Policing and the Condition of England

Memory, Politics and Culture

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Author: Ian Loader,Aogán Mulcahy

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299066

Category: Law

Page: 381

View: 8795

Polls repeatedly show that trust in, and respect for, the police have declined from the high levels achieved during the 1950s. This work, on the relationship between English policing and culture, revises the received sociological and popular wisdom on the fate that has befallen the English police.

Policing

Politics, Culture and Control

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Author: Tim Newburn,Jill Peay

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847319688

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 7400

Bringing together a range of leading social scientists and criminologists, this volume explores a number of key themes raised by the work of Robert Reiner. Arguably the leading policing scholar of his generation, Reiner's work over some 40 years has ranged broadly in this field, taking in the study of police history, culture, organisation, elites and relationships with the media. Always carefully situated within an analysis of the changing socio-political circumstances of policing and crime control, Robert Reiner's scholarship has been path-breaking in its impact. The 13 original essays in this volume are testament to Reiner's influence. Although reflecting the primarily British bent within his work, the essays also draw on contributors from Australia, Europe, South Africa and the United States to explore some of the leading debates of the moment. These include, but are not limited to, the impact of neo-liberalism on crime control and the challenges for modern social democracy; police culture, equality and political economy; new media and the future of policing; youth, policing and democracy, and the challenges and possibilities posed by globalisation in the fields of policing and security.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

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Author: Paul Knepper,Anja Johansen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019935233X

Category: Crime

Page: 720

View: 6323

The historical study of crime has expanded in criminology during the past few decades, forming an active niche area in social history. Indeed, the history of crime is more relevant than ever as scholars seek to address contemporary issues in criminology and criminal justice. Thus, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice provides a systematic and comprehensive examination of recent developments across both fields. Chapters examine existing research, explain on-going debates and controversies, and point to new areas of interest, covering topics such as criminal law and courts, police and policing, and the rise of criminology as a field. This Handbook also analyzes some of the most pressing criminological issues of our time, including drug trafficking, terrorism, and the intersections of gender, race, and class in the context of crime and punishment. The definitive volume on the history of crime, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice is an invaluable resource for students and scholars of criminology, criminal justice, and legal history.

Class, Politics, and the Decline of Deference in England, 1968-2000

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Author: Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198812574

Category:

Page: 272

View: 6807

In late twentieth-century England, inequality was rocketing, yet some have suggested that the politics of class was declining in significance, while others argue that class identities lost little power. Neither interpretation is satisfactory: class remained important to "ordinary" people'snarratives about social change and their own identities throughout the period 1968-2000, but in changing ways. Using self-narratives drawn from a wide range of sources - the raw materials of sociological studies, transcripts from oral history projects, Mass Observation, and autobiography - the book examines class identities and narratives of social change between 1968 and 2000, showing that by the end of theperiod, class was often seen as an historical identity, related to background and heritage, and that many felt strict class boundaries had blurred quite profoundly since 1945. Class snobberies "went underground", as many people from all backgrounds began to assert that what was important wasauthenticity, individuality, and ordinariness. In fact, Sutcliffe-Braithwaite argues that it is more useful to understand the cultural changes of these years through the lens of the decline of deference, which transformed people's attitudes towards class, and towards politics.The study also examines the claim that Thatcher and New Labour wrote class out of politics, arguing that this simple - and highly political - narrative misses important points. Thatcher was driven by political ideology and necessity to try to dismiss the importance of class, while the New Labourproject was good at listening to voters - particularly swing voters in marginal seats - and echoing back what they were increasingly saying about the blurring of class lines and the importance of ordinariness. But this did not add up to an abandonment of a majoritarian project, as New Labourreoriented their political project to emphasize using the state to empower the individual.

The Culture of Control

Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society

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Author: David Garland

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022619017X

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 8740

The past 30 years have seen vast changes in our attitudes toward crime. More and more of us live in gated communities; prison populations have skyrocketed; and issues such as racial profiling, community policing, and "zero-tolerance" policies dominate the headlines. How is it that our response to crime and our sense of criminal justice has come to be so dramatically reconfigured? David Garland charts the changes in crime and criminal justice in America and Britain over the past twenty-five years, showing how they have been shaped by two underlying social forces: the distinctive social organization of late modernity and the neoconservative politics that came to dominate the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Garland explains how the new policies of crime and punishment, welfare and security—and the changing class, race, and gender relations that underpin them—are linked to the fundamental problems of governing contemporary societies, as states, corporations, and private citizens grapple with a volatile economy and a culture that combines expanded personal freedom with relaxed social controls. It is the risky, unfixed character of modern life that underlies our accelerating concern with control and crime control in particular. It is not just crime that has changed; society has changed as well, and this transformation has reshaped criminological thought, public policy, and the cultural meaning of crime and criminals. David Garland's The Culture of Control offers a brilliant guide to this process and its still-reverberating consequences.

