Passchendaele

Canada's Triumph and Tragedy on the Fields of Flanders : an Illustrated History

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Author: Norman Leach

Publisher: Coteau Books

ISBN: 9781550503999

Category: History

Page: 47

View: 953

"This fully-illustrated, easily-accessible, account of the battle of Passchendaele presents the background and details of Canada's coming of age in The Great War." During WWI, the battle for the tiny Belgium town Passchendaele was one of the most significant tests of Canadian courage and expertise. British Commander-in-Chief General Douglas Haig had devised one of the most controversial stratagems of the entire war: Allied forces would attack headlong into the heavily fortified German entrenchments, capture the town of Passchendaele and its highlands, and drive toward the coast to destroy German submarine bases. General Arthur Currie's Canadian Corps was called to the front for this attack. After their victories at Vimy Ridge and Hill 70, the Canadians had earned the nickname "storm troopers" for, like a storm, they could not be stopped. Even for the battle-hardened Canadians, Passchendaele was a living hell. Many drowned in the mud before ever seeing the enemy. Others died from deadly chlorine gas, and others from artillery shells that rained down in numbers over 175 per square metre. The Canadians seized Passchendaele, succeeding where all others had failed, and displaying high standards of leadership, staff work and training.The Corps had suffered 16,000 casualties; nine Victoria Crosses were awarded to acknowledge the extraordinary heroism. Though the actual value of the campaign is debated to this day, one thing is certain: Canadians had been tested against the worst horrors of the Great War, and they had proven their valour.

Passchendaele

A New History

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Author: Nick Lloyd

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0241970113

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 8733

Between July and November 1917, in a small corner of Belgium, more than 500,000 men were killed or maimed, gassed or drowned - and many of the bodies were never found. The Ypres offensive represents the modern impression of the First World War: splintered trees, water-filled craters, muddy shell-holes. The climax was one of the worst battles of both world wars: Passchendaele. The village fell eventually, only for the whole offensive to be called off. But, as Nick Lloyd shows, notably through previously unexamined German documents, it put the Allies nearer to a major turning point in the war than we have ever imagined.

Passchendaele

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Author: Nigel Steel,Peter Hart

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1474603327

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8622

In the autumn of 1917, after years of stalemate at Ypres, the British and French armies launched a massive offensive to take Passchendaele Ridge. Following an intensive bombardment, the Allies began their attack, but the low ground between the lines had been churned into a quagmire, and the attack was literally bogged down. All surprise had been lost, and the German defence in depth was well organised. For the first time the Germans used mustard gas, while German planes flew low to strafe the British infantry with machine guns. After two and a half months the British finally took the ridge they had been aiming for, but at the cost of over 300,000 Allied lives. German losses in the offensive were estimated at 260,000. Based on the archival holdings at the Imperial War Museum, this book gathers together a wealth of material about this horrific offensive. A history to appeal to the scholar and the general reader alike.

Passchendaele

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Author: Robin Prior,Trevor Wilson

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300184832

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 3586

No conflict of the Great War excites stronger emotions than the war in Flanders in the autumn of 1917, and no name better encapsulates the horror and apparent futility of the Western Front than Passchendaele. By its end there had been 275,000 Allied and 200,000 German casualties. Yet the territorial gains made by the Allies in four desperate months were won back by Germany in only three days the following March. The devastation at Passchendaele, the authors argue, was neither inevitable nor inescapable; perhaps it was not necessary at all. Using a substantial archive of official and private records, much of which has never been previously consulted, Trevor Wilson and Robin Prior provide the fullest account of the campaign ever published. The book examines the political dimension at a level which has hitherto been absent from accounts of "Third Ypres." It establishes what did occur, the options for alternative action, and the fundamental responsibility for the carnage. Prior and Wilson consider the shifting ambitions and stratagems of the high command, examine the logistics of war, and assess what the available manpower, weaponry, technology, and intelligence could realistically have hoped to achieve. And, most powerfully of all, they explore the experience of the soldiers in the light—whether they knew it or not—of what would never be accomplished.

