Paradoxes of Peace in Nineteenth Century Europe

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Author: Thomas Hippler,Miloš Vec

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191043877

Category: Law

Page: 300

View: 5779

'Peace' is often simplistically assumed to be war's opposite, and as such is not examined closely or critically idealized in the literature of peace studies, its crucial role in the justification of war is often overlooked. Starting from a critical view that the value of 'restoring peace' or 'keeping peace' is, and has been, regularly used as a pretext for military intervention, this book traces the conceptual history of peace in nineteenth century legal and political practice. It explores the role of the value of peace in shaping the public rhetoric and legitimizing action in general international relations, international law, international trade, colonialism, and armed conflict. Departing from the assumption that there is no peace as such, nor can there be, it examines the contradictory visions of peace that arise from conflict. These conflicting and antagonistic visions of peace are each linked to a set of motivations and interests as well as to a certain vision of legitimacy within the international realm. Each of them inevitably conveys the image of a specific enemy that has to be crushed in order to peace being installed. This book highlights the contradictions and paradoxes in nineteenth century discourses and practices of peace, particularly in Europe.

The Paradox of German Power

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Author: Hans Kundnani

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0190245506

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 7796

Since the Euro crisis began, Germany has emerged as Europe's dominant power. During the last three years, German Chancellor Angela Merkel has been compared with Bismarck and even Hitler in the European media. And yet few can deny that Germany today is very different from the stereotype of nineteenth- and twentieth-century history. After nearly seventy years of struggling with the Nazi past, Germans think that they more than anyone have learned its lessons. Above all, what the new Germany thinks it stands for is peace. Germany is unique in this combination of economic assertiveness and military abstinence. So what does it mean to have a "German Europe" in the twenty-first century? In The Paradox of German Power, Hans Kundnani explains how Germany got to where it is now and where it might go in future. He explores German national identity and foreign policy through a series of tensions in German thinking and action: between continuity and change, between "normality" and "abnormality," between economics and politics, and between Europe and the world.

Out of Ashes

A New History of Europe in the Twentieth Century

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Author: Konrad H. Jarausch

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883474

Category: History

Page: 888

View: 7189

A sweeping history of twentieth-century Europe, Out of Ashes tells the story of an era of unparalleled violence and barbarity yet also of humanity, prosperity, and promise. Konrad Jarausch describes how the European nations emerged from the nineteenth century with high hopes for continued material progress and proud of their imperial command over the globe, only to become embroiled in the bloodshed of World War I, which brought an end to their optimism and gave rise to competing democratic, communist, and fascist ideologies. He shows how the 1920s witnessed renewed hope and a flourishing of modernist art and literature, but how the decade ended in economic collapse and gave rise to a second, more devastating world war and genocide on an unprecedented scale. Jarausch further explores how Western Europe surprisingly recovered due to American help and political integration. Finally, he examines how the Cold War pushed the divided continent to the brink of nuclear annihilation, and how the unforeseen triumph of liberal capitalism came to be threatened by Islamic fundamentalism, global economic crisis, and an uncertain future. A gripping narrative, Out of Ashes explores the paradox of the European encounter with modernity in the twentieth century, shedding new light on why it led to cataclysm, inhumanity, and self-destruction, but also social justice, democracy, and peace.

The Paradox of Body, Building and Motion in Seventeenth-Century England

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Author: Kimberley Skelton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0719095808

Category: Art

Page: 224

View: 9753

This book examines how seventeenth-century English architectural theorists and designers rethought the domestic built environment in terms of mobility as motion became a dominant mode of articulating the world across discourses encompassing philosophy, political theory, poetry, and geography. It offers a holistic synthesis of the spaces of English domestic architecture in an interdisciplinary context that reveals the visual and cultural assumptions underpinning both the seventeenth-century turn to motion, noted by Wölfflin, Deleuze and others, and recent art historical study of early modern sensory experience. From the early-seventeenth-century house with its staccato physical and social rhythms to the late-seventeenth-century house with its long vistas and changeable wall surfaces, owners and guests moved through spatial complexes increasingly intertwined in networks of circulation. Arguments across philosophy, poetry, and etiquette manuals reveal the inherent human malleability and mobility assumed by designers of these spaces, while books on colonisation, travel, and geography highlight the broader networks of motion in which early modern viewers lived. The spaces of house and estate, analyzed here through a guest's eyes and mind, correspondingly evoked yet disciplined circulation to transform the blur of motion paradoxically into a foundation for social and mental stability. In the early decades of the century, motion - whether literal travel or floating abstract signifiers - had been alternately feared and praised, but, from mid-century and particularly in the wake of the English Civil War, authors regrounded the comprehensibility of even language itself in motion and architectural theorists rethought both book and building into a sequence of shifting phases that immobilised an innately restless viewer. With its blend of visual and textual analysis, this book will be of interest to art, architectural, and cultural historians of early modern Europe as well as to other readers exploring the history of European visual culture.

