Process Safety Calculations

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Author: Renato Benintendi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081012292

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 662

View: 3557

Process Safety Calculations is an essential guide for process safety engineers involved in calculating and predicting risks and consequences. The book focuses on calculation procedures based on basic chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, conservation equations, kinetics and practical models. This book provides helpful calculations to demonstrate compliance with regulations and standards. Standards such as Seveso directive(s)/COMAH, CLP regulation, ATEX directives, PED directives, REACH regulation, OSHA/NIOSH and UK ALARP are covered, along with risk and consequence assessment, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, stress analysis and fluid-dynamics. Includes realistic engineering models with validation from CFD modeling and/or industry testing Provides an introduction into basic principles that govern process relationships in modern industry Helps the reader find and apply the right principles to the specific problem being solved, mitigated or validated

Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety

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Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470925116

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 698

View: 9529

Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety provides guidelines for industries that manufacture, consume, or handle chemicals, by focusing on new ways to design, correct, or improve process safety management practices. This new framework for thinking about process safety builds upon the original process safety management ideas published in the early 1990s, integrates industry lessons learned over the intervening years, utilizes applicable "total quality" principles (i.e., plan, do, check, act), and organizes it in a way that will be useful to all organizations - even those with relatively lower hazard activities - throughout the life-cycle of a company.

Engineering Aspects of Thermal Food Processing

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Author: Ricardo Simpson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420058598

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 522

View: 3859

Access the Latest Advances in Food Quality Optimization and Safety Assurance Thermal processing has undergone a remarkable amount of research throughout the past decade, indicating that the process not only remains viable, but that it is also expanding around the world. An organized exploration of new developments in academic and current food industry practices, Engineering Aspects of Thermal Food Processing presents groundbreaking advances in the physical and engineering aspects of thermal food processing, paying particular attention to modeling, simulation, optimization, online control, and automation. Divided into Four Cohesive Sections Under the editorial guidance of a leading thermal processing authority, the book first covers the fundamentals and new processes in the thermal processing industry, including new packaging materials like retortable pouches. The second section moves on to mathematical modeling and simulation, which also addresses emerging preservation technology such as ohmic heating. The third section of the book is devoted to optimization, recognizing that mathematical optimization is the key ingredient for computing optimal operating policies and building advanced decision support systems. This section discusses processes like thermal sterilization, microwave processing, and in-line aseptic processing as well as an analysis of plant production productivity. The final section examines online control and automation describing a practical and efficient strategy for on-line correction of thermal process deviations during retort sterilization of canned foods. Concluding with expert analysis and discussion of the manufacturers’ businesses in today’s competitive marketplace, Engineering Aspects of Thermal Food Processing explores the entire processing line from modeling through optimization. It effectively assists manufacturers in maintaining a seamless workflow while lowering their bottom lines.

Operational Safety Economics

A Practical Approach focused on the Chemical and Process Industries

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Author: Genserik L. L. Reniers,H. R. Noel Van Erp

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118871537

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 336

View: 5349

Describes how to make economic decisions regading safety in the chemical and process industries Covers both technical risk assessment and economic aspects of safety decision-making Suitable for both academic researchers and practitioners in industry Addresses cost-benefit analysis for safety investments

Generic Construction of Availability Calculation Models for Safety Loops in Process Industry

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Author: Thomas Gabriel

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH

ISBN: 383252892X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 200

View: 6227

A generic approach is proposed in this work that automatically constructs suitable calculation models from a herefore invented formal description language. Two positive effects arise from that: firstly, all inherently and explicitly contained complexity of Safety Instrumented Systems is identified once and condensed into a set of transformation formulas generating the actual calculation models. Secondly, providing a flexible and extensive description language encourages smart and quick engineering processes, enables for non-standard solutions, and relieves safety engineers from the challenge of actually deriving explicit calculation models by hand. A suitable new type of discrete time multiphase markov model is chosen as mathematical basis, and comes along with the required solver algorithms for retrieving the desired unavailability characteristics: the probability of failure on demand (PFD), and the probability of fail-safe (PFS), i.e. an operational unavailability as economical indicator.