Passchendaele: The Anatomy of a Tragedy

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Author: Andrew Macdonald

Publisher: HarperCollins Australia

ISBN: 1775490653

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 2869

A fresh look at the battles of Passchendaele that reveals, for the first time, where responsibility for the tragedy really lies. this extensively researched book tells the story of one of the darkest hours of Australia and New Zealand's First World War military. With the forensic use of decades-old documents and soldier accounts, it unveils for the first time what really happened on the war-torn slopes of Passchendaele, why, and who was responsible for the deaths and injuries of thousands of soldiers in the black mud of Flanders. Macdonald explores the October battles of third Ypres from the perspective of the generals who organised them to the soldiers in the field, drawing on a wide range of evidence held in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Britain and Germany. His book is far more than a simple narrative of battle and includes critical and comparative assessments of command, personality, training discipline, weapons, systems, tactics and the environment. It looks equally at the roles of infantry, artillery and engineering units, whether Australian, New Zealand, Canadian or British, and in so doing presents a meticulous, objective and compelling investigation from start to finish. Along the way it offers numerous unique insights that have, until now, been obscured by a nearly century-old fog of war. this book will reshape the understanding of one of the most infamous battles of the First World War.

A Moonlight Massacre

The Night Operation on the Passchendaele Ridge, 2 December 1917 : the Forgotten Last Act of the Third Battle of Ypres

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Author: Michael LoCicero

Publisher: Helion & Company Limited

ISBN: 9781909982925

Category: History

Page: 517

View: 1593

The Third Battle of Ypres was officially terminated by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig with the opening of the Battle of Cambrai on 20 November 1917. Nevertheless, a comparatively unknown set-piece attack - the only large-scale night operation carried out on the Flanders front during the campaign - was launched twelve days later on 2 December. This volume is a necessary corrective to previously published campaign narratives of what has become popularly known as ''Passchendaele''. It examines the course of events from the mid-November decision to sanction further offensive activity in the vicinity of Passchendaele village to the barren operational outcome that forced British GHQ to halt the attack within ten hours of Zero. A litany of unfortunate decisions and circumstances contributed to the profitless result. At the tactical level, a novel hybrid set-piece attack scheme was undermined by a fatal combination of snow-covered terrain and bright moonlight. At the operational level, the highly unsatisfactory local situation in the immediate aftermath of Third Ypres'' post-strategic phase (26 October-10 November) appeared to offer no other alternative to attacking from the confines of an extremely vulnerable salient. Perhaps the most tragic aspect of the affair occurred at the political and strategic level, where Haig''s earnest advocacy for resumption of the Flanders offensive in spring 1918 was maintained despite obvious signs that the initiative had now passed to the enemy and the crisis of the war was fast approaching. "A Moonlight Massacre" provides an important contribution and reinterpretation of the discussion surrounding Passchendaele, based firmly on an extensive array of sources, many unpublished, and supported by illustrations and maps.REVIEWS "This meticulously researched account of the last, forgotten, phase of the Third Battle of Ypres, utilizing German as well as British sources, provides a detailed insight into why First World War battles were launched, how they were organized at every level and why they so often disappointed the hopes of their planners." Dr John Bourne, Vice President Western Front Association "In this work Michael LoCicero reveals the tragic story of the long forgotten night action that was the final act of the Third Battle of Ypres, 1917. Combining meticulous research with vivid prose, LoCicero explores operations at the highest level without ever losing sight of how this affected the officers and men in the front line. Gripping, thought-provoking and admirably measured, this superb book is essential reading for anyone with an interest in the British Army of the First World War." Dr Spencer Jones, University of Wolverhampton"In this fine book, Michael LoCicero has painstakingly reconstructed a hitherto forgotten episode of First World War history. Thanks to him, we are able to look at the Passchendaele campaign through new eyes." Gary Sheffield, Professor of War Studies, University of Wolverhampton"A scholarly and highly detailed new operational study of a little-known action which was a postscript to the Third Battle of Ypres. With this book, Michael LoCicero has shed much fresh light on the BEF''s command, planning and tactics in late 1917." Peter Simkins, Hon. Professor of Western Front Studies, University of Wolverhampton" ... a mightily impressive book. It sets a standard for anyone wishing to describe and analyse a military operation ..." Long Long Trail website"...an excellent example of the possibilities opened by fastidious use of a wide spectrum of sources ... Where this work is atypical is that it manages to bea rare thing - a genuinely operational study ... Perhaps the greatest success of this book, notwithstanding its deft mastery of narrative and sources both well-known and obscure is that the author always maintains balance ... It demands - and deserves - your close attention. At the risk of sounding evangelical or repetitive, again Helion bring the best modern research to market at an accessible price and beautifully produced. Wholeheartedly recommended." Newsletter of the Society of Friends of the National Army Museum