The politics of crime control

essays in honour of David Downes

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Author: Tim Newburn,Paul Elliott Rock,David M. Downes

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 333

View: 5883

This book brings together ten leading British criminologists to explore the contemporary politics of crime and its control. The volume is produced in honour of Britain's most important criminological scholar - David Downes, of the London School of Economics. The essays are grouped around the three major themes that run through David Downes' work - sociological theory, crime and deviance; comparative penal policy; and, the politics of crime. The third theme also provides the overarching unifying thread for the volume. The contributions are broad ranging and cover such subjects as criminological theory and the new East End of London, the practice of comparative criminology including an analysis of variations in penal cultures within the United States, restorative justice in Colombia, New Labour's politics and policy in relation to dangerous personality-disordered offenders, the legal construction of torture, and the future for a social democratic criminology.

The Politics of Reproduction

Race, Medicine, and Fertility in the Age of Abolition

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Author: Katherine Paugh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192506994

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 9006

Many British politicians, planters, and doctors attempted to exploit the fertility of Afro-Caribbean women's bodies in order to ensure the economic success of the British Empire during the age of abolition. Abolitionist reformers hoped that a homegrown labor force would end the need for the Atlantic slave trade. By establishing the ubiquity of visions of fertility and subsequent economic growth during this time, The Politics of Reproduction sheds fresh light on the oft-debated question of whether abolitionism was understood by contemporaries as economically beneficial to the plantation colonies. At the same time, Katherine Paugh makes novel assertions about the importance of Britain's Caribbean colonies in the emergence of population as a political problem. The need to manipulate the labor market on Caribbean plantations led to the creation of new governmental strategies for managing sex and childbearing, such as centralized nurseries, discouragement of extended breastfeeding, and financial incentives for childbearing, that have become commonplace in our modern world. While assessing the politics of reproduction in the British Empire and its Caribbean colonies in relationship to major political events such as the Haitian Revolution, the study also focuses in on the island of Barbados. The remarkable story of an enslaved midwife and her family illustrates how plantation management policies designed to promote fertility affected Afro-Caribbean women during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The Politics of Reproduction draws on a wide variety of sources, including debates in the British Parliament and the Barbados House of Assembly, the records of Barbadian plantations, tracts about plantation management published by doctors and plantation owners, and missionary records related to the island of Barbados.

Prisons and Their Moral Performance

A Study of Values, Quality, and Prison Life

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Author: Alison Liebling

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 549

View: 9265

This book constitutes a critical case study of the modern search for public sector reform. It includes a detailed account of a study aimed at developing a meaningful way of evaluating difficult-to-measure moral dimensions of the quality of prisons. Penal practices, values, and sensibilities have undergone important transformations over the period 1990-2003. Part of this transformation included a serious flirtation with a liberal penal project that went wrong. A significant factor in this unfortunate turn of events was a lack of clarity, by those working in and managing prisons, about important terms such as 'justice', 'liberal', and 'care', and how they might apply to daily penal life. Official measures of the prison seem to lack relevance to many who live and work in prison and to their critics. The author proposes that a truer test of the quality of prison life is what staff and prisoners have to say about those aspects of prison life that 'matter most': relationships, fairness, order, and the quality of their treatment. The book attempts a detailed analysis and measurement of these dimensions in five prisons. It finds significant differences between establishments in these areas of prison life, and some departures from the official vision of the prison supported by the performance framework. The information revolution has generated unprecedented levels of knowledge about individual prisons, as well as providing a management reach into establishments from adistance, and a capacity for 'chronic revision', that was unimaginable fifty years ago. Another major transformation - the modernisation project - brought with it a new, but flawed, 'craft' of performance monitoring and measurement aimed at solving some of the problems of prison management. This book explores the arrival and the impact of this concept of performance and the links apparently forged between managerialism and moral values.

Criminal Lives

Family Life, Employment, and Offending

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Author: Barry S. Godfrey,David J. Cox,Stephen Farrall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 213

View: 5568

This text examines the history of crime and uses historical data to analyse modern criminological debates. Drawing on criminology, history, and social policy, the book addresses important issues about offenders' persistence in crime, and questions the current theoretical framework used to explain offending patterns.

