Progress and Its Problems

Towards a Theory of Scientific Growth

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Author: Larry Laudan

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520037212

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 6724

Progress and Its Problems

Towards a Theory of Scientific Growth

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Author: Larry Laudan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780710087492

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 1088

Science and Relativism

Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science

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Author: Larry Laudan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226469492

Category: Philosophy

Page: 180

View: 6447

In recent years, many members of the intellectual community have embraced a radical relativism regarding knowledge in general and scientific knowledge in particular, holding that Kuhn, Quine, and Feyerabend have knocked the traditional picture of scientific knowledge into a cocked hat. Is philosophy of science, or mistaken impressions of it, responsible for the rise of relativism? In this book, Laudan offers a trenchant, wide-ranging critique of cognitive relativism and a thorough introduction to major issues in the philosophy of knowledge.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

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Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 1923

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Schizophrenia and Its Treatment

Where Is the Progress?

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Author: Matthew M. Kurtz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199974446

Category: Schizophrenia

Page: 240

View: 5428

This volume aims to explain why, despite profound advances in psychological science and neuroscientific analyses of schizophrenia, outcomes for the disorder have changed little over the past 100 years. More specifically, the book provides a critical analysis of the limiting role on treatment development of diagnostic classifications and views of the disorder as caused by a core pathology, and instead promotes the idea of individually tailored, multimodal treatment for distinct disorder features (e.g., positive symptoms, cognitive deficits). Each of these features of schizophrenia may or may not be present in different individuals with the same diagnosis. These features may also bear little functional relationship to one another. This aim is achieved through a critical integration of contemporary psychological scientific and neuroscientific analyses of schizophrenia, as well as research on psychological and somatic treatments. Historical perspectives on diagnosis and treatment are considered as well.

World Politics

Progress and its Limits

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Author: James Mayall

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745677754

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 8515

At the end of the Cold War, there was much talk of a new world order in which the sovereign state would be held to democratic account, fundamental rights would be respected, and conflict would be replaced by cooperation based on the rule of law. At the start of the new millenium most of this optimism has evaporated. This book examines why it is so difficult to improve standards of international behaviour and explores the pre-conditions for any realistic attempt to do so. It discusses three major issues that have dominated international debate over the past decade: the tension between sovereignty and national self-determination; the problems associated with the attempt to spread democracy around the world; and the desirability of external intervention in ethnic and religious conflicts. Rejecting both the unfounded optimism of the early 1990s and the cynical pessimism of more recent years, Professor Mayall points to the strong elements of continuity in international life. He concludes that international society is unlikely to be successfully reformed if governments continue to will progressive ends whilst evading responsibility for their actions.

Common Slavic

Progress and Problems in Its Reconstruction

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Author: Henrik Birnbaum

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Proto-Slavic language

Page: 436

View: 6338

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971307

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 9000

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Game Theory and Water Resources

Critical Review of Its Contributions, Progress and Remaining Challenges

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Author: Margaret Hogarth,Ariel Dinar

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781680830163

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 160

View: 6708

The use of game theory (GT) in water resources by different disciplinary professions including, but not limited to, engineers, international relations experts, economists, and geographers, is vast and impressive. The objective of Game Theory and Water Resources is to collect this vast literature, catalogue it, and provide present and future practitioners of game theory in water resources with a source of information that can be useful for their research. The authors assume that readers of this monograph have the basic skills in game theory, and have kept explanations of game theory concepts to a minimum. Game Theory and Water Resources introduces the topics and moves onto reporting the historical trends observed in the accumulation of GT publications on water between 1942 and 2013. Section 3 describes the developments in Cooperative GT-methodologies to water issues, whose applications ruled the GT applications during the period 1950-1990. Section 4 reviews the development of Non-Cooperative GT (NCGT) methodologies to various water issues. Section 5 provides a comprehensive review of GT surveys that have been published in the literature. Section 6 reviews Game Theory applications by sub-sector -- the authors identify 11 sub-sectors and review the applications of GT approaches to each of them. The monograph ends with a conclusion and identification of remaining problems to be addressed in the future.

Innovation and Its Discontents

How Our Broken Patent System is Endangering Innovation and Progress, and What to Do About It

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Author: Adam B. Jaffe,Josh Lerner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400837342

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 4838

The United States patent system has become sand rather than lubricant in the wheels of American progress. Such is the premise behind this provocative and timely book by two of the nation's leading experts on patents and economic innovation. Innovation and Its Discontents tells the story of how recent changes in patenting--an institutional process that was created to nurture innovation--have wreaked havoc on innovators, businesses, and economic productivity. Jaffe and Lerner, who have spent the past two decades studying the patent system, show how legal changes initiated in the 1980s converted the system from a stimulator of innovation to a creator of litigation and uncertainty that threatens the innovation process itself. In one telling vignette, Jaffe and Lerner cite a patent litigation campaign brought by a a semi-conductor chip designer that claims control of an entire category of computer memory chips. The firm's claims are based on a modest 15-year old invention, whose scope and influenced were broadened by secretly manipulating an industry-wide cooperative standard-setting body. Such cases are largely the result of two changes in the patent climate, Jaffe and Lerner contend. First, new laws have made it easier for businesses and inventors to secure patents on products of all kinds, and second, the laws have tilted the table to favor patent holders, no matter how tenuous their claims. After analyzing the economic incentives created by the current policies, Jaffe and Lerner suggest a three-pronged solution for restoring the patent system: create incentives to motivate parties who have information about the novelty of a patent; provide multiple levels of patent review; and replace juries with judges and special masters to preside over certain aspects of infringement cases. Well-argued and engagingly written, Innovation and Its Discontents offers a fresh approach for enhancing both the nation's creativity and its economic growth.