Passchendaele

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Author: Philip Warner

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 1844153053

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5593

Nearly ninety years ago, on 31st July 1917, the small Belgian village of Passchendaele became the focus for one of the most gruelling, bloody and bizarre battles of World War 1. By 6th November, when Passchendaele village and the ridge were captured, over half a million British, French, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders and Germans had become casualties. Philip Warner, the noted historian of twentieth-century warfare and the author of over fifty books on military history, many published by Pen and Sword, has skilfully brought together all the elements of this horrific campaign - the historical background, personal accounts, strategies and tactics, the personalities and the political manoeuvres. He investigates the issues which had a crucial effect on the course of the battle, including the mutinous state of the French army, the bombardment which destroyed the drainage system, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig's determination to continue operations despite the appalling weather and ground conditions, and the stormy relationship between Haig and Lloyd George. However, it is the determined fighting ability and the bravery of the allied soldiers, rather than the tactical plans of the commanders, that dominate this detailed and totally absorbing account of the harrowing four-month campaign called the Battle of Passchendaele. Passchendaele is a masterly and timely analysis of one of the most important battles in history.

How the War Was Won

Command and Technology in the British Army on the Western Front: 1917-1918

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Author: T.H.E. Travers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134902689

Category: History

Page: 268

View: 7313

"How the War Was Won" describes the major role played by the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front in defeating the German army. In particular, the book explains the methods used in fighting the last year of the war, and raises questions as to whether mechanical warfare could have been more widely used. Using a wide range of unpublished material from archives in both Britain and Canada, Travers explores the two themes of command and technology as the style of warfare changed from late 1917 through 1918. He describes in detail the British army's defense against the German 1918 spring offensives, analyzes command problems during these offensives, and offers an overriding explanation for the March 1918 retreat. He also fully investigates the role of the tank from Cambrai to the end of the war, and concludes that, properly used, the tank could have made a greater contribution to victory. "How the War Was Won" explodes many myths and advances newand controversial arguments. It will be essential reading for military historians and strategists, and for those interested in the origins of mechanical warfare.

The Chief

Douglas Haig and the British Army

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Author: Gary Sheffield

Publisher: Aurum Press Limited

ISBN: 1845137345

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 6179

‘ Well written and persuasive … objective and well-rounded… .this scholarly rehabilitation should be the standard biography’ **** Andrew Roberts, Mail on Sunday ‘ A true judgment of him must lie somewhere between hero and zero, and in this detailed biography Gary Sheffield shows himself well qualified to make it … a balanced portrait’ Sunday Times ‘ Solid scholarship and admirable advocacy’ Sunday Telegraph Douglas Haig is the single most controversial general in British history. In 1918, after his armies had won the First World War, he was feted as a saviour. But within twenty years his reputation was in ruins, and it has never recovered. In this fascinating biography, Professor Gary Sheffield reassesses Haig’ s reputation, assessing his critical role in preparing the army for war.

Harry’s War

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Author: Harry Drinkwater

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448177324

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 416

View: 2583

‘I saw several fellows fall, one fellow coughing up blood and all the time, bullets were hacking about me. I ran for about 70 yards carrying with me all the Lewis gun things I had brought up and dropped breathless into a shell hole headlong onto a German who had been dead for months.’ Harold Drinkwater was not supposed to go to war. He was told he was half an inch too short. But, determined to fight for king and country, he found a battalion that would take him and was soon on his way to the trenches of the Somme. As the war dragged on, Harry saw most of the men he joined up with killed around him. But, somehow, he survived. Soldiers were forbidden from keeping a diary so Harry wrote his in secret, recording the horrendous conditions and constant fear, as well as his pleasure at receiving his officer's commission, the joy of his men when they escaped the trenches for the Italian Front and the trench raid for which he was awarded the Military Cross. Harry writes with such immediacy it is easy to forget that a hundred years have passed. He is by turns wry, exhausted, annoyed, resigned and often amazed to be alive. Never before published, Harry's War is a moving testament to one man's struggle to keep his humanity in the face of unimaginable violence.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War

New Edition

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Author: Hew Strachan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640417

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 6177

The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.

