Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research

A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis

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Author: Barbara L. Paterson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761924159

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 7004

Meta-study is an exciting new opportunity for the analysis and synthesis of qualitative research findings. Over the last two decades, a wide range of methods and approaches originating from the social and health sciences have provided a wealth of new knowledge sources from which to develop theory. This book provides step-by-step directions for how to conduct a meta-study, as well as recommendations for tools and standards for the application of this approach. Meta-study entails an exhaustive analysis of the theory, method, and findings of research in a substantive area. These analytic processes form the foundation upon which a credible synthesis of new knowledge can be explored. Meta-study permits investigators to: { look beyond individual findings { critically interpret variations and contradictions in the body of available research { move toward the potential for knowledge synthesis The authors of this timely volume: { differentiate between meta-analysis and meta-synthesis { write in a how-to style { illustrate each step with examples from their own meta-study projects in the substantive field of chronic illness { use their own experience with performing a meta-study to explain the process, including past mistakes and retrospective insight

Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research

A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Barbara L. Paterson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761924159

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 900

Meta-study is an exciting new opportunity for the analysis and synthesis of qualitative research findings. Over the last two decades, a wide range of methods and approaches originating from the social and health sciences have provided a wealth of new knowledge sources from which to develop theory. This book provides step-by-step directions for how to conduct a meta-study, as well as recommendations for tools and standards for the application of this approach. Meta-study entails an exhaustive analysis of the theory, method, and findings of research in a substantive area. These analytic processes form the foundation upon which a credible synthesis of new knowledge can be explored. Meta-study permits investigators to: { look beyond individual findings { critically interpret variations and contradictions in the body of available research { move toward the potential for knowledge synthesis The authors of this timely volume: { differentiate between meta-analysis and meta-synthesis { write in a how-to style { illustrate each step with examples from their own meta-study projects in the substantive field of chronic illness { use their own experience with performing a meta-study to explain the process, including past mistakes and retrospective insight

Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare

A Guide to Best Practice

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Author: Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk,Ellen Fineout-Overholt

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 1605477788

Category: Medical

Page: 599

View: 5969

Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk and Ellen Fineout-Overholt are creators of the ARCC (Advancing Research and Clinical practice through close Collaboration) Model, an innovative strategy for implementing and sustaining evidence-based practice in healthcare systems. The ARCC Model is cited as an exemplar of education in evidence-based practice in the Board on Health Care Services and the Institute of Medicine's book, Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality. "McInyk and Fineout-Overholt's book should be required reading in all graduate programs. Their text has provided a blueprint for the future of nursing practice and a rigorously substantiated and clearly described means for clinicians, educators, and administrators to participate in improving quality of care." Janet D. Allan, PhD, RN, FAAN Dean and Professor University of Maryland School of Nursing "Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice has been instrumental in developing a culture of evidence-based practice at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. It is fundamental to our curriculum provided to all levels of staff, from new graduate nurses to the highest levels of hospital leadership." Dr. Patricia Potter, RN, PhD, FAAN, Dr. Gail Rea, RN, PhD, CNE, Dr. Karen Balakas, RN, PhD, CNE, Jennifer Williams, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC, Elizabeth Pratt, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC Evidence Equals Excellence group at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Barnes-Jewish School of Nursing at Goldfarb Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice is an exemplary text that spans the continuum of nursing evidence to support best practice. Utilizing this text with undergraduate, RN to BSN, and graduate nursing students, it is the ONLY text that demonstrates how to retrieve, read, and analyze evidence whether it is published as an individual study, systematic review, meta-analysis, best practice guideline, or outcomes management report. Students learn how to utilize multiple complex databases and websites as they move through each chapter. And, they experience dissemination of evidence through the development of presentations, publications, posters, and grants. This is truly a remarkable book that embraces evidence as the basis for nursing practice and patient-centered care and safety. Having used this text with more than 1000 students over the past five years, I can honestly say that I have found no other text that facilitates learning and development of clinical judgment that is grounded in valid, reliable, and applicable evidence. This is a keeper! Alice E. Dupler, JD, APRN-BC Clinical Associate Professor Washington State University College of Nursing "I have used the book since I developed the Evidence-based Practice course for our College of Nursing in Fall 2007. It was the first course of its kind at Indiana State University. It has been well received and the preferred course for all nursing graduate students for completion of their final scholarly projects. The text was essential in developing the course and provides the foundation and guidance that the students need to develop their Evidence Based Practice projects...the students love the text!" Susan Eley PhD, RN, FNP-BC Assistant Professor Director FNP Program Indiana State University

