Philosophy of Science

A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Samir Okasha

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198745583

Category: Philosophy

Page: 140

View: 2489

How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully "objective?" What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Philosophy of Science: Very Short Introduction

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Author: Samir Okasha

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062790

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 5962

How much faith should we place in what scientists tell us? Is it possible for scientific knowledge to be fully 'objective'? What, really, can be defined as science? In the second edition of this Very Short Introduction, Samir Okasha explores the main themes and theories of contemporary philosophy of science, and investigates fascinating, challenging questions such as these. Starting at the very beginning, with a concise overview of the history of science, Okasha examines the nature of fundamental practices such as reasoning, causation, and explanation. Looking at scientific revolutions and the issue of scientific change, he asks whether there is a discernible pattern to the way scientific ideas change over time, and discusses realist versus anti-realist attitudes towards science. He finishes by considering science today, and the social and ethical philosophical questions surrounding modern science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Chaos

A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Leonard Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192853783

Category: Mathematics

Page: 180

View: 8384

An introduction to chaotic behavior dynamics describes its behavior in both science and the real world.

The Philosophy of Religion

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Author: Tim Bayne

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198754965

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 2231

What is the philosophy of religion? How can we distinguish it from theology on the one hand and the psychology/sociology of religious belief on the other? What does it mean to describe God as "eternal"? And should religious people want there to be good arguments for the existence of God, or is religious belief only authentic in the absence of these good arguments? In this Very Short Introduction Tim Bayne introduces the field of philosophy of religion, and engages with some of the most burning questions that philosophers discuss. Considering how "religion" should be defined, and whether we even need to be able to define it in order to engage in the philosophy of religion, he goes on to discuss whether the existence of God matters. Exploring the problem of evil, Bayne also debates the connection between faith and reason, and the related question of what role reason should play in religious contexts. Shedding light on the relationship between science and religion, Bayne finishes by considering the topics of reincarnation and the afterlife. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Information: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Luciano Floridi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199551375

Category: Computers

Page: 130

View: 4740

Luciano Floridi unpacks this fundamental concept - what information is, how it is measured, its value and meaning - cutting across the sciences and humanities, from DNA to the Internet, and the ethical issues related to privacy, copyright, and accessibility.

German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Andrew Bowie

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191614289

Category: History

Page: 152

View: 1898

German philosophy remains the core of modern philosophy. Without Kant, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Husserl there would be no Anglo-American 'analytical' style of philosophy. Moreover, without Kant, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, the 'Continental Philosophy' of Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze, Badiou, and Zizek, which has had major effects on humanities subjects in recent years, is incomprehensible. Knowledge of German philosophy is, then, an indispensable prerequisite of theoretically informed study in the humanities as a whole. German Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction discusses the idea that German philosophy forms one of the most revealing responses to the problems of 'modernity'. The rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raises a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith, reason and emotion, and scientific, ethical, and artistic ways of seeing the world. There are also many significant philosophers who are generally neglected in most existing English-language treatments of German philosophy, which tend to concentrate on the canonical figures. This Very Short Introduction will include reference to these thinkers and suggests how they can be used to question more familiar German philosophical thought. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Denken

Die großen Fragen der Philosophie

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Author: Simon Blackburn

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783863120511

Category:

Page: 260

View: 6682

Denker des Abendlandes

eine Geschichte der Philosophie

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Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783868201277

Category:

Page: 430

View: 8677

Quantentheorie

eine Einführung

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Author: John C. Polkinghorne

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150188613

Category:

Page: 176

View: 1582

Doktor Dolittle und seine Tiere

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Author: Hugh Lofting

Publisher: Dressler Verlag

ISBN: 3862720926

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 144

View: 4498

Doktor Dolittle weiß, dass man seine Patienten verstehen muss, um ein guter Arzt zu sein. Zum Glück bringt ihm seine Papageiendame Polynesia die Sprache der Tiere bei. Denn eine schreckliche Nachricht hat ihn erreicht: In Afrika ist eine Krankheit ausgebrochen und die Affen sind in großer Gefahr. Dr. Dolittle eilt ihnen zu Hilfe – und mit ihm Dab-Dab, die Ente, Göb-Göb, das Schweinchen, Jip, der Hund, die Eule Tuh-Tuh und natürlich Polynesia. Doktor Dolittle ist einer der Dressler Klassiker aus der Schatzkiste der Kindheit. Zum Sammeln schön.

Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte

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Author: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783737215213

Category:

Page: 214

View: 5558

Dieses Buch uber die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte von Georg Friedrich Hegel ist ein unveranderter, hochwertiger Nachdruck der Originalausgabe von 1920. Der Vero Verlag ist Herausgeber von Literatur zu unterschiedlichen Themengebieten wie Forschung und Wissenschaft, Reisen und Expeditionen, Kochen und Ernahrung, Medizin und weiteren Genres. Der Schwerpunkt des Verlages liegt auf dem Erhalt historischer Literatur. Viele Werke historischer Schriftsteller und Wissenschaftler sind heute nur noch als Antiquitaten erhaltlich. Der Vero Verlag verlegt diese Bucher neu und tragt damit zum Erhalt selten gewordener Literatur und historischem Wissen auch fur die Zukunft bei."