A Fine View of the Show

Letters from the Western Front

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Author: Hector Jackson,Andrew Jackson

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 055706225X

Category: History

Page: 262

View: 4055

A first-hand glimpse into daily life on the Western Front that is riveting, informative and poignant. Hector Jackson left his family's British Columbia farm in 1915 to fight in World War I. Recounted through 130 descriptive letters, Jackson's idealistic adventure descended into the gritty reality of trench warfare when, as a newly-commissioned officer, he was catapulted into the Battle of the Somme. Against the odds, Jackson survived many of the great battles of the Western Front, to be awarded the Military Cross for gallantry under fire at Passchendaele and rise to the rank of captain. Gassed just ten days before the war ended, he joined the river of wounded flowing from the battlefield. Photographs illustrate the unique story told in these letters, from Jackson's farm life, through military training, to the grim existence of the Western Front. Andrew Jackson's introduction and historical narrative, along with helpful notes, weave these letters into a dramatic chronicle.

From Bapaume to Passchendaele 1917

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Author: Philip Gibbs

Publisher: Library of Alexandria

ISBN: 1465527990

Category:

Page: 384

View: 3761

1917.... I suppose that a century hence men and women will think of that date as one of the world's black years flinging its shadow forward to the future until gradually new generations escape from its dark spell. To us now, only a few months away from that year, above all to those of us who have seen something of the fighting which crowded every month of it except the last, the colour of 1917 is not black but red, because a river of blood flowed through its changing seasons and there was a great carnage of men. It was a year of unending battle on the Western Front, which matters most to us because of all our youth there. It was a year of monstrous and desperate conflict. Looking back upon it, remembering all its days of attack and counter-attack, all the roads of war crowded with troops and transport, all the battlefields upon which our armies moved under fire, the coming back of the prisoners by hundreds and thousands, the long trails of the wounded, the activity, the traffic, the roar and welter and fury of the year, one has a curious physical sensation of breathlessness and heart-beat because of the burden of so many memories. The heroism of men, the suffering of individuals, their personal adventures, their deaths or escape from death, are swallowed up in this wild drama of battle so that at times it seems impersonal and inhuman like some cosmic struggle in which man is but an atom of the world's convulsion. To me, and perhaps to others like me, who look on at all this from the outside edge of it, going into its fire and fury at times only to look again, closer, into the heart of it, staring at its scenes not as men who belong to them but as witnesses to give evidence at the bar of history—for if we are not that we are nothing—and to chronicle the things that have happened on those fields, this sense of impersonal forces is strong. We see all this in the mass. We see its movement as a tide watched from the bank and not from the point of view of a swimmer breasting each wave or going down in it. Regimental officers and men know more of the ground in which they live for a while before they go forward over the shell-craters to some barren slope where machine-guns are hidden below the clods of soil, or a line of concrete blockhouses heaped up with timber and sand-bags on one of the ridges.

The First World War

Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918

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Author: Holger H. Herwig

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 147251081X

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 4161

The Great War toppled four empires, cost the world 24 million dead, and sowed the seeds of another worldwide conflict 20 years later. This is the only book in the English language to offer comprehensive coverage of how Germany and Austria-Hungary, two of the key belligerents, conducted the war and what defeat meant to them. This new edition has been thoroughly updated throughout, including new developments in the historiography and, in particular, addressing new work on the cultural history of the war. This edition also includes: - New material on the domestic front, covering Austria-Hungary's internal political frictions and ethnic fissures - More on Austria-Hungary and Germany's position within the wider geopolitical framework - Increased coverage of the Eastern front The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914-1918 offers an authoritative and well-researched survey of the role of the Central powers that will be an invaluable text for all those studying the First World War and the development of modern warfare.

When Destiny Dictates

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Author: Michael Daniell-Waugh

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1477131299

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 520

View: 1298

The author wanted to write up his father's memoirs, but these were too short for publication, so he added his own autobiography, and was surprised to find a number of strange occurrences and coincidences in their lives, which seemed to be the hand of Destiny. The book reviews these events, which took place over One Hundred Years of British History, covering the upheavals of two World Wars and the dissolution of Britain's Colonial Empire, culminating in the Rhodesian Rebellion, and what Rhodesia's Prime Minister, Ian Douglas Smith, described as Britain's "Great Betrayal." The book moves from early Argentine days to the Somme, to India, to the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, World War 2, Assam, Kuwait, and Northern and Southern Rhodesia.