Routledge International Handbook of Qualitative Nursing Research

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Author: Cheryl Tatano Beck

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136703403

Category: Medical

Page: 680

View: 2798

Qualitative research, once on the fringes, now plays a central part in advancing nursing and midwifery knowledge, contributing to the development of the evidence base for healthcare practice. Divided into four parts, this authoritative handbook contains over forty chapters on the state of the art and science of qualitative research in nursing. The first part begins by addressing the significance of qualitative inquiry to the development of nursing knowledge, and then goes on to explore in depth programs of qualitative nursing research. The second section focuses on a wide range of core qualitative methods, from descriptive phenomenology, through to formal grounded theory and to ethnography, and narrative research. The third section highlights key issues and controversies in contemporary qualitative nursing research, including discussion of ethical and political issues, evidence-based practice and Internet research. The final section takes a unique look at qualitative nursing research as it is practiced throughout the world with chapters on countries and regions from the UK and Europe, North America, Australasia, Latin America, to Japan, China, and Korea. With an international selection of established scholars contributing, this is an essential overview and will help to propel qualitative research in nursing well into the twenty-first century. It is an invaluable reference for all nursing researchers.

An Introduction to Qualitative Research Synthesis

Managing the Information Explosion in Social Science Research

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Author: Claire Howell Major,Maggi Savin-Baden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136616128

Category: Education

Page: 200

View: 5285

Providing a comprehensive guide for understanding, interpreting and synthesizing qualitative studies, An Introduction to Qualitative Research Synthesis shows how data can be collated together effectively to summarise existing bodies of knowledge and to create a more complete picture of findings across different studies The authors describe qualitative research synthesis and argue for its use, describing the process of data analysis, synthesis and interpretation and provide specific details and examples of how the approach works in practice. This accessible book: fully explains the qualitative research synthesis approach; provides advice and examples of findings; describes the process of establishing credibility in the research process; provides annotated examples of the work in process; references published examples of the approach across a wide variety of fields. Helping researchers to understand, make meaning and synthesize a wide variety of datasets, this book is broad in scope yet practical in approach. It will be beneficial to those working in social science disciplines, including researchers, teachers, students and policy makers, especially those interested in methods of synthesis such as meta-ethnography, qualitative meta-analysis, qualitative meta-synthesis, interpretive synthesis, narrative synthesis, and qualitative systematic review.

Meta-Ethnography

Synthesizing Qualitative Studies

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Author: George W. Noblit,R. Dwight Hare

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803930230

Category: Social Science

Page: 88

View: 4458

This provocative volume deals with one of the chief criticisms of ethnographic studies, a criticism which centres on their particularism or their insistence on context -- the question is asked: How can these studies be generalized beyond the individual case? Noblit and Hare propose a method -- meta-ethnography -- for synthesizing from qualitative, interpretive studies. They show that ethnographies themselves are interpretive acts, and demonstrate that by translating metaphors and key concepts between ethnographic studies, it is possible to develop a broader interpretive synthesis. Using examples from numerous studies, the authors illuminate how meta-ethnography works, isolate several types of meta-ethnographic study and provide a theoretica

Understanding and Using Health Experiences

Improving patient care

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Author: Sue Ziebland,Angela Coulter,Joseph D. Calabrese,Louise Locock

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191643246

Category: Medical

Page: 184

View: 8966

Improving patient experience is a global priority for health policy-makers and care providers. The need to look at healthcare delivery through the eyes of patients is widely accepted, but how should it be done? What use can be made of this information, and what evidence is there that such exercises lead to better care? Understanding and Using Health Experiences: Improving patient care examines a broad range of different sources and techniques for gathering and analyzing health experiences. Providing an accessible and pragmatic overview of the diversity and richness of research in the field this book explores the strengths and limitations of different approaches, and assesses what each method can contribute to improving people's experience of illness, and the way that health services are delivered. The book looks at topics such as using focus groups to understand experiences of health and illness, patient surveys, and the internet as a source of information on people's experience. Using clear and engaging examples throughout, the book is accessibly written by experts in social science, health services, and health policy, and will be valuable to postgraduate students, healthcare practitioners, and individuals working in health and social policy, public sector management, and research.

