Particles in the Coastal Ocean


Author: Daniel R. Lynch,David A. Greenberg,Ata Bilgili,Dennis J. McGillicuddy, Jr,James P. Manning,Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110706175X

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 6326

The coastal ocean comprises the semi-enclosed seas on the continental shelf, including estuaries and extending to the shelf break. This region is the focus of many serious concerns, including coastal inundation by tides, storm surges or sea level change; fisheries and aquaculture management; water quality; harmful algal blooms; planning of facilities (such as power stations); port development and maintenance; and oil spills. This book addresses modeling and simulation of the transport, evolution and fate of particles (physical and biological) in the coastal ocean. It is the first to summarize the state of the art in this field and direct it toward diverse applications, for example in measuring and monitoring sediment motion, oil spills and larval ecology. This is an invaluable textbook and reference work for advanced students and researchers in oceanography, geophysical fluid dynamics, marine and civil engineering, computational science and environmental science.

Plastic Pollution


Author: François Galgani,Christopher K. Pham,Julia Reisser

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889453308


Page: N.A

View: 3009

The presence, at sea, of large amounts of plastic and microplastics, which are sometimes invisible and results from the fragmentation of larger debris, requires an in-depth knowledge of the nature of ocean debris, its transport mechanisms, life cycle and effects on the environment. This volume provides new insights in the topic of plastic pollution, an actual and important problem for the marine environment.

Lagrangian Analysis and Prediction of Coastal and Ocean Dynamics


Author: Annalisa Griffa,A. D. Kirwan, Jr.,Arthur J. Mariano,Tamay Özgökmen,H. Thomas Rossby

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946308X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1763

Written by a group of international experts in their field, this book is a review of Lagrangian observation, analysis and assimilation methods in physical and biological oceanography. This multidisciplinary text presents new results on nonlinear analysis of Lagrangian dynamics, the prediction of particle trajectories, and Lagrangian stochastic models. It includes historical information, up-to-date developments, and speculation on future developments in Lagrangian-based observations, analysis, and modeling of physical and biological systems. Containing contributions from experimentalists, theoreticians, and modellers in the fields of physical oceanography, marine biology, mathematics, and meteorology, this book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students looking for both practical applications and information on the theory of transport and dispersion in physical systems, biological modelling, and data assimilation.

Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters


Author: Leo H. Holthuijsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139462520

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2754

Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters describes the observation, analysis and prediction of wind-generated waves in the open ocean, in shelf seas, and in coastal regions with islands, channels, tidal flats and inlets, estuaries, fjords and lagoons. Most of this richly illustrated book is devoted to the physical aspects of waves. After introducing observation techniques for waves, both at sea and from space, the book defines the parameters that characterise waves. Using basic statistical and physical concepts, the author discusses the prediction of waves in oceanic and coastal waters, first in terms of generalised observations, and then in terms of the more theoretical framework of the spectral energy balance. He gives the results of established theories and also the direction in which research is developing. The book ends with a description of SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), the preferred computer model of the engineering community for predicting waves in coastal waters.

Handbook of Applications of Chaos Theory


Author: Christos H. Skiadas,Charilaos Skiadas

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315356546

Category: Mathematics

Page: 934

View: 3558

In addition to explaining and modeling unexplored phenomena in nature and society, chaos uses vital parts of nonlinear dynamical systems theory and established chaotic theory to open new frontiers and fields of study. Handbook of Applications of Chaos Theory covers the main parts of chaos theory along with various applications to diverse areas. Expert contributors from around the world show how chaos theory is used to model unexplored cases and stimulate new applications. Accessible to scientists, engineers, and practitioners in a variety of fields, the book discusses the intermittency route to chaos, evolutionary dynamics and deterministic chaos, and the transition to phase synchronization chaos. It presents important contributions on strange attractors, self-exciting and hidden attractors, stability theory, Lyapunov exponents, and chaotic analysis. It explores the state of the art of chaos in plasma physics, plasma harmonics, and overtone coupling. It also describes flows and turbulence, chaotic interference versus decoherence, and an application of microwave networks to the simulation of quantum graphs. The book proceeds to give a detailed presentation of the chaotic, rogue, and noisy optical dissipative solitons; parhelic-like circle and chaotic light scattering; and interesting forms of the hyperbolic prism, the Poincaré disc, and foams. It also covers numerous application areas, from the analysis of blood pressure data and clinical digital pathology to chaotic pattern recognition to economics to musical arts and research.

