterns, and rhythms: drug dealers work their markets, prostitutes stroll their favorite corners, and burglars hit their favorite neighborhoods. But putting all the geographic information together in cases of serial violent crime (murder, rape, arson, bombing, and robbery) is highly challenging. Just ask the homicide detectives of the Los Angeles Police Department who hunted the Hillside Stranglers, or law enforcement officers in Louisiana who tracked the brutal South Side rapist. Geographic Profiling introduces and explains this cutting-edge investigative methodology in-depth. Used to analyze the locations of a connected series of crimes to determine the most likely area of offender residence, geographic profiling allows investigators and law enforcement officers to more effectively manage information and focus their investigations. This extensive and exhaustive work explains geographic profiling theories and principles, and includes an extensive review of the literature and research in the areas of criminal profiling, forensic behavioral science, serial violent crime, environmental criminology, and the geography of crime. For investigators and police officers deployed in the field, as well as criminal analysts, Geographic Profiling is a "must have" reference.

Predictive Policing

The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Walt L. Perry

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833081551

Category: Computers

Page: 186

View: 2131

Predictive policing is the use of analytical techniques to identify targets for police intervention with the goal of preventing crime, solving past crimes, or identifying potential offenders and victims. These tools are not a substitute for integrated approaches to policing, nor are they a crystal ball. This guide assesses some of the most promising technical tools and tactical approaches for acting on predictions in an effective way.

Do Bus Stops Increase Crime Opportunities?

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Sung-suk Violet Yu

Publisher: Lfb Scholarly Pub Llc

ISBN: 9781593324551

Category: Social Science

Page: 306

View: 5958

Using the frameworks of routine activity, crime pattern and rational choice theories, Yu investigates the relationship between bus stops, businesses, and five offense types (robbery, aggravated assault, motor vehicle theft, theft from motor vehicle, and burglary) in Newark, New Jersey. Several data analysis methods were used to examine the impact of bus stops and businesses on crime. Overall, both bus stops and commercial establishments were associated with increased crime. Among business types, the category of food store was always related to increased crime across offense types and regression methods.

Research Methods in Crime and Justice

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Brian L. Withrow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317300661

Category: Social Science

Page: 588

View: 9435

Research Methods in Crime and Justice, 2nd Edition, is an innovative text/online hybrid for undergraduate Criminal Justice Research Methods courses. This material uniquely addresses the fundamental teaching issue for this course: how to show students that success as criminal justice practitioners is linked to their acquisition of research skills. Brian Withrow, a widely published academic researcher and former Texas State Trooper, developed this approach for his own undergraduate Research Methods class. He persuasively demonstrates that research skills aren’t just essential to university academic researchers but to successful criminal justice practitioners as well. More than 80 short, sharply focused examples throughout the text rely on research that is conducted by, on behalf of, or relevant to criminal justice practitioners to engage students’ interest like no other text of its kind. Extensive web materials all written by the author provide an array of instructor support material, including a Researcher’s Notebook that provides students (and their instructors) with a series of structured exercises leading to the development of a valid research project. Withrow systematically walks students through defining a question, conducting a literature review, and designing a research method that provides the data necessary to answer the research question—all online, with minimal instructor supervision. The second edition features expanded coverage of measurement, qualitative research methods, and evaluation research methods, as well as additional downloadable journal articles to ensure students begin to think critically about research and can read scholarly literature.

Fixing Broken Windows

Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: George L. Kelling,Catherine M. Coles

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684837382

Category: Political Science

Page: 319

View: 9301

Cites successful examples of community-based policing

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Vania Ceccato

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940074210X

Category: Social Science

Page: 354

View: 2443

How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

GIS and Crime Mapping

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Spencer Chainey,Jerry Ratcliffe

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118685199

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 5728

The growing potential of GIS for supporting policing and crime reduction is now being recognised by a broader community. GIS can be employed at different levels to support operational policing, tactical crime mapping, detection, and wider-ranging strategic analyses. With the use of GIS for crime mapping increasing, this book provides a definitive reference. GIS and Crime Mapping provides essential information and reference material to support readers in developing and implementing crime mapping. Relevant case studies help demonstrate the key principles, concepts and applications of crime mapping. This book combines the topics of theoretical principles, GIS, analytical techniques, data processing solutions, information sharing, problem-solving approaches, map design, and organisational structures for using crime mapping for policing and crime reduction. Delivered in an accessible style, topics are covered in a manner that underpins crime mapping use in the three broad areas of operations, tactics and strategy. Provides a complete start-to-finish coverage of crime mapping, including theory, scientific methodologies, analysis techniques and design principles. Includes a comprehensive presentation of crime mapping applications for operational, tactical and strategic purposes. Includes global case studies and examples to demonstrate good practice. Co-authored by Spencer Chainey, a leading researcher and consultant on GIS and crime mapping, and Jerry Ratcliffe, a renowned professor and former police officer. This book is essential reading for crime analysts and other professionals working in intelligence roles in law enforcement or crime reduction, at the local, regional and national government levels. It is also an excellent reference for undergraduate and Masters students taking courses in GIS, Geomatics, Crime Mapping, Crime Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology.

Risk Terrain Modeling

Crime Prediction and Risk Reduction

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Joel M. Caplan,Leslie W. Kennedy

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520958802

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 5752

Imagine using an evidence-based risk management model that enables researchers and practitioners alike to analyze the spatial dynamics of crime, allocate resources, and implement custom crime and risk reduction strategies that are transparent, measurable, and effective. Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) diagnoses the spatial attractors of criminal behavior and makes accurate forecasts of where crime will occur at the microlevel. RTM informs decisions about how the combined factors that contribute to criminal behavior can be targeted, connections to crime can be monitored, spatial vulnerabilities can be assessed, and actions can be taken to reduce worst effects. As a diagnostic method, RTM offers a statistically valid way to identify vulnerable places. To learn more, visit http://www.riskterrainmodeling.com and begin using RTM with the many free tutorials and resources.