Nursing and Midwifery Research

Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice

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Author: Dean Whitehead,Geri LoBiondo-Wood,Judith Haber

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0729581373

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 2284

The new edition upholds the premise that knowledge about research process and design is mandatory in today's health care arena, and that all nurses and midwives need to understand research findings and their implication for changing practice. It is completely revised with many new chapters. The text has been restructured into three sections. Section 1 Research Awareness sets the scene for the importance of nursing and midwifery research and provides an overview of research theory and practice as processes. Chapters on searching for and reviewing the literature provide detailed advice for undergraduates and facilitate access to research articles online. One of the new chapters discusses ethical issues in Australia and New Zealand. Section 2 Appreciation and Application provides a detailed discussion of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research approaches with many useful examples from the clinical area. Section 3 Conducting primary research is new and is designed to accommodate both undergraduate and postgraduate students in their research effort. Writing research proposals may be a requirement for undergraduates in their research program and postgraduates will find the information useful for undertaking a higher degree or applying for university or external funding. This final Section is also useful as a guide on disseminating and publishing conducted research findings. Combined Australian and New Zealand editorship ensures greater trans-Tasman coverage, awareness and relevance. Contributions from international luminaries are balanced by a heightened focus on research conducted within Australia and New Zealand. New edition conscientiously recognises midwifery research as related to but independent from nursing. The research process-driven approach is directed towards ‘consumers' of research, and the comprehensive coverage extends from undergraduate through to a postgraduate level of knowledge. Expanded pedagogy includes Key Terms and Learning Outcomes at the beginning of each chapter; Icons throughout that direct readers to web-based material; Evidence-based Tips, Research in Brief boxes and Points to Ponder for constant reinforcement that links evidence to practice. Integrated Tutorial Triggers with suggested answers provided and Multiple Choice Questions enable students to assess their understanding of key points. Evolve Website provides True/False questions and access to journal articles cited in the text, with additional reflective questions. Australian adaptation of Nursing Research: Lobiondo-Wood & Haber

Metatheorizing

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Author: George Ritzer

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 178

View: 8240

Metatheorizing has come of age in sociology and other social science fields, forming the backdrop for serious intellectual debates over agency and structure, micro and macro level analysis, positivism and interpretivism, modernist and postmodernist thought. These debates are highlighted in this focused collection of essays. Contributors are among the leading figures in sociological theory - and represent a wide array of theoretical `camps'. Many of the debates in sociological theory are carried forward in the book. Collectively the contributors point out the importance of building overarching theoretical models and suggest new directions for metatheoretical work.

Caring in Nursing Classics

An Essential Resource

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Author: Marlaine C. Smith, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN,Marian C. Turkel, RN, PhD, NEA-BC, FAAN,Zane Robinson Wolf, PhD, RN, FAAN