Ocean Colour: Theory and Applications in a Decade of CZCS Experience


Author: Vittorio Barale,Peter M. Schlittenhardt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401117918

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 346

Optical remote sensing is of invaluable help in understanding the marine environment and its biogeochemical and physical processes. The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which operated on board the Nimbus-7 satellite from late 1978 to early 1986, has been the main source of ocean colour data. Much work has been devoted to CZCS data processing and analysis techniques throughout the 1980s. After a decade of experience, the Productivity of the Global Ocean (PGO) Activity - which was established in the framework of the International Space Year 1992 (ISY '92) by SAFISY, the Space Agency Forum of ISY - sponsored a workshop aimed at providing a reference in ocean colour science and at promoting the full exploitation of the CZCS historical data in the field of biological oceanography. The present volume comprises a series of state-of-the-art contributions on theory, applications and future perspectives of ocean colour. After an introduction on the historical perspective of ocean colour, a number of articles are devoted to the CZCS theoretical background, on radiative transfer and in-water topics, as well as on calibration, atmospheric correction and pigment concentration retrieval algorithms developed for the CZCS. Further, a review is given of major applications of CZCS data around the world, carried out in the past decade. The following part of the book is centered on the application of ocean colour to the assessment of marine biological information, with particular regard to plankton biomass, primary productivity and the coupling of physical/biological models. The links between global oceanic production and climate dynamics are also addressed. Finally, the last section is devoted to future approaches and goals of ocean colour science, and to planned sensors and systems. The book is required reading for those involved in ocean colour and related disciplines, providing an overview of the current status in this field as well as stimulating the debate on new ideas and developments for upcoming ocean colour missions.

Coastal Ocean Observing Systems


Author: Yonggang Liu,Heather Kerkering,Robert H. Weisberg

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012802061X

Category: Science

Page: 490

View: 3609

Coastal Ocean Observing Systems provides state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge in coastal ocean observing systems, along with guidance on establishing, restructuring, and improving similar systems. The book is intended to help oceanographers understand, identify, and recognize how oceanographic research feeds into the various designs of ocean observing systems. In addition, readers will learn how ocean observing systems are defined and how each system operates in relation to its geographical, environmental, and political region. The book provides further insights into all of these problem areas, offering lessons learned and results from the types of research sponsored and utilized by ocean observing systems and the types of research design and experiments conducted by professionals specializing in ocean research and affiliated with observing systems. Includes international contributions from individuals working in academia, management, and industry Showcases the application of science and technology in coastal observing systems Highlights lessons learned on partnerships, governance structure, data management, and stakeholder relationships required for successful implementation Provides insight into how ocean research transfers to application and societal benefit

Integrated Approach to Environmental Data Management Systems


Author: Nilgun B. Harmancioglu,M.N. Alpaslan,S.D. Ozkul,Vijay Singh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401156166

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 546

View: 2066

An integrated approach to environmental data management is necessitated by the complexity of the environmental problems that need to be addresses, coupled with the interdisciplinary approach that needs to be adopted to solve them. Agenda 21 of the Rio Environmental Conference mandated international programmes and organizations to take steps to develop common data and information management plans, and steps have been taken in this direction. The key word that defines the framework of the present book is `integration'. The book establishes the basics of integrated approaches and covers environmental data management systems within that framework, covering all aspects of data management, from objectives and constraints, design of data collection networks, statistical and physical sampling, remote sensing and GIS, databases, reliability of data, data analysis, and the transformation of data into information.

Real-time Coastal Observing Systems for Marine Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms

theory, instrumentation and modelling


Author: Babin, Marcel,Roesler, Collin S.,Cullen, John J.