Science and Religion: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Thomas Dixon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199295514

Category: History

Page: 150

View: 9316

The debate between science and religion is never out of the news: emotions run high, fuelled by polemical bestsellers like iThe God Delusion/i and, at the other end of the spectrum, high-profile campaigns to teach 'Intelligent Design' in schools. Yet there is much more to the debate than the clash of these extremes. As Thomas Dixon shows in this balanced and thought-provoking introduction, a whole range of views, subtle arguments, and fascinating perspectives can be taken on this complex and centuries-old subject. He explores not only the key philosophical questions that underlie the debate, but also highlights the social, political, and ethical contexts that have made 'science and religion' such a fraught and interesting topic in the modern world. Along the way, he examines landmark historical episodes such as the Galileo affair, Charles Darwin's own religious and scientific odyssey, the Scopes 'Monkey Trial' in Tennessee in 1925, and the Dover Area School Board case of 2005, and includes perspectives from non-Christian religions and examples from across the physical, biological, and social sciences.

Mathematik

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Author: Timothy Gowers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150187067

Category:

Page: 207

View: 7594

Foucault

A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Gary Gutting

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192805576

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 124

View: 2290

From aesthetics to the penal system; from madness and civilisation to avant-garde literature, Foucault strove to understand the deep concepts of identity, knowledge, and power. He rejected old models of thinking and replaced them with versions that are still widely debated today. A major influence on Queer Theory and gender studies, he also wrote on architecture, history, law, medicine, literature, politics and of course philosophy. Gutting presents a comprehensive but non-systematic treatment of some highlights of Foucault's life and thought. Beginning with a brief biography to set the social and political stage, he then tackles Foucault's thoughts on literature, in particular the avant-garde scene; his philosophical and historical work; his treatment of knowledge and power in modern society; and his thoughts on sexuality.

Russell: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: A. C. Grayling

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192802583

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 147

View: 1562

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) is one of the most famous and important philosophers of the twentieth century. In this account of his life and work A.C. Grayling introduces both his technical contributions to logic and philosophy, and his wide-ranging views on education, politics, war, and sexual morality. Russell is credited with being one of the prime movers of Analytic Philosophy, and with having played a part in the revolution in social attitudes witnessed throughout the twentieth-century world. This introduction gives a clear survey of Russell's achievements across their whole range. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Elements: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Philip Ball

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578258

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 4750

This Very Short Introduction traces the history and cultural impact of the elements on humankind, and examines why people have long sought to identify the substances around them. Looking beyond the Periodic Table, the author examines our relationship with matter, from the uncomplicated vision of the Greek philosophers, who believed there were four elements - earth, air, fire, and water - to the work of modern-day scientists in creating elements such as hassium and meitnerium. Packed with anecdotes, The Elements is a highly engaging and entertaining exploration of the fundamental question: what is the world made from? ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Logik

Grund- und Aufbaukurs in Aussagen- und Prädikatenlogik

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Author: Gerhard Schurz

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110590638

Category: Philosophy

Page: 447

View: 1207

Diese Einführung in die Logik umfaßt einen Grundkurs und einen Aufbaukurs. Der Grundkurs ist voraussetzungsfrei geschrieben und führt in die Semantik und Beweistheorie der Aussagenlogik und elementaren Prädikatenlogik ein, eingebettet in die allgemeine Theorie des rationalen Schließens. Logische Zusammenhänge werden in Verbindung mit sorgfältig ausgewählten Übungsbeispielen – inklusive Lösungen – einsichtig gemacht. Auf die philosophische Anwendung der Logik in der logischen Rekonstruktion natursprachlicher Texte und Argumente liegt besonderes Augenmerk. Zusammenhänge zwischen alternativen logischen Notationen und Techniken, die anfangs oft Schwierigkeiten bereiten, werden sorgfältig erklärt. Der anschließende Aufbaukurs schlägt die Brücke zwischen einer philosophischen Logikeinführung und dem fortgeschrittenen Niveau moderner formaler Logik. Nach einer gründlichen Einführung in die volle Prädikatenlogik und ihrer mengentheoretischen Semantik wendet sich der Band metalogischen Methoden zu. Prominente Resultate zur Korrektheit und Vollständigkeit der Prädikatenlogik, zur Entscheidbarkeit der monadischen und Unentscheidbarkeit der vollen Prädikatenlogik sowie zur Unvollständigkeit der Arithmetik 1. Stufe werden Schritt um Schritt erklärt. Abgerundet wird der Band durch zahlreiche Exkurse zur philosophischen Vertiefung logischer Grundlagenfragen. Zahlreiche Übungsbeispiele mit Lösungen zum Download vertiefen den Stoff. Die Lösungen werden ab Oktober 2018 verfügbar sein.

Reality: A Very Short Introduction

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Author: Jan Westerhoff

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191638072

Category: Philosophy

Page: 136

View: 2877

'What is real?' has been one of the key questions of philosophy since its beginning in antiquity. It is a question that, due to such films as The Matrix, has also made its way into popular culture. But it is not just a question philosophers ask. It is also asked by scientists when they investigate whether the fundamental constituents of matter are actually 'out there' or just a mere abstraction from a successful theory. Cognitive scientists ask it when trying to find out which set of the bewildering array of data processed by our brain could constitute the basis for such supposedly fundamental entities like the free agent or the self. This Very Short Introduction discusses what reality is by looking at a variety of arguments, theories and thought-experiments from philosophy, physics, and cognitive science. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.