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826171125

Category: Medical

Page: 532

View: 5266

"This very interesting book provides a good overview of the evolution of the art and practice of nursing...Recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries “This collected work by scholars Smith, Turkel, and Wolf stands as a classic indeed. It offers nursing and related fields a repository and living history of the evolution of nursing within a caring science paradigm over a 40-year span from foundational ideas and developments, to current work in education, research, and institutional/community practices of caring...[The work] sustains and advances knowledge of human caring to serve humanity.” From the Foreword by Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN- BC, FAAN Founder, Watson Caring Science Institute This is a core resource for nursing educators and students at all levels who seek fundamental perspectives on the art and science of caring. The text comprises 37 classic book chapters and journal articles written by leaders in the field and illuminate the evolution of the caring paradigm--from its beginnings as a philosophical/ethical/theoretical guide to nursing, to implications for the future development of caring science. Co-published with the Watson Caring Science Institute (WCSI), it will also be a primary resource for students attending WCSI programs and for in-service education programs, especially in hospitals with, or seeking, Magnet status. Each section features an introductory essay illuminating important concepts, followed by reflective questions appropriate for baccalaureate, master’s, and doctoral levels. Also included are multiple-choice questions, a variety of case studies, a digital teacher and student resource with PowerPoints for key ideas, and more. The book is organized into nine sections providing an in-depth analysis of the evolution of caring scholarship; systematic reviews of the concept of caring; theoretical perspectives, including conceptual orientations, middle-range theories, and grand theories; seminal research studies; research designs and methods; practice models for the integration of caring within contemporary hospital-based practice environments; caring in communities and for the environment; leadership and administrative issues with a focus on caring and economics; and the future of caring science. Key Features: Presents the seminal literature on caring Co-published with the Watson Caring Science Institute Provides reflective/critical thinking questions tailored to academic levels For use in baccalaureate, graduate, doctoral, and in-service education, and as a core resource for WCSI programs Is accompanied by a digital teacher and student guide (please contact [email protected] to request this content)

Clinical Massage in the Healthcare Setting - E-Book

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Author: Sandy Fritz,Leon Chaitow,Glenn Hymel

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323070698

Category: Medical

Page: 848

View: 7048

Covering advanced massage therapy skills, this practical resource prepares you to work with medical professionals in a clinical setting, such as a hospital, hospice, long-term care, or other health-related practice. It discusses the many skills you need to succeed in this environment, helping you become a contributing member of an integrated team. Also covered are the essentials of clinical massage, such as indications and contraindications, review of massage methods, range of motion testing, SOAP note documentation, and a massage therapy general protocol. Case studies show how a multidisciplinary approach applies to real-world clients. By coordinating your work with other health professionals, you can enhance patient care in any clinical setting! Includes a DVD with: Two hours of video showing specific applications, featuring author Sandy Fritz. A complete general protocol for massage. State-of-the-art animations depicting biologic functions and medical procedures. 700 full-color illustrations accompany procedures, concepts, and techniques. An integrated healthcare approach covers the healthcare environment and the skills necessary to be a contributing member of an integrated healthcare team. A research-based focus emphasizes research, clinical reasoning, and outcome-based massage application — for effective massage application in conjunction with healthcare intervention. A complete general protocol provides a guide to treating disorders and maintaining wellness, with recommendations for positioning and interventions, using a step-by-step sequence that can easily be modified to meet a patient's specific needs. A palliative protocol helps you temporarily relieve a patient's symptoms of disorders or diseases. Case studies focus on outcome-based massage for individuals with multiple health issues, detailing assessment, medical intervention, justification for massage, and session documentation. Coverage of advanced massage therapy skills and decision-making skills includes specific themes for effective massage application, allowing you to consolidate massage treatment based on the main outcomes — useful when working with individuals with multiple pathologies or treatment needs. A discussion of aromatherapy provides safe recommendations for the use of essential oils in conjunction with massage, to promote healing of the body and mind. Descriptions of illness and injury include relevant anatomy/physiology/pathophysiology, as well as strategies and massage applications to use for pain management, immune support, stress management, chronic illness, and post-surgical needs. Coverage of insurance and reimbursement issues relates to you as a massage professional. Strategies for general conditions such as substance abuse, mental health, orthopedic injury, and cardiovascular disorders help you specialize in clinical massage. Expert authors provide knowledge in research, massage therapy in healthcare, and manual therapies. Learning resources include chapter outlines, chapter learning objectives, key terms, and workbook-style exercises. A companion Evolve website includes: PubMed links to research supporting best practices and justification for massage application. More information on topics such as insurance, pharmacology, and nutrition. More information on anatomy and physiology and other subjects. A comprehensive glossary with key terms and some audio pronunciations.