Hydrocarbon Process Safety

A Text for Students and Professionals

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Author: John Clifford Jones

Publisher: PennWell Books

ISBN: 9781593700041

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 292

View: 8233

The vitally important subject of process safety in the hydrocarbon industry is addressed in this book. The coverage is broad and the author has integrated the various aspects so that the book will be readily accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds. A grasp of the material requires only familiarity with physical and organic chemistry (at first-year undergraduate level) and with heat transfer and fluid flow at the same level. The text is complemented by many numerical examples with full solutions. Contents: Foreword by Dr.Donald Olander, Goodrich Corporation Preface Background to the oil and gas industry Hydrocarbon leakage and dispersion The combustion behaviour of hydrocarbons Offshore oil and gas production Physical operations on hydrocarbons and associated hazards Chemical operations on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives Hazards associated with particular hydrocarbon products Some relevant design principles Some relevant measurement principles Toxicity hazards Safe disposal of unwanted hydrocarbon Means of obtaining hydrocarbon other than from crude oil, and related safety issues Appendix: outline of the Canvey Study Solutions to numerical problems Self-test questions Index.

Process Design Tools for the Environment

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Author: Subhas Sikdar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781560328247

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 304

View: 5096

Much of the pollution in the air, water or soil results from discharges from industrial activities. Industrial practice can be significantly altered to reduce or eliminate the pollution if processes and products are so designed that either toxic materials are not used, or processes are inherently less polluting. This book is a collection of methods, written by experts, that would enable industry to design benign processes at the outset to achieve this purpose.

Definitions, Conversions, and Calculations for Occupational Safety and Health Professionals

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Author: Edward Finucane

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048483

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 8115

This reference text, a new and expanded edition of a well-regarded professional resource, covers virtually every type and category of calculation that environmental and occupational health and safety professionals might encounter on the job. Organized by subject, Definitions, Conversions, and Calculations for Occupational Safety and Health Professionals, Second Edition includes definitions and detailed descriptions of formulas, quantitative relationships, conversion factors, and more. The book includes numerous example problems, drawn from real-life situations, with detailed, step-by-step solutions that don't just provide quick answers but also indicate how the solutions were obtained. Two useful appendices provide a complete list of conversion factors and a first-ever discussion of the effects atmospheric factors can have on measurements. With almost twice as many calculations as the first edition and over 100 example problems, this is the most comprehensive resource available in the field. The second edition promises to be even more useful than the first as a ready reference for practicing professionals and a study guide for students entering health and safety professions or preparing for certification.

Evaluating process safety in the chemical industry

a user's guide to quantitative risk analysis

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Author: J. S. Arendt,D. K. Lorenzo

Publisher: Wiley-AIChE

ISBN: 9780816907465

Category: Science

Page: 104

View: 1507

Quantitative Risk Analysis is a powerful tool used to help manage risk and improve safety. When used appropriately, it provides a rational basis for evaluating process safety and comparing alternative safety improvements. This guide, an update of an earlier American Chemistry Council (ACC) publication utilizing the "hands-on" experience of CPI risk assessment practitioners and safety professionals involved with the CCPS and ACC, explains how managers and users can make better-informed decisions about QRA, and how plant engineers and process designers can better understand, interpret and use the results of a QRA in their plant.

Fundamentals of Process Safety

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Author: Victor Christopher Marshall,Steve Ruhemann

Publisher: IChemE

ISBN: 9780852954317

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 298

View: 4110

This text - primarily aimed at students of the fundamentals for process safety - presents the fundamentals of process safety in such a form those students, who typically lack such prior knowledge and experience, will fully understand and absorb the subject. The knowledge is presented in a coherent, integrated, academic framework, which is founded in fundamental science, especially in the disciplines of physics and chemistry. The text should help students find the subject more amenable to systematic study and more clearly related to other subjects covered in their curriculum. The information has been used in the teaching of a Process Safety module to undergraduate students of chemical engineering at the University of Bradford.