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9231040421

Category: Nature

Page: 880

View: 4420

The proliferation of harmful phytoplankton in marine ecosystems can cause massive fish kills, contaminate seafood with toxins, impact local and regional economies and dramatically affect ecological balance. Real-time observations are essential for effective short-term operational forecasting, but observation and modelling systems are still being developed. This volume provides guidance for developing real-time and near real-time sensing systems for observing and predicting plankton dynamics, including harmful algal blooms, in coastal waters. The underlying theory is explained and current trends in research and monitoring are discussed.Topics covered include: coastal ecosystems and dynamics of harmful algal blooms; theory and practical applications of in situ and remotely sensed optical detection of microalgal distributions and composition; theory and practical applications of in situ biological and chemical sensors for targeted species and toxin detection; integrated observing systems and platforms for detection; diagnostic and predictive modelling of ecosystems and harmful algal blooms, including data assimilation techniques; observational needs for the public and government; and future directions for research and operations.

Ocean Wave Mechanics

Applications in Marine Structures


Author: V. Sundar

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119241634

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 886

Ocean Wave Mechanics: Applications in Marine Structures

Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists


Author: Robert G Dean,Robert A Dalrymple

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814365696

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 1869

This book is intended as an introduction to classical water wave theory for the college senior or first year graduate student. The material is self-contained; almost all mathematical and engineering concepts are presented or derived in the text, thus making the book accessible to practicing engineers as well. The book commences with a review of fluid mechanics and basic vector concepts. The formulation and solution of the governing boundary value problem for small amplitude waves are developed and the kinematic and pressure fields for short and long waves are explored. The transformation of waves due to variations in depth and their interactions with structures are derived. Wavemaker theories and the statistics of ocean waves are reviewed. The application of the water particle motions and pressure fields are applied to the calculation of wave forces on small and large objects. Extension of the linear theory results to several nonlinear wave properties is presented. Each chapter concludes with a set of homework problems exercising and sometimes extending the material presented in the chapter. An appendix provides a description of nine experiments which can be performed, with little additional equipment, in most wave tank facilities.

Boundary Layer Dynamics


Author: Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030959037X

Category: Science

Page: 37

View: 8880

Alternative Breast Imaging

Four Model-Based Approaches


Author: Keith D. Paulsen,Paul M. Meaney,Larry Gilman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387233644

Category: Computers

Page: 254

View: 7306

Medical imaging has been transformed over the past 30 years by the advent of computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and various advances in x-ray and ultrasonic techniques. An enabling force behind this progress has been the (so far) exponentially increasing power of computers, which has made it practical to explore fundamentally new approaches. In particular, what our group terms "model-based" modalities-which produce tissue property images from data using nonlinear, iterative numerical modeling techniques-have become increasingly feasible. Alternative Breast Imaging: Four Model-Based Approaches explores our research on four such modalities, particularly with regard to imaging of the breast: (1) MR elastography (MRE), (2) electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), (3) microwave imaging spectroscopy (MIS), and (4) near infrared spectroscopic imaging (NIS). Chapter 1 introduces the present state of breast imaging and discusses how our alternative modalities can contribute to the field. Chapter 2 looks at the computational common ground shared by all four modalities. Chapters 2 through 10 are devoted to the four modalities, with each modality being discussed first in a theory chapter and then in an implementation-and-results chapter. The eleventh and final chapter discusses statistical methods for image analysis in the context of these four alternative imaging modalities. Imaging for the detection of breast cancer is a particularly interesting and relevant application of the four imaging modalities discussed in this book. Breast cancer is an extremely common health problem for women; the National Cancer Institute estimates that one in eight US women will develop breast cancer at least once in her lifetime. Yet the efficacy of the standard (and notoriously uncomfortable) early-detection test, the x-ray mammogram, has been disputed of late, especially for younger women. Conditions are thus ripe for the development of affordable techniques that replace or complement mammography. The breast is both anatomically accessible and small enough that the computing power required to model it, is affordable.

Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Environments

Technologies, Techniques and Applications


Author: Richard L. Miller,Carlos E. Del Castillo,Brent A. McKee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402030994

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 347

View: 3072

This book provides extensive insight on remote sensing of coastal waters from aircraft and space-based platforms. The primary focus of the book is optical remote sensing using passive instruments, to measure and analyze the coastal aquatic environment. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources, to help non-specialists grasp new techniques and technology, to quickly produce useful data

Computational Wave Dynamics


Author: Hitoshi Gotoh,Akio Okayasu,Yasunori Watanabe

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814449725

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 252

View: 3549

This book provides a comprehensive description of the latest theory-supported numerical technologies, as well as scientific and engineering applications for water surface waves. Its contents are crafted to cater to a step-by-step learning of computational wave dynamics and ocean wave modeling. It provides a comprehensive description from underlying theories of free-surface flows, to practical computational applications for coastal and ocean engineering on the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The text may be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students to understand the theoretical background of wave computations, and the recent progress of computational techniques for free-surface and interfacial flows, such as Volume of Fluid (VOF), Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP), Lagrangian Particle (SPH, MPS), Distinct Element (DEM) and Euler-Lagrange Hybrid Methods. It is also suitable for researchers and engineers who wish to apply CFD techniques to ocean modeling and practical coastal problems involving sediment transport, wave-structure interaction and surf zone flows.

Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere

Theory, Experiments, and Applications


Author: Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts,James N. Pitts, Jr.

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080529073

Category: Science

Page: 969

View: 3342

Here is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of one of the hottest areas of chemical research. The treatment of fundamental kinetics and photochemistry will be highly useful to chemistry students and their instructors at the graduate level, as well as postdoctoral fellows entering this new, exciting, and well-funded field with a Ph.D. in a related discipline (e.g., analytical, organic, or physical chemistry, chemical physics, etc.). Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere provides postgraduate researchers and teachers with a uniquely detailed, comprehensive, and authoritative resource. The text bridges the "gap" between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and "real world" examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments and associated risk management control strategies for both tropospheric and stratospheric pollutants. Serves as a graduate textbook and "must have" reference for all atmospheric scientists Provides more than 5000 references to the literature through the end of 1998 Presents tables of new actinic flux data for the troposphere and stratospher (0-40km) Summarizes kinetic and photochemical date for the troposphere and stratosphere Features problems at the end of most chapters to enhance the book's use in teaching Includes applications of the OZIPR box model with comprehensive chemistry for student use

Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter


Author: Dennis A. Hansell,Craig A. Carlson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124071538

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 6421

Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM

Selected Topics of Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics


Author: Jaime Klapp,Gerardo Ruíz Chavarría,Abraham Medina Ovando,Abel López Villa,Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319114875

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 2002

This book contains invited lectures and selected contributions presented at the Enzo Levi and XIX Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamic Division of the Mexican Physical Society in 2013. It is aimed at fourth year undergraduate and graduate students, and scientists in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry who are interested in fluid dynamics from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The invited lectures are introductory and avoid the use of complicated mathematics. The fluid dynamics applications include multiphase flow, convection, diffusion, heat transfer, rheology, granular material, viscous flow, porous media flow, geophysics and astrophysics. The material contained in the book includes recent advances in experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics and is suitable for both teaching and research.

Mesoscale/Synoptic Coherent Structures in Geophysical Turbulence


Author: B.M. Jamart,J.C.J. Nihoul

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080870885

Category: Science

Page: 840

View: 822

The 20th Liège Colloquium was particularly well attended and these proceedings demonstrate the significant progress achieved in understanding, modelling, and observing geostrophic and near-geostrophic turbulence. The book contains more than 50 review papers and original contributions covering most aspects of the field of mesoscale/synoptic coherent structures in geophysical (oceanographic) turbulence. The properties of isolated vortices (generation, evolution, decay), their interactions with other vortices, with larger scale currents and/or with topography are investigated theoretically and by means of numerical and physical models. Observation of these dynamically important features in different parts of the world ocean are reported. Of particular interest will be the fourteen contributions by scientists from the USSR which emphasize the international character of the meeting. The book thus constitutes a useful and complete overview of the current state-of-the-art.

Ocean Engineering Mechanics

With Applications


Author: Michael E. McCormick

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521859522

Category: Science

Page: 580

View: 9960

This book is based on the author's experiences in engineering practice and in the classroom. The introductory topics in wave mechanics and the presentation of such have their foundations in the courses taught at the U.S. Naval Academy. The advanced topics have their origins in the postgraduate courses taught at the Johns Hopkins University.