Paradoxes of Civil Society

New Perspectives on Modern German and British History

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Author: Frank Trentmann

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571811431

Category: History

Page: 381

View: 1944

"Civil Society" has been experiencing a global renaissance among social movements and political thinkers during the last two decades. This collection of original papers by junior and senior scholars offers an important comparative-historical dimension to the debate by examining the historical roots of civil society in Germany and Britain from the seventeenth-century revolutions to the beginning of the welfare state.

The Frightful Stage

Political Censorship of the Theater in Nineteenth-Century Europe

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Author: Robert Justin Goldstein

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9780857454195

Category: History

Page: 322

View: 2291

In nineteenth-century Europe the ruling elites viewed the theater as a form of communication which had enormous importance. The theater provided the most significant form of mass entertainment and was the only arena aside from the church in which regular mass gatherings were possible. Therefore, drama censorship occupied a great deal of the ruling class’s time and energy, with a particularly focus on proposed scripts that potentially threatened the existing political, legal, and social order. This volume provides the first comprehensive examination of nineteenth-century political theater censorship at a time, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, when the European population was becoming increasingly politically active.

Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power

Nineteenth-Century Experiences

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Author: Kelly L Grotke,Markus J Prutsch

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191034711

Category: Law

Page: 450

View: 5160

If one counts the production of constitutional documents alone, the nineteenth century can lay claim to being a 'constitutional age'; one in which the generation and reception of constitutional texts served as a centre of gravity around which law and politics consistently revolved. This volume critically re-examines the role of constitutionalism in that period, in order to counter established teleological narratives that imply a consistent development from absolutism towards inclusive, participatory democracy. Various aspects of constitutional histories within and outside of Europe are examined from a comparative, transnational, and multidisciplinary historical perspective, organized around five key themes. The first part looks at constitutions as anti-revolutionary devices, and addresses state building, monarchical constitutionalism, and restorations. The second part takes up constitutions and the justification of new social inequalities, focusing on women's suffrage, human rights, and property. The third part uses individual country studies to take on questions of how constitutions served to promote nationalism. The use of constitutions as instruments of imperialism is covered in the fourth part, and the final part examines the ways that constitutions function simultaneously as legal and political texts. These themes reflect a certain scepticism regarding any easy relationship between stated constitutional ideals and enacted constitutional practices. Taken together, they also function as a general working hypothesis about the role of constitutions in the establishment and maintenance of a domestically and internationally imbalanced status quo, of which we are the present-day inheritors. More particularly, this volume addresses the question of the extent to which nineteenth-century constitutionalism may have set the stage for new forms of domination and discrimination, rather than inaugurating a period of 'progress' and increasing equality.

Plagues and the Paradox of Progress

Why the World Is Getting Healthier in Worrisome Ways

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Author: Thomas J. Bollyky

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262038455

Category: Medical

Page: 280

View: 6476

Why the news about the global decline of infectious diseases is not all good. Plagues and parasites have played a central role in world affairs, shaping the evolution of the modern state, the growth of cities, and the disparate fortunes of national economies. This book tells that story, but it is not about the resurgence of pestilence. It is the story of its decline. For the first time in recorded history, virus, bacteria, and other infectious diseases are not the leading cause of death or disability in any region of the world. People are living longer, and fewer mothers are giving birth to many children in the hopes that some might survive. And yet, the news is not all good. Recent reductions in infectious disease have not been accompanied by the same improvements in income, job opportunities, and governance that occurred with these changes in wealthier countries decades ago. There have also been unintended consequences. In this book, Thomas Bollyky explores the paradox in our fight against infectious disease: the world is getting healthier in ways that should make us worry. Bollyky interweaves a grand historical narrative about the rise and fall of plagues in human societies with contemporary case studies of the consequences. Bollyky visits Dhaka—one of the most densely populated places on the planet—to show how low-cost health tools helped enable the phenomenon of poor world megacities. He visits China and Kenya to illustrate how dramatic declines in plagues have affected national economies. Bollyky traces the role of infectious disease in the migrations from Ireland before the potato famine and to Europe from Africa and elsewhere today. Historic health achievements are remaking a world that is both worrisome and full of opportunities. Whether the peril or promise of that progress prevails, Bollyky explains, depends on what we do next. A Council on Foreign Relations Book

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

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Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971374

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 5155

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Lost Illusions

The Politics of Publishing in Nineteenth-Century France

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Author: Christine Haynes

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674053982

Category:

Page: 346

View: 7614

Linking the study of business and politics, Christine Haynes reconstructs the passionate and protracted debate over the development of the book trade in nineteenth-century France. In tracing the contest over literary production in France, Haynes emphasizes the role of the Second Empire in enacting - but also in limiting - press freedom and literary property.

