Principles of Animal Locomotion

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Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849519

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 9105

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Principles of Animal Locomotion

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Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Taylor & Francis US

ISBN: 9780691086781

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 3691

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail. This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs. Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Animal Locomotion

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Author: Andrew A. Biewener

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198500223

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 4129

This work provides a clear foundation for understanding the underlying mechanisms by which animals have evolved to move in their physical environment. It integrates the biomechanics of animal movement with the physiology of animal energetics and the neural control of locomotion.

Animal Locomotion

Physical Principles and Adaptations

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Author: Malcolm S. Gordon,Reinhard Blickhan,John O. Dabiri,John J. Videler

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351966200

Category: Medical

Page: 267

View: 5998

Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.

Biomechanik

Grundlagen, Beispiele, Übungen

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Author: Werner Nachtigall

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322968502

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 459

View: 5192

Physikalische Randbedingungen beherrschen die belebte Welt bis in die kleinsten Details. Analogien aus Biologie und Technik miteinander zu vergleichen, stärkt das Verständnis für die Zusammenhänge. Beide Gesichtspunkte sind hier am Beispiel der Mechanik dargestellt. Aus dem Bereich der Energetik sind einige Aspekte mit aufgenommen, ohne die die Probleme des Wärmehaushalts und der Lokomotion bei Tieren nicht zu verstehen sind; sie ergänzen die reine Biomechanik. Die Darstellung ist so einfach wie möglich gehalten. Sie wendet sich an Studierende technischer Disziplinen, die einen Einblick in die Zusammenhänge mit der Biologie brauchen wie auch an Biowissenschaftler, die sich in einführender Weise über Technische Mechanik informieren wollen.

Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology

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Author: Alan Hastings,Louis Gross

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520269659

Category: Nature

Page: 823

View: 2455

"A bold and successful attempt to illustrate the theoretical foundations of all of the subdisciplines of ecology, including basic and applied, and extending through biophysical, population, community, and ecosystem ecology. Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology is a compendium of clear and concise essays by the intellectual leaders across this vast breadth of knowledge."--Harold Mooney, Stanford University "A remarkable and indispensable reference work that also is flexible enough to provide essential readings for a wide variety of courses. A masterful collection of authoritative papers that convey the rich and fundamental nature of modern theoretical ecology."--Simon A. Levin, Princeton University "Theoretical ecologists exercise their imaginations to make sense of the astounding complexity of both real and possible ecosystems. Imagining a real or possible topic left out of the Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology has proven just as challenging. This comprehensive compendium demonstrates that theoretical ecology has become a mature science, and the volume will serve as the foundation for future creativity in this area."--Fred Adler, University of Utah "The editors have assembled an outstanding group of contributors who are a great match for their topics. Sometimes the author is a key, authoritative figure in a field; and at other times, the author has enough distance to convey all sides of a subject. The next time you need to introduce ecology students to a theoretical topic, you'll be glad to have this encyclopedia on your bookshelf."--Stephen Ellner, Cornell University “Everything you wanted to know about theoretical ecology, and much that you didn’t know you needed to know but will now! Alan Hastings and Louis Gross have done us a great service by bringing together in very accessible form a huge amount of information about a broad, complicated, and expanding field.”--Daniel Simberloff, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Animal Locomotion

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Author: Graham Taylor,Michael S. Triantafyllou,Cameron Tropea

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642116339

Category: Science

Page: 443

View: 8035

The physical principles of swimming and flying in animals are intriguingly different from those of ships and airplanes. The study of animal locomotion therefore holds a special place not only at the frontiers of pure fluid dynamics research, but also in the applied field of biomimetics, which aims to emulate salient aspects of the performance and function of living organisms. For example, fluid dynamic loads are so significant for swimming fish that they are expected to have developed efficient flow control procedures through the evolutionary process of adaptation by natural selection, which might in turn be applied to the design of robotic swimmers. And yet, sharply contrasting views as to the energetic efficiency of oscillatory propulsion – especially for marine animals – demand a careful assessment of the forces and energy expended at realistic Reynolds numbers. For this and many other research questions, an experimental approach is often the most appropriate methodology. This holds as much for flying animals as it does for swimming ones, and similar experimental challenges apply – studying tethered as opposed to free locomotion, or studying the flow around robotic models as opposed to real animals. This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them.

Contemplation and Philosophy: Scholastic and Mystical Modes of Medieval Philosophical Thought

A Tribute to Kent Emery, Jr.

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Author: N.A

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004379290

Category: History

Page: 832

View: 2307

This volume collects essays which are thematically connected through the work of Kent Emery Jr., to whom the volume is dedicated. A main focus lies on the attempts to bridge the gap between mysticism and a systematic approach to medieval philosophical thought.