History of the King's Regiment (Liverpool) 1914-1919 Volume III

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Author: Everard Wyrall

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN: 178150797X

Category: History

Page: 283

View: 8781

Volume III of III This is an impressive history by the most prolific author of Great War divisional and regimental histories, a fine tribute to a regiment that contributed 49 battalions to the nation's war effort, 26 of them served overseas, including the 2nd Battalion which was in India in August 1914 and remained there throughout the war. It is also a tribute to the author who died in 1933, before he could finish the third volume; the final few chapters were completed by Capt W. Synge of the 1st Battalion. All 23 front line battalions served on the Western Front, one of them (14th) in Salonika as well. The Roll of Honour lists 14,200 dead, six VCs were won, one of them by an officer (Capt O.A.Reid) attached to another regiment, and 58 Battle Honours were awarded. This work is set out in chronological order, each volume dealing with a specific period and ending with the Roll of Honour for that period and citations for any VC. Dates are in the margin and so is the identification of the battalion involved in the action being described. This final volume completes the story beginning with Third Ypres and ending with a very brief chapter on the 2nd Battalion in India. As it may be imagined, there is plenty of detail in a history so generous with space as this, with its three volumes, and the narrative is supported with clear maps.

1914-1918

The History of the First World War

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Author: David Stevenson

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141904348

Category: History

Page: 784

View: 1871

1914-1918, David Stevenson's history of the First World War, has been acclaimed as the definitive one-volume account of the conflict In the summer of 1914 Europe exploded into a frenzy of mass violence. The war that followed had global repercussions, destroying four empires and costing millions of lives. Even the victorious countries were scarred for a generation, and we still today remain within the conflict's shadow. In this major analysis David Stevenson re-examines the causes, course and impact of this 'war to end war', placing it in the context of its era and exposing its underlying dynamics. His book provides a wide-ranging international history, drawing on insights from the latest research. It offers compelling answers to the key questions about how this terrible struggle unfolded: questions that remain disturbingly relevant for our own time. 'It's harder to imagine a better single-volume comprehensive history of the conflict than this superb study' Ian Kershaw 'Perhaps the best comprehensive one-volume history of the war yet written' New Yorker 'David Stevenson is the real deal ... His defining characteristic is his outstanding rigour as an historian ... tremendously clever' Niall Ferguson 'This history of the 1914-1918 conflict surpasses all others. It is tough, erudite and comprehensive' Independent

Old Enough to Fight

Canada's Boy Soldiers in the First World War

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Author: Dan Black,John Boileau

Publisher: James Lorimer & Company

ISBN: 1459405412

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 2168

Between 15,000 and 20,000 underage youths, some as young as ten, signed up to fight in Canada's armed forces in the First World War. They served in the trenches alongside their elders, and fought in all the major battles: Ypres, the Somme, Passchendaele, Vimy Ridge, and the rest. Many were injured or suffered psychological wounds. Many died. This is the first book to tell their story. Some boys joined up to escape unhappy homes and workplaces. Others went with their parents' blessing, carrying letters from fathers and mothers asking the recruiters to take their eager sons. The romantic notion of a short, victorious campaign was wiped out the second these boys arrived on the Western Front. The authors, who narrate the fighting with both military professionalism and humanity, portray many boys who, in the heat of battle, made a seamless transition from follower to leader to hero. Authors Dan Black and John Boileau combed the archives and collections to bring these stories to life. Passages from letters the boy soldiers wrote home reveal the range of emotions and experiences they underwent, from the humorous to the unspeakably horrible. Their parents' letters touch us with their concern, love, uncertainty, and often, grief. Meticulously researched and abundantly illustrated with photographs, paintings, and a collection of specially commissioned maps,Old Enough to Fight is Canadian military and social history at its most fascinating.

Passchendaele

The Fight for the Village

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Author: Nigel Cave

Publisher: Pen & Sword

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 9931

The British offensive, which became known as Passchendaele, got underway on 31 July 1917 with the objective of capturing 15 miles of territory. Published to coincide with the anniversary of Passchendaele, this guide includes car tours, memorials, etc.