Prisons Crowding: A Psychological Perspective

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Paul Paulus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461238129

Category: Psychology

Page: 115

View: 9879

This volume is a summary of a 1S-year effort to determine the effects of prison crowding and their relationship to the broader realm of crowding phenomena and theories. Although the writing of this volume was for the most part a solitary effort, the data and ideas it is based on were mostly the result of a collaborative effort with Verne Cox and Garvin McCain. Their schedules limited their ability to contribute to this volume, but they provided much constructive feedback and assistance. Cox also wrote a preliminary draft of Chapter 3, and both McCain and Cox made major contributions to Chapter S and assisted with several other chapters. I am greatly indebted to these two fine scholars for their efforts and support over the course of our joint research endeavors. In recognition of this fact, the pronoun "we" is used throughout this volume. This research would not have been possible without the cooperation and support of thousands of inmates and hundreds of prison officials. The un conditional support throughout the project from Director Norman Carlson and former regional research director Jerome Mabli, both of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is also greatly appreciated. Thanks are due to the National Institute of Justice for financial support during various phases of this project. The support of John Spevacek of the Institute was indispens able. Funds were also provided by the Hogg Foundation, U. S. Department of Justice-Civil Rights Division, and the University of Texas at Arlington.

The Environmental Psychology of Prisons and Jails

Creating Humane Spaces in Secure Settings

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard E. Wener

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107376017

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 1885

This book distils thirty years of research on the impacts of jail and prison environments. The research program began with evaluations of new jails that were created by the US Bureau of Prisons, which had a novel design intended to provide a non-traditional and safe environment for pre-trial inmates and documented the stunning success of these jails in reducing tension and violence. This book uses assessments of this new model as a basis for considering the nature of environment and behavior in correctional settings and more broadly in all human settings. It provides a critical review of research on jail environments and of specific issues critical to the way they are experienced and places them in historical and theoretical context. It presents a contextual model for the way environment influences the chance of violence.

Environmental Psychology and Human Well-Being

Effects of Built and Natural Settings

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Ann Sloan Devlin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128114827

Category: Psychology

Page: 482

View: 5029

Environmental Psychology and Human Well-Being: Effects of Built and Natural Settings provides a better understanding of the way in which mental and physical well-being is affected by physical environments, along with insights into how the design of these environments might be improved to support better health outcomes. The book reviews the history of the field, discusses theoretical constructs in guiding research and design, and provides an up-to-date survey of research findings. Core psychological constructs, such as personal space, territoriality, privacy, resilience, stress, and more are integrated into each environment covered. Provides research-based insight into how an environment can impact mental and physical health and well-being Integrates core psychological constructs, such as coping, place attachment, social support, and perceived control into each environment discussed Includes discussion of Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory and Ulrich's Stress Reduction Theory Covers educational settings, workplace settings, environments for active living, housing for the elderly, natural settings, correctional facilities, and more

Psychological Criminology

An Integrative Approach

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard Wortley

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136652892

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 6927

Psychological Criminology addresses the question: what is it about individuals and their experiences that cause them to commit crime and/or to become criminal? This book provides a comprehensive coverage of psychological theories of crime and criminality, exploring theories focusing on factors present at birth (human nature, heredity); theories that focus on factors that influence the offender over the lifespan (learning, development); and theories focusing on factors present at the crime scene. It emphasizes the connections among the different approaches, and demonstrates how, taken together rather than as rival explanations, they provide a more complete picture of crime and criminality than each provides individually. Theories are arranged throughout the book in a temporal sequence, from distal to proximal causes of crime. The analysis spans 100,000 years, from the evolutionary roots of criminal behaviour in the ancestral environments of early humans on the African savana, to the decision to engage in a specific criminal act. Key features of the book include: a focus on theory – ‘explaining’ crime and criminality, an integrative approach, accessible to readers who do not have a background in psychology. Psychological Criminology highlights the contributions that psychological theory can make to the broader field of criminology; it will be of interest to students, academics, researchers and practitioners in both criminology and forensic psychology.

Urban Crime, Criminals, and Victims

The Swedish Experience in an Anglo-American Comparative Perspective

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146139077X

Category: Psychology

Page: 271

View: 4816

Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Long-Term Imprisonment

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Timothy J. Flanagan

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0803970331

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 3107

The use of long-term imprisonment as a response to crime, the effects of long-term incarceration and the strategies used by inmates to adjust to confinement are the focus of this volume. The book explores the prison experience from the male and the female perspective and discusses the correctional management challenges posed by long-term incarceration. Comprising a set of articles originally published in The Prison Journal the book is complemented by research reports, an analysis of long-term inmates confined in United States and Canadian prisons, and essays written by long-term prisoners.

Male Criminal Activity from Childhood Through Youth

Multilevel and Developmental Perspectives

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Marc Le Blanc,Marcel Frechette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461235707

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 8070

Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.