The Transformation of Foreign Policy

Drawing and Managing Boundaries from Antiquity to the Present

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Author: Gunther Hellmann,Andreas Fahrmeir,Milos Vec,Professor of Legal and Constitutional History Milos Vec

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198783868

Category:

Page: 296

View: 7207

The study of foreign policy is usually concerned with the interaction of states, and thus with governance structures which emerged either with the so-called 'Westphalian system' or in the course of the 18th century: diplomacy and international law. As a result, examining foreign policy in earlier periods involves conceptual and terminological difficulties, which echo current debates on 'post-national' foreign policy actors like the European Union or global cities. This volume argues that a novel understanding of what constitutes foreign policy may offer a way out of this problem. It considers foreign policy as the outcome of processes that make some boundaries different from others, and set those that separate communities in an internal space apart from those that mark foreignness. The creation of such boundaries, which can be observed at all times, designates specific actors - which can be, but do not have to be, 'states' - as capable of engaging in foreign policy. As such boundaries are likely to be contested, they are unlikely to provide either a single or a simple distinction between 'insides' and 'outsides'. In this view, multiple layers of foreign-policy actors with different characteristics appear less as a modern development and more as a perennial aspect of foreign policy. In a broad perspective stretching from early Greek polities to present-day global cities, the volume offers a theoretical and empirical presentation of this concept by political scientists, jurists, and historians.

Political Reform in the Ottoman and Russian Empires

A Comparative Approach

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Author: Adrian Brisku

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 147423853X

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 4807

Throughout the 'long 19th century', the Ottoman and Russian empires shared a goal of destroying one another. Yet, they also shared a similar vision for imperial state renewal, with the goal of avoiding revolution, decline and isolation within Europe. Adrian Brisku explores how this path of renewal and reform manifested itself: forging new laws and institutions, opening up the economy to the outside world, and entering the European political community of imperial states. Political Reform in the Ottoman and Russian Empires tackles the dilemma faced by both empires, namely how to bring about meaningful change without undermining the legal, political and economic status quo. The book offers a unique comparison of Ottoman and Russian politics of reform and their connection to the wider European politico-economic space.

The Reconstruction of Nations

Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999

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Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300105865

Category: History

Page: 367

View: 9306

"Snyder then follows transformed national ideas onto the new terrains presented by national independence after the revolutions of 1989. He reviews the threats to European security that arose in the early 1990s with the threats of breakaway minorities, provocations from Moscow, and popular fears of ethnic cleansing. Finally, he examines how a bold Polish eastern policy facilitated the peaceful end of Soviet rule in the region, prevented national disagreements from spilling into international conflict, and hastened European integration. After 1989, a Polish geopolitical vision channeled national interests toward peace."--BOOK JACKET.

Paradoxes of Hawaiian Sovereignty

Land, Sex, and the Colonial Politics of State Nationalism

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Author: J. Kehaulani Kauanui

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822371960

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 9168

In Paradoxes of Hawaiian Sovereignty J. Kēhaulani Kauanui examines contradictions of indigeneity and self-determination in U.S. domestic policy and international law. She theorizes paradoxes in the laws themselves and in nationalist assertions of Hawaiian Kingdom restoration and demands for U.S. deoccupation, which echo colonialist models of governance. Kauanui argues that Hawaiian elites' approaches to reforming and regulating land, gender, and sexuality in the early nineteenth century that paved the way for sovereign recognition of the kingdom complicate contemporary nationalist activism today, which too often includes disavowing the indigeneity of the Kanaka Maoli (Indigenous Hawaiian) people. Problematizing the ways the positing of the Hawaiian Kingdom's continued existence has been accompanied by a denial of U.S. settler colonialism, Kauanui considers possibilities for a decolonial approach to Hawaiian sovereignty that would address the privatization and capitalist development of land and the ongoing legacy of the imposition of heteropatriarchal modes of social relations.

Europe's Utopias of Peace

1815, 1919, 1951

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Author: Bo Stråth

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1474237746

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8176

Europe's Utopias of Peace explores attempts to create a lasting European peace in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars and the two world wars. The book charts the 250 year cycle of violent European conflicts followed by new utopian formulations for peace. The utopian illusion was that future was predictable and rules could prescribe behaviour in conflicts to come. Bo Stråth examines the reiterative bicentenary cycle since 1815, where each new postwar period built on a design for a project for European unification. He sets out the key historical events and the continuous struggle with nationalism, linking them to legal, political and economic thought. Biographical sketches of the most prominent thinkers and actors provide the human element to this narrative. Europe's Utopias of Peace presents a new perspective on the ideological, legal, economic and intellectual conditions that shaped Europe since the 19th century and presents this in a global context. It challenges the conventional narrative on Europe's past as a progressive enlightenment heritage, highlighting the ambiguities of the legacies that pervade the institutional structures of contemporary Europe. Its long-term historical perspective will be invaluable for students of contemporary Europe or modern European history.