Faszien-Fitness

Vital, elastisch, dynamisch in Alltag und Sport

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Author: Robert Schleip,Johanna Bayer

Publisher: Riva Verlag

ISBN: 3864136504

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 224

View: 3254

Wer in Alltag und Sport beweglich, vital und schmerzfrei bleiben will, sollte etwas für sein Bindegewebe tun! Diese Erkenntnis setzt sich in den letzten Jahren in Physiotherapie, Sportwissenschaft und Medizin mehr und mehr durch. Denn das muskuläre Bindegewebe – die sogenannten Faszien – spielt eine große Rolle für Wohlbefinden, Beweglichkeit, Leistungsfähigkeit und Gesundheit: Sie übertragen die Kraft der Muskeln, kommunizieren mit dem Nervensystem, dienen als Sinnesorgan, sorgen für Schutz und Stoffaustausch der inneren Organe und bilden die Grundlage für eine schöne Körperform. Was man bisher nur Muskeln zutraute, kann auch das Bindegewebe: Es reagiert auf Belastung und Reize und wenn Faszien verfilzen oder verkleben, können Schmerzen und Bewegungsprobleme die Folge sein. Die Faszien sollten deshalb gezielt trainiert werden – 10 Minuten zweimal in der Woche genügen! Wie sich die neuen Erkenntnisse in ein praktisches Übungsprogramm für den Alltag umsetzen lassen, zeigt dieses Buch des führenden deutschen Faszienforschers und Rolfing-Therapeuten Robert Schleip. Mit Übungsfotos, Einblick in die Wissenschaft von den Faszien, Tipps und Adressen.

Flow Phenomena in Nature: A challenge to engineering design

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Author: Roland Liebe

Publisher: WIT Press

ISBN: 1845640012

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 9968

Do we have an adequate understanding of fluid dynamics phenomena in nature and evolution, and what physical models do we need? What can we learn from nature to stimulate innovations in thinking as well as in engineering applications? Concentrating on flight and propulsion, this unique and accessible book compares fluid dynamics solutions in nature with those in engineering. The respected international contributors present up-to-date research in an easy to understand manner, giving common viewpoints from fields such as zoology, engineering, biology, fluid mechanics and physics. Contents: Introduction to Fluid Dynamics; Swimming and Flying in Nature; Generation of Forces in Fluids - Current Understanding; The Finite, Natural Vortex in Steady and Unsteady Fluid Dynamics - New Modelling; Applications in Engineering with Inspirations From Nature; Modern Experimental and Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics.

Evolutionary Biomechanics

Selection, Phylogeny, and Constraint

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Author: Graham K. Taylor,Adrian L. R. Thomas

Publisher: Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution

ISBN: 0198566387

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 152

View: 8125

This title discusses the study of evolution through the analysis of biomechanical systems. Instead of reviewing the entire breadth of the biomechanical literature, a few key examples are explored in depth as vehicles for discussing fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and evolutionary theory.

Octopus

The Ocean's Intelligent Invertebrate

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Author: Roland C. Anderson,Jennifer A. Mather,James B. Wood

Publisher: Timber Press

ISBN: 1604695005

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 3750

The visually arresting and often misunderstood octopus has long captured popular imagination. With an alien appearance and an uncanny intellect, this exceptional sea creature has inspired fear in famous lore and legends—from the giant octopus attack in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea to Ursula the sea witch in The Little Mermaid. Yet its true nature is more wondrous still. After decades of research, the authors reveal a sensitive, curious, and playful animal with remarkable intelligence, an ability to defend itself with camouflage and jet propulsion, an intricate nervous system, and advanced problem-solving abilities. In this beautifully photographed book, three leading marine biologists bring readers face to face with these amazingly complex animals that have fascinated scientists for decades. From the molluscan ancestry of today’s octopus to its ingenious anatomy, amazing mating and predatory behaviors, and other-worldly relatives, the authors take readers through the astounding life cycle, uncovering the details of distinctive octopus personalities. With personal narratives, underwater research, stunning closeup photography, and thoughtful guidance for keeping octopuses in captivity, Octopus is the first comprehensive natural history of this smart denizen of the sea.

Principles of Animal Design

The Optimization and Symmorphosis Debate

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Author: Ewald R. Weibel,C. Richard Taylor,Liana Bolis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521586672

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 9045

The book discusses whether animals are designed according to the same rules that engineers use in building machines.

Knochen!