Prison, Inc

A Convict Exposes Life Inside a Private Prison

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: K.C. Carceral,Thomas J. Bernard

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814799543

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 8206

In 1888, Leo Tolstoy mysteriously declared that sexual intercourse should no longer exist. Years later he would admit to being "horrified" by this pronouncement, but still remained an ardent believer in sexual abstinence. Frequenter of brothels in his youth, father of thirteen children by his wife and at least two children by peasant women before he was married, Tolstoy now had the audacity to suggest that people should stop having sex. How can such a repudiation be explained? Beginning with Tolstoy's Kreutzer Sonata-his first written "declaration of war on human sexuality"--Tolstoy on the Couch takes us on a sweeping psychoanalytic tour of Tolstoy's diaries and other private materials, revealing that behind his campaign for celibacy lay a painful and complicated drama of early childhood. Rooting Tolstoy's polarized feelings about women and sexuality in his uncontrollable rage toward the mother who died when he was a toddler, Rancour-Laferriere offers profound psychobiographic insights into Tolstoy's lifelong animosity toward women--and into the women he loved to hate.

The American Prison

Issues in Research and Policy

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Lynne Goodstein,Doris L. MacKenzie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468456520

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 3955

Despite the dire forecasts of others who had themselves edited books, we proceeded with the project of an edited volume on the American prison, although with more than a little trepidation. We had heard the horror stories of authors turning in their chapters months or years late or never at all, of publishers delaying publication dates, of volumes that read more like patchwork quilts than finely loomed cloth. As if to prove the others wrong, our experience in editing this volume has been mar velous, and we think the volume reflects this. Most likely, the success of our experience and of the volume stems from two elements: first, the professionalism and commitment of the authors themselves; and second, the fact that early in the life of this volume, most of the authors convened for a conference to critique and coordinate the chapters. This book brings together an illustrious group of criminologists and correctional scholars who wrote chapters explicitly for this volume. Co hesiveness was furthered by the charge we gave to each author to (1) present the major issues, (2) review the empirical research, and (3) dis cuss the implications of this work for present and future correctional policy. The goal of this project was to examine the major correctional issues facing prison systems. The chapters scrutinize the issues from the perspective of the system and the individual, from theory to practical and daily management problems, from legal to psychological concerns.

Addicted to Incarceration

Corrections Policy and the Politics of Misinformation in the United States

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Travis C. Pratt

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483343413

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 3150

In Addicted to Incarceration, author Travis Pratt uses an evidence-based approach to explore the consequences of what he terms America's "addiction to incarceration," highlighting the scope of the problem, the nature of the political discussions surrounding criminal justice policy in general and corrections policy in particular, and the social cost of incarceration. Pratt demonstrates that the United States' addiction to incarceration has been fueled by American citizens' opinions about crime and punishment, the effectiveness of incarceration as a means of social control, and perhaps most important, by policies legitimized by faulty information (e.g.,fear of crime is objectively linked to victimization, petty offenders mature into violent predators, and persistent offending can be accurately predicted over the life course). Analyzing crime policies as they relate to crime rates and U.S. society's ability to both lower the crime rate and address the role of incarceration in preventing future crime, the book shows students how ineffective our rush to incarcerate has been in the last decade, as well as offering recommendations and insights into the future of this problem. Features Real world examples that put a human face on the issues open each chapter Race, ethnicity, and gender issues underlie all discussions and address key aspects of incarceration rates and crime trends The social costs of incarceration are explored, including the heightened inmate risk of personal victimization, incarceration's effect as a barrier to successful offender reintegration into society, and its role in exacerbating existing racial inequalities The final chapter contains conclusions and recommendations for future policy makers Written in an informal and accessible style, Addicted to Incarceration is appropriate for criminal justice policy or corrections courses at the undergraduate level and can also be used as a supplementary text in introductory criminal justice, criminology, and critical issues in criminal justice courses.

Racism in the criminal justice system

a bibliography

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Catherine J. Matthews,Lesley Anne Lewis,University of Toronto. Centre of Criminology

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780919584785

Category: Social Science

Page: 187

View: 8371

Deaths in custody

international perspectives

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Alison Liebling,Tony Ward

Publisher: Whiting & Birch Ltd

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 4571

This book attempts to develop a recognition of the scale of the problem of prison suicide internationally, and to set in the context of the prison as an institution. The sequel to this book, "Deaths in Custody: Caring for people at risk" is, also published by Whiting and Birch.

Justice under pressure

a comparison of recidivism patterns among four successive parolee cohorts

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Sheldon Ekland-Olson,William Robert Kelly

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 141

View: 5155

New Perspectives in Criminology

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: John E. Conklin

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780205183883

Category: Social Science

Page: 315

View: 5458

This reader includes the most up-to-date and engaging selections for a criminology course to be found under one cover, meeting an unfulfilled demand in the marketplace. All publication dates are between 1990 and 1996.

Corrections in Canada

Social Reactions to Crime

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Corrections

Page: 356

View: 4988

Aimed at introductory courses dealing with corrections or penology in university criminology and criminal justice programs and in college programs in law enforcement, corrections, and criminal justice. A contributed volume written by individuals who have both academic and practical knowledge of their subject area, this text provides a balanced review and analysis of penological works and demonstrates various critical approaches. Its currency, Canadian content, accessibility, and learning aids will stimulate discussions and encourage readers to explore issues that are beyond the scope of the text, and will facilitate an understanding and appreciation for the complex and dynamic nature of corrections in Canada.