The Age of Questions

Or, A First Attempt at an Aggregate History of the Eastern, Social, Woman, American, Jewish, Polish, Bullion, Tuberculosis, and Many Other Questions over the Nineteenth Century, and Beyond

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Author: Holly Case

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400890217

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 8031

A groundbreaking history of the Big Questions that dominated the nineteenth century In the early nineteenth century, a new age began: the age of questions. In the Eastern and Belgian questions, as much as in the slavery, worker, social, woman, and Jewish questions, contemporaries saw not interrogatives to be answered but problems to be solved. Alexis de Tocqueville, Victor Hugo, Karl Marx, Frederick Douglass, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and Adolf Hitler were among the many who put their pens to the task. The Age of Questions asks how the question form arose, what trajectory it followed, and why it provoked such feverish excitement for over a century. Was there a family resemblance between questions? Have they disappeared, or are they on the rise again in our time? In this pioneering book, Holly Case undertakes a stunningly original analysis, presenting, chapter by chapter, seven distinct arguments and frameworks for understanding the age. She considers whether it was marked by a progressive quest for emancipation (of women, slaves, Jews, laborers, and others); a steady, inexorable march toward genocide and the "Final Solution"; or a movement toward federation and the dissolution of boundaries. Or was it simply a farce, a false frenzy dreamed up by publicists eager to sell subscriptions? As the arguments clash, patterns emerge and sharpen until the age reveals its full and peculiar nature. Turning convention on its head with meticulous and astonishingly broad scholarship, The Age of Questions illuminates how patterns of thinking move history.

Paradoxes of Peace

German Peace Movements Since 1945

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Author: Alice Holmes Cooper

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472106240

Category: History

Page: 331

View: 6533

Thoughtfully examines the paradox of peace activism in postwar Germany

The Globalization Paradox

Why Global Markets, States, and Democracy Can't Coexist

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Author: Dani Rodrik

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191634255

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 8231

For a century, economists have driven forward the cause of globalization in financial institutions, labour markets, and trade. Yet there have been consistent warning signs that a global economy and free trade might not always be advantageous. Where are the pressure points? What could be done about them? Dani Rodrik examines the back-story from its seventeenth-century origins through the milestones of the gold standard, the Bretton Woods Agreement, and the Washington Consensus, to the present day. Although economic globalization has enabled unprecedented levels of prosperity in advanced countries and has been a boon to hundreds of millions of poor workers in China and elsewhere in Asia, it is a concept that rests on shaky pillars, he contends. Its long-term sustainability is not a given. The heart of Rodrik’s argument is a fundamental 'trilemma': that we cannot simultaneously pursue democracy, national self-determination, and economic globalization. Give too much power to governments, and you have protectionism. Give markets too much freedom, and you have an unstable world economy with little social and political support from those it is supposed to help. Rodrik argues for smart globalization, not maximum globalization.

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy

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Author: Dani Rodrik

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393341283

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 346

View: 2681

Discusses how democracy and national self-determination cannot be pursued simultaneously with economic globalization and instead promotes customizable globalization with international rules to achieve balanced prosperity.

People of Paradox

A History of Mormon Culture

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Author: Terryl L. Givens

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198037361

Category: Religion

Page: 432

View: 787

In People of Paradox, Terryl Givens traces the rise and development of Mormon culture from the days of Joseph Smith in upstate New York, through Brigham Young's founding of the Territory of Deseret on the shores of Great Salt Lake, to the spread of the Latter-Day Saints around the globe. Throughout the last century and a half, Givens notes, distinctive traditions have emerged among the Latter-Day Saints, shaped by dynamic tensions--or paradoxes--that give Mormon cultural expression much of its vitality. Here is a religion shaped by a rigid authoritarian hierarchy and radical individualism; by prophetic certainty and a celebration of learning and intellectual investigation; by existence in exile and a yearning for integration and acceptance by the larger world. Givens divides Mormon history into two periods, separated by the renunciation of polygamy in 1890. In each, he explores the life of the mind, the emphasis on education, the importance of architecture and urban planning (so apparent in Salt Lake City and Mormon temples around the world), and Mormon accomplishments in music and dance, theater, film, literature, and the visual arts. He situates such cultural practices in the context of the society of the larger nation and, in more recent years, the world. Today, he observes, only fourteen percent of Mormon believers live in the United States. Mormonism has never been more prominent in public life. But there is a rich inner life beneath the public surface, one deftly captured in this sympathetic, nuanced account by a leading authority on Mormon history and thought.