Tourism, Progress, and Peace

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Author: Omar Moufakkir,Ian Kelly

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845937074

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 1389

Tourism has the potential to contribute to world peace, and through appropriate management, to address current realities such as globalization, migration, conflicts, prejudices and poverty. This book discusses the interrelation between peace, conflict resolution and tourism, the role of industry, and the role of the individual.

A Road to Nowhere

The Idea of Progress and Its Critics

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Author: Matthew W. Slaboch

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812249801

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 1750

Matthew W. Slaboch examines the work of German philosophers Arthur Schopenhauer and Oswald Spengler, Russian novelists Leo Tolstoy and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and American historians Henry Adams and Christopher Lasch—rare skeptics of the idea of progress who have much to offer political theory, a field dominated by historical optimists.

A Deliberate Pause

Entrepreneurship and Its Moment in Human Progress

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Author: Larry Robertson

Publisher: Morgan James Pub

ISBN: 9781600376535

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 372

View: 479

A deliberate pause is a conscious moment in which we open our minds and ask "why are things the way they are?" and wonder "how could life be better?" Pausing to ask such questions is a natural and uniquely human inclination. It's also the critical factor that sparks fresh ideas and is seized by entrepreneurs to catalyze seismic changes--ones that allow humanity to progress. A Deliberate Pause (the book) reveals the power of a deliberate pause (the action) while unveiling unexpected truths about entrepreneurship itself. Through example, exploration, and analysis of the innovative thoughts and achievements of more than 200 seasoned entrepreneurial leaders, Larry Robertson shows how each of us can adopt a deliberate pause and an entrepreneurial mindset to better our lives, our species, and our world. In the process, he gives us the understanding of entrepreneurship we've been missing--and need now more than ever.

Progress

Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future

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Author: Johan Norberg

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1786072327

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 5763

A Book of the Year for The Economist and the Observer Our world seems to be collapsing. The daily news cycle reports the deterioration: divisive politics across the Western world, racism, poverty, war, inequality, hunger. While politicians, journalists and activists from all sides talk about the damage done, Johan Norberg offers an illuminating and heartening analysis of just how far we have come in tackling the greatest problems facing humanity. In the face of fear-mongering, darkness and division, the facts are unequivocal: the golden age is now.

Silent Spring

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Author: Rachel Carson

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618249060

Category: Nature

Page: 378

View: 7292

Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.

Radial Basis Function Neural Networks with Sequential Learning

MRAN and Its Applications

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Author: N. Sundararajan,P. Saratchandran,Ying Wei Lu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810237714

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 4755

A review of radial basis founction (RBF) neural networks. A novel sequential learning algorithm for minimal resource allocation neural networks (MRAN). MRAN for function approximation & pattern classification problems; MRAN for nonlinear dynamic systems; MRAN for communication channel equalization; Concluding remarks; A outline source code for MRAN in MATLAB; Bibliography; Index.

Enlightenment Now

The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress

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Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141979100

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 5279

'My new favourite book of all time' Bill Gates TOP TEN SUNDAY TIMES BESTSELLER Is modernity really failing? Or have we failed to appreciate progress and the ideals that make it possible? If you follow the headlines, the world in the 21st century appears to be sinking into chaos, hatred, and irrationality. Yet Steven Pinker shows that this is an illusion - a symptom of historical amnesia and statistical fallacies. If you follow the trendlines rather than the headlines, you discover that our lives have become longer, healthier, safer, happier, more peaceful, more stimulating and more prosperous - not just in the West, but worldwide. Such progress is no accident: it's the gift of a coherent and inspiring value system that many of us embrace without even realizing it. These are the values of the Enlightenment: of reason, science, humanism and progress. The challenges we face today are formidable, including inequality, climate change, Artificial Intelligence and nuclear weapons. But the way to deal with them is not to sink into despair or try to lurch back to a mythical idyllic past; it's to treat them as problems we can solve, as we have solved other problems in the past. In making the case for an Enlightenment newly recharged for the 21st century, Pinker shows how we can use our faculties of reason and sympathy to solve the problems that inevitably come with being products of evolution in an indifferent universe. We will never have a perfect world, but - defying the chorus of fatalism and reaction - we can continue to make it a better one.

Progress and Its Discontents

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Author: Gabriel A. Almond

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520054479

Category: Social Science

Page: 565

View: 1109

Events of the past two decades have challenged many of the fundamental beliefs, institutions, and values of modern western culture--the culture of "progress." Are science and technology really progressive and beneficial? Have they led to the enhancement of welfare, greater hapiness, and moral immprovement? I s the continued growth of material productivity possible? Desirable? Are the institutions of progress viable? Progress and Its Discontents assembles the views on progress of some of America's leading humanists, scientists, and social scientists. Citing disappointed expectations of progress in spheres from science to morals and politics, and the many problems created or left untouched by progress, the editors conclude that the term no longer refers to "an inevitable sequence of improvements" but rather to "an aspiration and compelling obligation."