Research Methods for Massage and Holistic Therapies

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Author: Glenn Hymel

Publisher: Mosby

ISBN: 9780323032926

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 327

View: 4421

This comprehensive resource covers a broad array of research strategies available to massage therapists to give them the tools they need to be knowledgeable readers of research literature, as well as active researchers. The primary focus of the book is on the quantitative aspect of research that encompasses the principal types of studies most extensively used in the various health care professions, specifically massage therapy. Extensive coverage is also given to the qualitative and integrative research categories that are progressively gaining recognition among researchers in various health science disciplines and professions. Accommodates the March 2003 mandate from the Commission on Massage Therapy Accreditation (COMTA) that massage therapy schools incorporate into their curricula provisions to ensure a research literate profession. Examples and techniques for interpreting research guide practitioners and students to be knowledgeable readers of massage therapy research, allowing application to practice. Relies heavily on concept maps, flowcharts, tables, and illustrations and excerpts of published studies to augment the book's narrative development of topics by providing pictorial displays and summaries of the material. Literature-based and hypothetical research examples/illustrations from several manual therapy professions employing therapeutic massage make the material pertinent to real-life settings An introductory section at the beginning of each chapter reviews the material covered in the previous chapter and how it relates to the new material. Chapter coverage spans the quantitative, qualitative, and integrative research categories and affiliated research strategies and methods are considered in detail. Review/summary tables give an overview of the narrative development of topics. Boxes provide the essential features of a given topic. Relies on multiple examples of possible research scenarios and illustrative excerpts from the published research literature. Content is cross-referenced for use with the Massage Therapy Foundation's Massage Therapy Research Curriculum Kit to provide both instructors and students in the 6-, 15-, and 24-hour options/levels an extensively-developed resource in one place. Each chapter includes recommended web sites and software application packages for further information.

Introduction to Research - E-Book

Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies

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Author: Elizabeth DePoy,Laura N. Gitlin

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323291074

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 8823

Bridge the gap between research and practice with DePoy and Gitlin's Introduction to Research: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies, 4th Edition. This completely updated, user-friendly text helps you better understand not only the research process, but also research designs and their applications to the real world of clinical practice. Covering multiple research strategies (including both qualitative and quantitative research), it gives you a balanced approach to various research traditions, addressing emerging key issues in today's health care environment. Offers a balanced approach to various research methods and multiple research strategies, including qualitative, quantitative, naturalistic and experimental-type, and more. Presents complex information in a clear, highly readable, and easy-to-understand manner. Keeps information relevant to today's health care environment with real-world "snapshots" and a final Stories from the Field chapter. Includes detailed discussions of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, a unique and balanced focus that makes this text more comprehensive than others in its field. Covers experimental-type, naturalistic, and mixed method design strategies, improving your ability to compare, contrast, and integrate different methods. Evolve online resources include statistics math tips to accompany Chapter 19, crossword puzzles, useful weblinks, and sample forms. Reflects recent changes in the field, including new material on preparing poster presentations, community and participatory research, translation issues, and advanced scale development, giving you the tools you need to devise successful research studies. Includes expanded evidence-based material and occupational therapy-specific information, discussing the methods used in each study.

Synthesizing Qualitative Research

Choosing the Right Approach

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Author: Karin Hannes,Craig Lockwood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119959829

Category: Medical

Page: 200

View: 8311

A considerable number of journal publications using a range of qualitative synthesis approaches has been published. Mary Dixon-Woods and colleagues (Mary Dixon-Woods, Booth, & Sutton, 2007) identified 42 qualitative evidence synthesis papers published in health care literature between 1990 and 2004. An ongoing update by Hannes and Macaitis (2010)identified around 100 additional qualitative or mixed methods syntheses. Yet these generally lack a clear, detailed description of what was done and why (Greenhalgh et al, 2007; McInnes & Wimpenny, 2008). Choices are most commonly influenced by what others have successfully used in the past or by a particular school of thought (Atkins et al, 2008; Britten et al, 2002). This is a substantive limitation. This book brings balance to the options available to researchers, including approaches that have not had a substantial uptake among researchers. It provides arguments for when and why researchers or other parties of interest should opt for a certain approach to synthesis, which challenges they might face in adopting it and what the potential strengths and weaknesses are compared with other approaches. This book acts as a resource for readers who would otherwise have to piece together the methodology from a range of journal articles. In addition, it should stimulate further development and documentation of synthesis methodology in a field that is characterized by diversity.