STOICHIOMETRY AND PROCESS CALCULATIONS

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Author: K. V. NARAYANAN,B. LAKSHMIKUTTY

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 8120329929

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 604

View: 5871

This textbook is designed for undergraduate courses in chemical engineering and related disciplines such as biotechnology, polymer technology, petrochemical engineering, electrochemical engineering, environmental engineering, safety engineering and industrial chemistry. The chief objective of this text is to prepare students to make analysis of chemical processes through calculations and also to develop in them systematic problem-solving skills. The students are introduced not only to the application of law of combining proportions to chemical reactions (as the word ‘stoichiometry’ implies) but also to formulating and solving material and energy balances in processes with and without chemical reactions. The book presents the fundamentals of chemical engineering operations and processes in an accessible style to help the students gain a thorough understanding of chemical process calculations. It also covers in detail the background materials such as units and conversions, dimensional analysis and dimensionless groups, property estimation, P-V-T behaviour of fluids, vapour pressure and phase equilibrium relationships, humidity and saturation. With the help of examples, the book explains the construction and use of reference-substance plots, equilibrium diagrams, psychrometric charts, steam tables and enthalpy composition diagrams. It also elaborates on thermophysics and thermochemistry to acquaint the students with the thermodynamic principles of energy balance calculations. Key Features : • SI units are used throughout the book. • Presents a thorough introduction to basic chemical engineering principles. • Provides many worked-out examples and exercise problems with answers. • Objective type questions included at the end of the book serve as useful review material and also assist the students in preparing for competitive examinations such as GATE.

Chemical Process Safety

Fundamentals with Applications

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Author: Daniel A. Crowl,Joseph F. Louvar

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132440555

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 656

View: 3040

Combines academic theory with practical industry experience Updated to include the latest regulations and references Covers hazard identification, risk assessment, and inherent safety Case studies and problem sets enhance learning Long-awaited revision of the industry best seller. This fully revised second edition of Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications combines rigorous academic methods with real-life industrial experience to create a unique resource for students and professionals alike. The primary focus on technical fundamentals of chemical process safety provides a solid groundwork for understanding, with full coverage of both prevention and mitigation measures. Subjects include: Toxicology and industrial hygiene Vapor and liquid releases and dispersion modeling Flammability characterization Relief and explosion venting In addition to an overview of government regulations, the book introduces the resources of the AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety library. Guidelines are offered for hazard identification and risk assessment. The book concludes with case histories drawn directly from the authors' experience in the field. A perfect reference for industry professionals, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Second Edition is also ideal for teaching at the graduate and senior undergraduate levels. Each chapter includes 30 problems, and a solutions manual is now available for instructors.

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety

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Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470938269

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 573

View: 2269

Inherently safer plants begin with the initial design. Here is where integrity and reliability can be built in at the lowest cost, and with maximum effectiveness. This book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage. All engineers on the design team, the process hazard analysis team, and those who make basic decisions on plant design, will benefit from its comprehensive coverage, its organization, and the extensive references to literature, codes, and standards that accompany each chapter.

Guidelines for Chemical Process Quantitative Risk Analysis

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Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470935413

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 784

View: 2877

Chemical process quantitative risk analysis (CPQRA) as applied to the CPI was first fully described in the first edition of this CCPS Guidelines book. This second edition is packed with information reflecting advances in this evolving methodology, and includes worked examples on a CD-ROM. CPQRA is used to identify incident scenarios and evaluate their risk by defining the probability of failure, the various consequences and the potential impact of those consequences. It is an invaluable methodology to evaluate these when qualitative analysis cannot provide adequate understanding and when more information is needed for risk management. This technique provides a means to evaluate acute hazards and alternative risk reduction strategies, and identify areas for cost-effective risk reduction. There are no simple answers when complex issues are concerned, but CPQRA2 offers a cogent, well-illustrated guide to applying these risk-analysis techniques, particularly to risk control studies. Special Details: Includes CD-ROM with example problems worked using Excel and Quattro Pro. For use with Windows 95, 98, and NT.