Constructing Victims' Rights

The Home Office, New Labour, and Victims

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Author: Paul Elliott Rock

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 583

View: 5561

Despite plentiful discussion at various times, the personal victim has traditionally been afforded almost no formal role in the criminal justice process. Victims' rights have always met with stout opposition from both judges and the Lord Chancellor, who have guarded defendants' rights; the maintenance of professionally-controlled and emotionally unencumbered trials; and the doctrine that crime is at heart an offence against society, State, or Sovereign. Constructing Victims' Rights provides a detailed account of how this opposition was overcome, and of the progressive redefinition of victims of crime, culminating in 2003 in proposals for awarding near-rights to victims of crime. Based upon extensive observation, primary papers, and interviews, Paul Rock examines changes in the forms of criminal justice policy-making within the New Labour Government, observing how they shaped political representations and activities centred on victims of crime. He reveals how the issues ofnew managerialism, restorative justice, human rights, race and racism (after the death of Stephen Lawrence), and the treatment of rape victims after the trial of Ralston Edwards came to form a critical mass that required ordering and reconstruction. Constructing Victims' Rights unpicks and explains the resultant battery of proposals and the deft policy manoeuvre contained in the Domestic Violence, Crime, and Victims Bill of 2003. This, the solution to a seemingly intractable problem, was awork of finesse, proposing on the one hand, the imposition of statutory duties on criminal justice agencies and the granting of access to an Ombudsman, and on the other, a National Victims' Advisory Panel that would afford victims a symbolic voice, and a symbolic champion: a Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses.

Desisting from Crime

Continuity and Change in Long-term Crime Patterns of Serious Chronic Offenders

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Author: Michael Eugene Ezell,Lawrence E. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199273812

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 6640

This groundbreaking study examines patterns of offending among persistent juvenile offenders. The authors address questions that have been the focus of criminological debate over the last two decades. Are there are multiple groups of offenders in the population with distinct age-crime patterns? Are between-person differences in criminal offending patterns stable throughout the offender's life? Is there a relationship between offending at one time and at a subsequent time of life, after time-stable differences in criminal propensity are controlled? Ezell and Cohen address these issues by examining three large, separately drawn samples of serious youthful offenders from California. Each sample was tracked over a long time-period, and sophisticated statistical models were used to test eight empirical hypotheses drawn from three major theories of crime: population heterogeneity, state dependence, and dual taxonomy. Each of these three perspectives offers different predictionsabout the relationship between age and crime, and the possibility of crime desistance over the life of serious chronic offenders. Despite the serious chronic criminality among the sample offenders, by the time they reached their mid- to late twenties and continuing into their thirties, each of the six latent classes of offender identified by the study had begun to demonstrate a declining number of arrests. This finding has profound implications for penal policies that impose life sentenceson multiple offenders, such as the Californian 'three strikes and you're out' which incarcerates inmates for 25 years to life with their 'third strike' conviction, at precisely the point when they have begun to grow out of serious crime.

The New Policing

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Author: Eugene McLaughlin

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803989054

Category: Law

Page: 246

View: 9736

The New Policing provides a comprehensive introduction to the critical issues confronting policing today. It incorporates an overview of traditional approaches to the study of the police with a discussion of current perspectives. The book goes on to examine key themes, including the core purpose of contemporary policework; the reconfiguration of police culture; organizational issues and dilemmas currently confronting the police; the managerial reforms and professional innovations that have been implemented in recent years; and the future of policing, security, and crime control. In offering this discussion of the nature and role of the police, The New Policing illustrates the need to re-examine and re-think the theoretical perspectives that have constituted policing studies. Examining evidence from the UK, the USA, and other western societies, the book promotes and enables an understanding of the cultural and symbolic significance of policing in society.

Criminology

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Author: Chris Hale

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 594

View: 3740

"Criminology is the ideal textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students coming to the subject for the first time. Written by a team of leading criminologists, the book covers a wide range of topics including: historical and contemporary understandings of crime and criminal justice; different forms of crime - from street crime to state crime; who commits crime and who are the victims of crime; and how society and state agencies respond to crime and disorder. The contributions to the book offer clear, accessible introductions to the main issues in criminology, and the book includes questions, summaries, further reading, a comprehensive glossary, and tables and diagrams throughout."--BOOK JACKET.