Narrative Research in Health and Illness

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Author: Brian Hurwitz,Trisha Greenhalgh,Vieda Skultans

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405146192

Category: Medical

Page: 456

View: 754

This comprehensive book celebrates the coming of age of narrative in health care. It uses narrative to go beyond the patient's story and address social, cultural, ethical, psychological, organizational and linguistic issues. This book has been written to help health professionals and social scientists to use narrative more effectively in their everyday work and writing. The book is split into three, comprehensive sections; Narratives, Counter-narratives and Meta-narratives.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods

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Author: Michael Lewis-Beck,Alan E Bryman,Tim Futing Liao

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780761923633

Category: Social Science

Page: 1528

View: 5997

"This defining work will be valuable to readers and researchers in social sciences and humanities at all academic levels. As a teaching resource it will be useful to instructors and students alike and will become a standard reference source. Essential for general and academic collections." --CHOICE This Encyclopedia provides readers with authoritative essays on virtually all social science methods topics, quantitative and qualitative, by an international collection of experts. Organized alphabetically, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods covers research terms ranging from different methodological approaches to epistemological issues and specific statistical techniques. Written to be accessible to general readers, the Encyclopedia entries do not require advanced knowledge of mathematics or statistics to understand the purposes or basic principles of any of the methods. To accomplish this goal, there are two major types of entries: definitions consisting of a paragraph or two to provide a quick explanation of a methodological term; and topical treatments or essays that discuss the nature, history, applications, and implications of using a certain method, including suggested readings and references. Readers are directed to related topics via cross-referenced terms that appear in small capital letters. By assembling entries of varied origins and serving different research purposes, readers will be able to benefit from this immense source of methodological expertise in advancing their understanding of research. With three volumes and more than 900 signed entries, the Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods will be a critical addition to any social science library.

Interpretive Description

Qualitative Research for Applied Practice

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Author: Sally Thorne

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134820569

Category: Education

Page: 336

View: 2185

The first edition of Interpretive Description established itself as the key resource for novice and intermediate level researchers in applied settings for conducting a qualitative research project with practical outcomes. In the second edition, leading qualitative researcher Sally Thorne retains the clear, straightforward guidance for researchers and students in health, social service, mental health, and related fields. This new edition includes additional material on knowledge synthesis and integration, evidence-based practice, and data analysis. In addition, this book takes the reader through the qualitative research process, from research design through fieldwork, analysis, interpretation, and application of the results; provides numerous examples from a variety of applied fields to show research in action; uses an accessible style and affordable price to be the ideal book for teaching qualitative research in clinical and applied disciplines.

Finding What Works in Health Care:

Standards for Systematic Reviews

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Author: Committee on Standards for Systematic Reviews of Comparative Effectiveness Research,Board on Health Care Services,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309164257

Category: Medical

Page: 340

View: 3694

Healthcare decision makers in search of reliable information that compares health interventions increasingly turn to systematic reviews for the best summary of the evidence. Systematic reviews identify, select, assess, and synthesize the findings of similar but separate studies, and can help clarify what is known and not known about the potential benefits and harms of drugs, devices, and other healthcare services. Systematic reviews can be helpful for clinicians who want to integrate research findings into their daily practices, for patients to make well-informed choices about their own care, for professional medical societies and other organizations that develop clinical practice guidelines. Too often systematic reviews are of uncertain or poor quality. There are no universally accepted standards for developing systematic reviews leading to variability in how conflicts of interest and biases are handled, how evidence is appraised, and the overall scientific rigor of the process. In Finding What Works in Health Care the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends 21 standards for developing high-quality systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research. The standards address the entire systematic review process from the initial steps of formulating the topic and building the review team to producing a detailed final report that synthesizes what the evidence shows and where knowledge gaps remain. Finding What Works in Health Care also proposes a framework for improving the quality of the science underpinning systematic reviews. This book will serve as a vital resource for both sponsors and producers of systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research.