Was uns aufrecht hält - das Buch zum menschlichen Skelett

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Author: R. McNeill Alexander

Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

ISBN: 9783827417275

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 8431

Knochen! vereint die faszinierende Beschreibung von Bau und Funktion der menschlichen Knochen mit wunderschönen Farbfotografien, die ihre einzigartige Eleganz einfangen. R. McNeill Alexander, weltweit führender Experte für Biomechanik, nimmt den Leser mit auf eine Reise durch das menschliche Skelett mit seinen 213 Knochen. Das informative Buch führt uns die Natur der menschlichen Knochen ebenso vor Augen wie ihre Beziehung zu anderen Teilen des Körpers. Der Autor verdeutlicht zunächst, dass Knochen lebendige Organe sind -- sie wachsen, nehmen Schaden und verheilen genau wie andere Organe. Er macht uns dann mit Form und Funktion der unzähligen Knochen von Schädel, Gliedmaßen und Rumpf bekannt. Wie die Knochen des Armes gemeinsam mit Rumpf und Schulter einen großen Bewegungsradius schaffen, welche Beziehung die einzelnen Teile des Kopfes zueinander haben, etwa Nasen- und Mundhöhle - das sind nur einige wenige der vielfältigen Themen, die in diesem Buch behandelt werden. Interaktive Experimente erlauben es dem Leser, seinen eigenen Körper zu erforschen, und verhelfen zu überraschenden Einsichten. Auch warum die Knochen verschiedener Menschen unterschiedlich sind, wird von Alexander eingehend dargestellt. Dieses Wissen liegt der wichtigen Arbeit von Forensikern und Archäologen zugrunde - zum einen liefert es Informationen für jene Künstler, die Gesichter aus Schädeln rekonstruieren, zum anderen verrät die Zusammensetzung von Knochen einiges über das Leben von Individuen und ihre täglichen Gewohnheiten. Alexander stellt die Knochen immer wieder auch in einen stammesgeschichtlichen Zusammenhang, erklärt die Prinzipien der Evolution und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Frage des Nutzwertes, und er widmet schließlich ein ganzes Kapitel der evolutionären Beziehung zwischen den menschlichen Knochen und denen anderer Säugetiere. Aaron Diskins 115 Farbfotografien sind mehr als nur eine visuelle Ergänzung zu Alexanders fachkundigem und gut lesbarem Text - sie sind Kunstwerke, welche die bestechende Ästhetik menschlicher Knochen zeigen. Dies ist Ihr Körper. [Format 25 x 28 cm]

Principles of Behavioral Genetics

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Author: Robert RH Anholt,Trudy F. C. Mackay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080919898

Category: Psychology

Page: 334

View: 5291

Principles of Behavioral Genetics provides an introduction to the fascinating science that aims to understand how our genes determine what makes us tick. It presents a comprehensive overview of the relationship between genes, brain, and behavior. Introductory chapters give clear explanations of basic processes of the nervous system and fundamental principles of genetics of complex traits without excessive statistical jargon. Individual chapters describe the genetics of social interactions, olfaction and taste, memory and learning, circadian behavior, locomotion, sleep, and addiction, as well as the evolution of behavior. Whereas the focus is on genetics, neurobiological and ecological aspects are also included to provide intellectual breadth. The book uses examples that span the gamut from classical model organisms to non-model systems and human biology, and include both laboratory and field studies. Samples of historical information accentuate the text to provide the reader with an appreciation of the history of the field. This book will be a valuable resource for future generations of scientists who focus on the field of behavioral genetics. Defines the emerging science of behavioral genetics Engagingly written by two leading experts in behavioral genetics Clear explanations of basic quantitative genetic, neurogenetic and genomic applications to the study of behavior Numerous examples ranging from model organisms to non-model systems and humans Concise overviews and summaries for each chapter

Die Struktur des Verhaltens

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Author: Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110833107

Category: Philosophy

Page: 303

View: 7574

Principles of Cardiovascular Neural Regulation in Health and Disease

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Author: Alberto Malliani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792377757

Category: Medical

Page: 222

View: 8173

This book is an attempt to indicate to researchers and clinicians a simple way to approach the complexity of cardiovascular neural regulation. A conceptual pillar like homeostasis is contrasted with instability and a continuous interaction of opposing mechanisms that have negative and positive feedback characteristics, and is considered to subserve the multitude of patterns pertaining to physiology. However, in pathophysiological conditions the final design is most often replaced by largely purposeless neural mechanisms. The complexity of cardiovascular neural regulation, reflected by the state of sympathovagal balance, is also assessed in the frequency domain. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variability, a sophisticated but simply explained approach, provides an unprecedented tool to evaluate this interaction in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The elementary characteristics of nonlinear dynamics are also outlined. Finally, the need for an ethical structure for science and medicine is analyzed.

Alte Paris

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Author: Eugène Atget

Publisher: Rheinland Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Photography

Page: 191

View: 8382