Particle Toxicology

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Author: Ken Donaldson,Paul Borm

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420003143

Category: Medical

Page: 456

View: 6202

Exposure to particles in industry and mining and from accidental anthropogenic sources constitutes an ongoing threat. Most recently nanoparticles arising from advances in technology are exposing a wider population to pathogenic stimuli. The effects of inhaled particles are no longer confined to the lung as nanoparticles have the potential to translocate to the bloodstream, the brain, and other target sites. The new questions posed by nanoparticles underscore the importance of interdisciplinary research and exchange and highlight the need for new collaborations among disciplines in medicine, toxicology, chemistry, and material sciences. Particle Toxicology brings together the state of the science in particle physico-chemistry, cell biology, and toxicology in a single volume. While organized around the classical toxicology paradigm of exposure - dose - response, the book is unique in its emphasis on mechanistic toxicology. Preparing the reader with a brief historical overview and a conceptual framework for particle research, the book provides reviews on the mechanisms and properties of pathogenic particles and their effects on target cells at various sites in the body. The text describes how adverse effects are a consequence of deposition, translocation, and the complex issue of “dose” dominates. Contributions from leading researchers address particle-associated pro-inflammatory effects and inflammatory signaling, cellular and extracellular oxidative and nitrosative stress, particulate interactions in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, as well as genotoxic effects. Exemplar particles include quartz, asbestos, particulate material and nanoparticles. The book also covers mathematical modeling and human studies as avenues for future research. Responding to the evolving trend of consumer applications for particulate matter, Particle Toxicology provides the comprehensive resource for current knowledge from which to develop new concepts to understanding particle actions, measurement, testing, and pathogenic exposure to fine and ultrafine particles.

Case Studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle Toxicology

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Author: Antonietta M Gatti,Stefano Montanari

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128012544

Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 3887

Case Studies in Nanotoxicology and Particle Toxicology presents a highly-illustrated analysis of the most prominent cases on the adverse effects of nanoparticles and their impact on humans and the environment. This comprehensive reference demonstrates the possible risks imposed by managing and handling nanoparticles, showing the effects of involuntary inhalation or ingestion during their use and after their incineration. Through the use of numerous examples, readers will discover the possible risks and effects of working with nanoparticles, along with best practices to prevent these effects. The text is an essential reference for anyone working in the risk assessment of nanoparticles, including nanosafety professionals, occupational toxicologists, regulatory toxicologists, and clinicians. Presents real-life cases showing the potential risks to human health following exposure to nanoparticles An ideal reference for anyone working in the risk assessment of nanoparticles, including nanosafety professionals, occupational toxicologists, regulatory toxicologists, and clinicians Provides examples to help assess risks of handling engineered nanomaterials Advises on the best forms of protection and the safest nanotechnological products

Issues in Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management: 2013 Edition

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Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1490107061

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1109

View: 4119

Issues in Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Particle and Fiber Toxicology. The editors have built Issues in Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Particle and Fiber Toxicology in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

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Author: Ken Donaldson,Craig Poland,Rodger Duffin,James Bonner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139510533

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4630

The widespread and increasing use of carbon nanotubes in scientific and engineering research and their incorporation into manufactured goods has urged an assessment of the risks and hazards associated with exposure to them. The field of nanotoxicology studies the toxicology of nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and has become a major growth area aimed towards risk assessment of nanoparticles. Compiled by a team of leading experts at the forefront of research, this is the first book dedicated to the toxicology of carbon nanotubes. It provides state-of-the-science information on how and why they are so potentially dangerous if breathed in, including their similarities to asbestos. The book examines various aspects of carbon nanotubes, from their manufacture and aerodynamic behaviour to their effects at molecular level in the lungs. It is invaluable to the many groups involved with research in this area, as well as to regulators and risk assessors.

Particle-Lung Interactions, Second Edition

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Author: Peter Gehr,Christian Mühlfeld,Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser,Fabian Blank

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420072579

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 1536

Written by an expanded team of leading international scientists, the second edition thoroughly investigates research and therapies for managing adverse physiological effects of air-borne particles on the respiratory tract. The book examines the lung as the gateway for particle damage to organs outside the respiratory system and provide the information needed to understand and combat the numerous and varied ailments caused by inhaled particles.