Clinical Calculations - E-Book

With Applications to General and Specialty Areas

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Author: Joyce LeFever Kee,Sally M. Marshall

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323293476

Category: Medical

Page: 416

View: 7586

The only text that covers all four major methods of drug calculation, Clinical Calculations: With Applications to General and Specialty Areas, 7th Edition emphasizes patient safety above all else. It reflects the medications used in clinical practice today, with clear guidelines on the latest drug administration forms, techniques, and devices for both general and specialty areas. Plus, its user-friendly format and abundance of practice problems make it easy to understand and apply key drug calculation concepts. Coverage of all 4 major drug calculation methods — ratio & proportion, formula, fractional equation, and dimensional analysis — allows you to apply the method that works best for you. A section on specialty areas and lifespan prepares you for the wide range of clinical calculations needed to practice in pediatric, critical care, labor & delivery, and community settings. Caution boxes alert you to problems or issues related to various drugs and their administration. A comprehensive post-test enables you to test your understanding of key concepts from the text. Current drug information ensures you are familiar with the most commonly used drugs in clinical practice. Up-to-date content on the latest drug administration techniques and devices helps you master the various forms of drug administration, including oral, intravenous, intra-muscular, subcutaneous, and other routes. Remember boxes identify pertinent concepts you should commit to memory. Note boxes emphasize important points related to concepts presented in each chapter. NEW! Prevention of Medication Errors chapter emphasizes patient safety to help you avoid common drug calculation and administration mistakes. NEW! Updated recommendations from The Joint Commission and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices offer helpful guidelines for reducing medication errors to ensure safe patient care outcomes. NEW! Updated medication label and equipment photos reflect the latest medications and technology used in drug administration.

Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications

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Author: Arnab Chakrabarty,Sam Mannan,Tahir Cagin

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0123972833

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 444

View: 547

Multiscale Modeling for Process Safety Applications is a new reference demonstrating the implementation of multiscale modeling techniques on process safety applications. It is a valuable resource for readers interested in theoretical simulations and/or computer simulations of hazardous scenarios. As multi-scale modeling is a computational technique for solving problems involving multiple scales, such as how a flammable vapor cloud might behave if ignited, this book provides information on the fundamental topics of toxic, fire, and air explosion modeling, as well as modeling jet and pool fires using computational fluid dynamics. The book goes on to cover nanomaterial toxicity, QPSR analysis on relation of chemical structure to flash point, molecular structure and burning velocity, first principle studies of reactive chemicals, water and air reactive chemicals, and dust explosions. Chemical and process safety professionals, as well as faculty and graduate researchers, will benefit from the detailed coverage provided in this book. Provides the only comprehensive source addressing the use of multiscale modeling in the context of process safety Bridges multiscale modeling with process safety, enabling the reader to understand mapping between problem detail and effective usage of resources Presents an overall picture of addressing safety problems in all levels of modeling and the latest approaches to each in the field Features worked out examples, case studies, and a question bank to aid understanding and involvement for the reader

Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems

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Author: Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470924926

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 405

View: 1504

This book explains the decision-making processes for the management of instrumented protective systems (IPS) throughout a project's life cycle. It uses the new IEC 61511 standard as a basis for the work processes used to achieve safe and reliable process operation. By walking the reader through a project's life cycle, engineering, maintenance, and operations, the information allows users to easily focus on their responsibilities and duties. Using this approach, the book is useful as a primer, guidelines reference, and resource manual. Examples provide the added "real-world" experience applications.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

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Author: Shein-Chung Chow,Hansheng Wang,Jun Shao

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203911341

Category: Mathematics

Page: 358

View: 7510

Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical research and development, Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Research explores the causes of discrepancies and how to avoid them. This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions. The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.

Conduct of Operations and Operational Discipline

For Improving Process Safety in Industry

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Author: CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118029190

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 242

View: 1037

Process safety management (PSM) systems are only as effective as the day-to-day ability of the organization to rigorously execute system requirements correctly every time. The failure of just one person in completing a job task correctly just one time can unfortunately lead to serious injuries and potentially catastrophic incidents. In fact, the design, implementation, and daily execution of PSM systems are all dependent on workers at all levels in the organization doing their job tasks correctly every time. High levels of Operational Discipline, therefore, help ensure strong PSM performance and overall operational excellence. This book details management practices which help ensure rigor in executing process safety programs in order to prevent major accidents.

Handbook of Chemical Compound Data for Process Safety

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Author: Carl L. Yaws

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080533391

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 8102

This book provides comprehensive safety and health-related data for hydrocarbons and organic chemicals as well as selected data for inorganic chemicals.