The Long Hangover

Putin's New Russia and the Ghosts of the Past

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Author: Shaun Walker

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190659262

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 8119

In The Long Hangover, Shaun Walker provides a deeply reported, bottom-up explanation of Russia's resurgence under Putin. By cleverly exploiting the memory of the Soviet victory over fascism in World War II, Putin's regime has made ordinary Russians feel that their country is great again. Shaun Walker provides new insight into contemporary Russia and its search for a new identity, telling the story through the country's troubled relationship with its Soviet past. Walker not only explains Vladimir Putin's goals and the government's official manipulations of history, but also focuses on ordinary Russians and their motivations. He charts how Putin raised victory in World War II to the status of a national founding myth in the search for a unifying force to heal a divided country, and shows how dangerous the ramifications of this have been. The book explores why Russia, unlike Germany, has failed to come to terms with the darkest pages of its past: Stalin's purges, the Gulag, and the war deportations. The narrative roams from the corridors of the Kremlin to the wilds of the Gulags and the trenches of East Ukraine. It puts the annexation of Crimea and the newly assertive Russia in the context of the delayed fallout of the Soviet collapse. The Long Hangover is a book about a lost generation: the millions of Russians who lost their country and the subsequent attempts to restore to them a sense of purpose. Packed with analysis but told mainly through vibrant reportage, it is a thoughtful exploration of the legacy of the Soviet collapse and how it has affected life in Russia and Putin's policies.

Cultures and Crimes

Policing in Four Nations

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Author: Norman Dennis,George Erdos

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781903386385

Category: Law enforcement

Page: 234

View: 3086

Accounting for Oneself

Worth, Status, and the Social Order in Early Modern England

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Author: Alexandra Shepard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192552422

Category: History

Page: 383

View: 8972

Accounting for Oneself is a major new study of the social order in early modern England, as viewed and articulated from the bottom up. Engaging with how people from across the social spectrum placed themselves within the social order, it pieces together the language of self-description deployed by over 13,500 witnesses in English courts when answering questions designed to assess their creditworthiness. Spanning the period between 1550 and 1728, and with a broad geographical coverage, this study explores how men and women accounted for their 'worth' and described what they did for a living at differing points in the life-cycle. A corrective to top-down, male-centric accounts of the social order penned by elite observers, the perspective from below testifies to an intricate hierarchy based on sophisticated forms of social reckoning that were articulated throughout the social scale. A culture of appraisal was central to the competitive processes whereby people judged their own and others' social positions. For the majority it was not land that was the yardstick of status but moveable property-the goods and chattels in people's possession ranging from livestock to linens, tools to trading goods, tables to tubs, clothes to cushions. Such items were repositories of wealth and the security for the credit on which the bulk of early modern exchange depended. Accounting for Oneself also sheds new light on women's relationship to property, on gendered divisions of labour, and on early modern understandings of work which were linked as much to having as to getting a living. The view from below was not unchanging, but bears witness to the profound impact of widening social inequality that opened up a chasm between the middle ranks and the labouring poor between the mid-sixteenth and mid-seventeenth centuries. As a result, not only was the social hierarchy distorted beyond recognition, from the later-seventeenth century there was also a gradual yet fundamental reworking of the criteria informing the calculus of esteem.

Collaborative Remembering

Theories, Research, and Applications

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Author: Michelle L. Meade,Celia B. Harris,Penny Van Bergen,John Sutton,Amanda J. Barnier

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198737866

Category:

Page: 496

View: 4291

We remember in social contexts. We reminisce about the past together, collaborate to remember shared experiences, and, even when we are alone, we remember in the context of our communities and cultures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach throughout, this text comprehensively covers collaborative remembering across the fields of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, social psychology, discourse processing, philosophy, neuropsychology, design, and media studies. It highlights points ofoverlap and contrast across the many disciplinary perspectives and, with its sections on "Approaches of Collaborative Remembering" and "Applications of Collaborative Remembering", also connects basic and applied research.Written with late-stage undergraduates and early-stage graduates in mind, the book is also a valuable tool for memory specialists and academics in the fields of psychology, cognitive science and philosophy who are interested in collaborative memory research.

Amnesiopolis

Modernity, Space, and Memory in East Germany

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Author: Department of History Eli Rubin,Eli Rubin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198732260

Category:

Page: 208

View: 7862

Massive, identical, concrete housing blocks are one of the most iconic and enduring legacies of life behind the Iron Curtain. Often, they are assumed to represent the drab and soul-crushing nature of a failed totalitarian system. But what was life really like in such places? What is their real history and real meaning? Amnesiopolis argues that they were part of a utopian project to build a new society out of whole cloth, to sever ties with the materialtraces of the pre-socialist past. By looking at the largest of these 'new towns', Marzahn, outside Berlin, this volume demonstrates the ways in which East Germans experienced their lives in the prefabricatedand mass-produced blocks as a rebirth, not just for their own lives, but also in the broader scope of the history of socialism and Germany. Yet, Rubin cautions, the story was not so simple, as every attempt to sever links with German history seemed to unearth a connection to a much deeper and older history of colonization.