Stem-Cell Nanoengineering

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Author: H. Baharvand

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118540727

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 6187

Stem Cell Nanoengineering reviews the applications of nanotechnology in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Topics addressed include various types of stem cells, underlying principles of nanobiotechnology, the making of nano-scaffolds, nano tissue engineering, applications of nanotechnology in stem cell tracking and molecular imaging, nano-devices, as well as stem cell nano-engineering from bench to bedside. Written by renowned experts in their respective fields, chapters describe and explore a wide variety of topics in stem cell nanoengineering, making the book a valuable resource for both researchers and clinicians in biomedical and bioengineering fields.

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

IV. Continuing Research Progress

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309166287

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 5852

In 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulatory standards to address health risks posed by inhaling tiny particles from smoke, vehicle exhaust, and other sources. At the same time, Congress and the EPA began a multimillion dollar research effort to better understand the sources of these airborne particles, the levels of exposure to people, and the ways that these particles cause disease. To provide independent guidance to the EPA, Congress asked the National Research Council to study the relevant issues. The result was a series of four reports on the particulate-matter research program. The first two books offered a conceptual framework for a national research program, identified the 10 most critical research needs, and described the recommended timing and estimated costs of such research. The third volume began the task of assessing initial progress made in implementing the research program. This, the fourth and final volume, gauged research progress made over a 5-year period on each of the 10 research topics. The National Research Council concludes that particulate matter research has led to a better understanding of the health effects caused by tiny airborne particles. However, the EPA, in concert with other agencies, should continue research to reduce further uncertainties and inform long-term decisions.

The Handbook of Nanomedicine

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Author: Kewal K. Jain

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1617799831

Category: Science

Page: 538

View: 6457

Nanomedicine is defined as the application of nanobiotechnology in clinical medicine, which is currently being used to research the pathomechanism of disease, refine molecular diagnostics, and aid in the discovery, development, and delivery of drugs. In The Handbook of Nanomedicine, Second Edition, Prof. Kewal K. Jain updates, reorganizes, and replaces information in the comprehensive first edition in order to capture the most recent advances in this dynamic field. Important components of nanomedicine such as nanodiagnostics and nanopharmaceuticals, where the greatest number of advances are occurring, are covered extensively. As this text is aimed at nonmedical scientists, pharmaceutical personnel, as well as physicians, descriptions of the technology involved and other medical terminology are kept as clear and simple as possible. In depth and cutting-edge, The Handbook of Nanomedicine, Second Edition informs its readers of the ever-growing field of nanomedicine, destined to play a significant role in the future of healthcare.

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

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Author: Harold Zeliger

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 9781437734645

Category: Medical

Page: 574

View: 3085

In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers. Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations - far too many to comprehensively catalog) A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures

Encyclopedia of Toxicology

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Author: Philip Wexler,Bruce D. Anderson,Shayne C. Gad,P. J. Bert Hakkinen,Michael Kamrin,Ann De Peyster,Betty Locey,Carey Pope,Harihara M. Mehendale,Lee R. Shugart

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0127453547

Category: Medical

Page: 2000

View: 1663

The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology continues its comprehensive survey of toxicology. This new edition continues to present entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals. There has been an increase in entries devoted to international organizations and well-known toxic-related incidents such as Love Canal and Chernobyl. Along with the traditional scientifically based entries, new articles focus on the societal implications of toxicological knowledge including environmental crimes, chemical and biological warfare in ancient times, and a history of the U.S. environmental movement. With more than 1150 entries, this second edition has been expanded in length, breadth and depth, and provides an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology. *Second edition has been expanded to 4 volumes *Encyclopedic A-Z arrangement of chemicals and all core areas of the science of toxicology *Covers related areas such as organizations, toxic accidents, historical and social issues, and laws *New topics covered include computational toxicology, cancer potency factors, chemical accidents, non-lethal chemical weapons, drugs of abuse, and consumer products and many more!

Nanotechnology

Health and Environmental Risks

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Author: Jo Anne Shatkin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420053647

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 192

View: 5782

Interested in Nanotechnology but Can’t Bear to Wade through Detailed Technical Reports? While reports on nanotechnology by research and marketing firms as well as governmental agencies are comprehensive and insightful, they can often be tedious to read, expensive to procure, and generally unknown to nonexperts interested in this technology. Offering a reader-friendly and affordable alternative to these options, Nanotechnology: Health and Environmental Risks introduces risk analysis as a tool for responsible environmental decision making in nanotechnology development and provides examples of past, present, and future technologies that demonstrate the need for and benefits of evaluating the risks of nanotechnology. The Most Up-to-Date and Relevant Information on the Impact of Nanotechnology on Our Health and Surroundings After outlining the steps of risk analysis, the book examines the opportunity costs inherent in current nanotechnology development. It then introduces life cycle analysis, the toxicology of nanoscale materials, and the known impacts of specific nanoscale materials on people. The text also covers environmental impacts and exposure, followed by chapters on the state-of-the-art tools that adapt life cycle thinking into risk analysis for nanotechnology. The final chapters describe current practices for managing the hazards and risks of nanoscale materials and explore the numerous international efforts that address the risks, science, and policies of nanotechnology. Recognize and Overcome the Risks Involving Nanotechnology With full-color images and insights into key health and environmental aspects of nanotechnology, this resource shows how the risk analysis of nanotechnology can play an important role in creating a sustainable future.

Issues in Global Environment: Pollution and Waste Management: 2011 Edition

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Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464964866

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1116

View: 9156

Issues in Global Environment: Pollution and Waste Management: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management. The editors have built Issues in Global Environment: Pollution and Waste Management: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Global Environment—Pollution and Waste Management in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Global Environment: Pollution and Waste Management: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Modelling the Toxicity of Nanoparticles

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Author: Lang Tran,Miguel A. Bañares,Robert Rallo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319477544

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 9139

In today’s nanotechnology and pharmaceutical research, alternative toxicology testing methods are crucial for ethically and commercially sound practice. This book provides practical guidelines on how to develop and validate quantitative nanostructure-toxicity relationship (QNTR) models, which are ideal for rapidly exploring the effects of a large number of variables in complex scenarios. Through contributions by academic, industrial, and governmental experts, Modelling the Toxicity of Nanoparticles delivers clear instruction on these methods and their integration and use in risk assessment. Specific topics include the physico-chemical characteristics of engineered nanoparticles, nanoparticle interactions, in vivo nanoparticle processing, and more. A much-needed practical guide, Modelling the Toxicity of Nanoparticles is a key text for researchers as well as government and industry regulators.

Particulate Products

Tailoring Properties for Optimal Performance

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Author: Henk G. Merkus,Gabriel M.H. Meesters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319007149

Category: Science

Page: 469

View: 7893

Particulate products make up around 80% of chemical products, from all industry sectors. Examples given in this book include the construction materials, fine ceramics and concrete; the delicacies, chocolate and ice cream; pharmaceutical, powders, medical inhalers and sun screen; liquid and powder paints. Size distribution and the shape of the particles provide for different functionalities in these products. Some functions are general, others specific. General functions are powder flow and require – at the typical particulate concentrations of these products – that the particles cause adequate rheological behavior during processing and/or for product performance. Therefore, this book addresses particle packing as well as its relation to powder flow and rheological behavior. Moreover, general relationships to particle size are discussed for e.g. color and sensorial aspects of particulate products. Product-specific functionalities are often relevant for comparable product groups. Particle size distribution and shape provide, for example, the following functionalities: - dense particle packing in relation to sufficient strength is required in concrete construction, ceramic objects and pharmaceutical tablets - good sensorial properties (mouthfeel) to chocolate and ice cream - effective dissolution, flow and compression properties for pharmaceutical powders - adequate hiding power and effective coloring of paints for protection and the desired esthetical appeal of the objects - adequate protection of our body against sun light by sunscreen - effective particle transport and deposition to desired locations for medical inhalers and powder paints. Adequate particle size distribution, shape and porosity of particulate products have to be achieved in order to reach optimum product performance. This requires adequate management of design and development as well as sufficient knowledge of the underlying principles of physics and chemistry. Moreover, flammability, explosivity and other health hazards from powders, during handling, are taken into account. This is necessary, since great risks may be involved. In all aspects, the most relevant parameters of the size distribution (and particle shape) have to be selected. In this book, experts in the different product fields have contributed to the product chapters. This provides optimum information on what particulate aspects are most relevant for behavior and performance within specified industrial products and how optimum results can be obtained. It differs from other books in the way that the critical aspects of different products are reported, so that similarities and differences can be identified. We trust that this approach will lead to improved optimization in design, development and quality of many particulate products.

Concepts In Inhalation Toxicology

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Author: Roger O. McClellan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439805572

Category: Medical

Page: 648

View: 6060

Recent developments have provided new data on the subject of inhalation toxicology, requiring an update of the previous edition of this popular text. Like the first, this second edition explains the basic concepts and quantitative approaches in inhalation toxicology, and it gives a comprehensive treatment of evaluations of respiratory responses to inhaled particles and gases. The author here explores new understanding of the role of cytokines in pulmonary inflammation and risk assessment. Immunologists, oncologists, respiratory specialists and students in those fields will find Concepts In Inhalation Toxicology to be essential to their practice.

Experimental Investigation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Polyvinyl Chloride Particles

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Author: Haiyan Xu

Publisher: Leuven University Press

ISBN: 9789058673503

Category: Medical

Page: 156

View: 7700

"This is a Ph.D. dissertation. Historically, occupational interstitial lung disease was common in workers who had inhaled mineral dusts such as silica, asbestos, and coal. With improved industrial hygiene and reduced mining and use of these agents, heavy e"

Particle Overload In The Rat Lung And Lung Cancer

Implications For Human Risk Assessment

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Author: Robert J McCunney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781560325437

Category: Medical

Page: 298

View: 7526

Recent inhalation toxicology studies suggest that when laboratory rats are exposed to inorganic particles to the point that lung overload occurs, both benign and malignant tumours may develop. The significance of these results for estimating human risk, however, is unclear.; Originally published as a special issue of the journal "Inhalation Toxicology", the contributions to this volume are derived from a symposium held in March, 1995, by the Environmental Medical Service of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Topics addressed include epidemiology, the pathology of lung tumours, maximum tolerated doses in inhalation toxicology studies, risk assessment, the extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans, current modelling techniques and regulatory concerns.

Elements

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geochemistry

Page: N.A

View: 5929

Pulmonary Immunotoxicology

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Author: Mitchell D. Cohen,Judith T. Zelikoff,Richard B. Schlesinger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792378433

Category: Medical

Page: 465

View: 3330

Pulmonary Immunotoxicology is a comprehensive exploration of the effects of various inhaled materials upon the immune system of the respiratory tract. It will be useful to investigators in the field of pulmonary toxicology and immunotoxicology, and to those involved in administration and regulation of matters related to inhaled materials. It can also serve as a textbook for a course in pulmonary immunotoxicology at graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Pulmonary Immunotoxicology comprises four sections. The first provides basic background concepts essential for understanding pulmonary immunotoxicology, including discussions of the normal structure and function of the respiratory system, its basic immunology, and the manner by which inhaled particles and gases are removed from the air and deposited upon respiratory tract surfaces. The second section provides an overview of the major types of pathological consequences which can arise from immunomodulation within the respiratory tract, including hypersensitivity and asthma, inflammation and fibrosis, as well as immunosuppression and autoimmunity. The third section, which comprises the largest portion of the book, deals specifically with major classes of airborne agents that are known to alter the immune function of the respiratory tract. These are arranged into major classes: organic agents, metals, gases, particles, biologics, and complex mixtures. The fourth and final section of the book explores the area of risk assessment, including discussions of the basic concepts of risk assessment as they apply specifically to immunotoxicologic effects upon the lungs, and the use of biomarkers as indices of potential pulmonary immunotoxic responses to inhaled materials.

Nanotechnology - Toxicological Issues and Environmental Safety

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Author: P.P. Simeonova,N. Opopol,M.I. Luster

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402060769

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 276

View: 7783

This book provides a summary of the state-of-art knowledge on nanomaterials and nanoparticles. It examines toxicological issues, risk assessment and control measures, public participation and educational/ethical issues, as well as institutional mechanisms and status reports from various countries. Coverage also details collaborations in the field of nanotechnology regarding safe application and development.