Paradigms Explained

Rethinking Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy of Science

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Author: Erich Von Dietze

Publisher: Praeger Pub Text

ISBN: 9780275969998

Category: Philosophy

Page: 182

View: 7676

Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which examines paradigm theory as it relates to philosophy of science, is among the most widely read--and debated--books in the history and philosophy of science. In Paradigms Explained, the author examines both the contributions and limitations of Kuhn's work on paradigm theory. Von Dietze's accessible writing style and thought-provoking exploration of Kuhn's impact on scientific, philosophical, and social thought engage the reader and offer new insights into the problematic yet influential ideas of one of the most prominent philosophers of science.

Crossroads

An Exploration of the Emerging-missional Conversation with a Special Focus on 'missional Leadership' and Its Challenges for Theological Education

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Author: Robert J. A. Doornenbal

Publisher: Eburon Uitgeverij B.V.

ISBN: 9059726235

Category: Christian education

Page: 420

View: 7804

Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis

From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics

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Author: Nicola De Bellis

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 9780810867147

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 450

View: 9642

Can the methods of science be directed toward science itself? How did it happen that scientists, scientific documents, and their bibliographic links came to be regarded as mathematical variables in abstract models of scientific communication? What is the role of quantitative analyses of scientific and technical documentation in current science policy and management? Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: From the Science Citation Index to Cybermetrics answers these questions through a comprehensive overview of theories, techniques, concepts, and applications in the interdisciplinary and steadily growing field of bibliometrics. Since citation indexes came into the limelight during the mid-1960s, citation networks have become increasingly important for many different research fields. The book begins by investigating the empirical, philosophical, and mathematical foundations of bibliometrics, including its beginnings with the Science Citation Index, the theoretical framework behind it, and its mathematical underpinnings. It then examines the application of bibliometrics and citation analysis in the sciences and science studies, especially the sociology of science and science policy. Finally it provides a view of the future of bibliometrics, exploring in detail the ongoing extension of bibliometric methods to the structure and dynamics of the World Wide Web. This book gives newcomers to the field of bibliometrics an accessible entry point to an entire research tradition otherwise scattered through a vast amount of journal literature. At the same time, it brings to the forefront the cross-disciplinary linkages between the various fields (sociology, philosophy, mathematics, politics) that intersect at the crossroads of citation analysis. Because of its discursive and interdisciplinary approach, the book is useful to those in every area of scholarship involved in the quantitative analysis of information exchanges, but also to science historians and general readers who simply wish to familiarize them

Blackness and Modernity

The Colour of Humanity and the Quest for Freedom

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Author: Cecil Foster

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 077353105X

Category: Political Science

Page: 613

View: 3102

Cecil Foster presents a rigorous interdisciplinary analysis of blackness by challenging existing notions of blackness and arguing for the viability of a multicultural world. In Blackness and Modernity Foster traces the main philosophical, anthropological, sociological, and mythological arguments that support views of modernity as a failed quest for whiteness. He outlines how these views were implemented as part of a "world history" and shows how Canada became the first country to officially reject this approach by adopting multiculturalism. Blackness and Modernity presents four categories for understanding blackness and whiteness: the somatic, cultural, status differential, and the idealistic. The somatic - the colour of skin - is merely one category, and perhaps the least meaningful for, while it may be the most important for some people, Foster argues that multiculturalism, which he views as ontological blackness, is an attempt to make rational idealism the only category that matters.

The Paradigm of Conversion in Luke

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Author: Fernando Mendez-Moratalla

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441155597

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 8671

Conversion is a main theological theme in the Lukan corpus. Since much attention has been paid to the issue in Acts, the present work shows how the evangelist also conveys his theological emphasis on conversion in his gospel through material either unique to it or that Luke has edited to this purpose. Attention is paid to the different issues involved in Luke's emphasis on conversion and an attempt is made to place them within the larger spectrum of his theology. The grouping of all these elements provides the basis for constructing Luke's paradigm of conversion.

Philosophy of Science

A Contemporary Introduction

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Author: Alexander Rosenberg

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415343176

Category: Science

Page: 213

View: 5585

Identifies the philosophical problems that science raises through an examination of questions about its nature, methods and justification. A valuable introduction for science and philosophy students alike.

Constitutional Revolutions

Pragmatism and the Role of Judicial Review in American Constitutionalism

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Author: Robert Justin Lipkin

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822324294

Category: Law

Page: 366

View: 2411

DIVRethinks constitutional jurisprudence from a postmodern perspective, attempting to integrate a Kuhnian approach to intellectual transformations with a Rawlsian pragmatic approach to decision making./div

Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics

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Author: Grace Darlene Skogstad

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442612207

Category: Political Science

Page: 253

View: 6927

Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms — the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain. In this collection, international experts examine how both transnational actors and domestic politics affect the structuring of these paradigms. As well as theoretical chapters, this volume includes six case studies showing ideas at work in a diverse range of policy domains from the recognition of same-sex unions to risk regulation of genetically modified organisms. These qualitative analyses show how transnational activities shape policy paradigms by building consensus on ideas about feasible and desirable public policies across authoritative decision-makers. Expertly researched and assembled, Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics provides insight into the conditions under which different transnational actors can bring about changes in the core ideas that affect public policy development.

Organizational Behavior in the Marine Corps

Three Interpretations

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Author: Frank Marutollo

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275934934

Category: Psychology

Page: 218

View: 6304

With this scholarly analysis of Marine Corps survival through the lens of three different organizational theories, Marutollo, intimately familiar with the Marine ethic, provides a practical demonstration of how management theories can be regarded as different ways of seeing rather than predictive schemes.

Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration

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Author: Fenwick W. English

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 145226516X

Category: Education

Page: 1264

View: 4407

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration presents the most recent theories, research, terms, concepts, ideas, and histories on educational leadership and school administration as taught in preparation programs and practiced in schools and colleges today. With more than 600 entries, written by more than 200 professors, graduate students, practitioners, and association officials, the two volumes of this encyclopedia represent the most comprehensive knowledge base of educational leadership and school administration that has, as yet, been compiled.

Beyond Wittgenstein's poker

new light on Popper and Wittgenstein

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Author: Peter Munz

Publisher: Ashgate Pub Ltd

ISBN: 9780754640158

Category: Philosophy

Page: 221

View: 2121

Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein were two of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century. The account of their one and only meeting at Cambridge in 1946 has become legendary for the aggressive disagreement between the two men. Peter Munz, an eye witness to the great dispute, is the only person in the world to have been a student of both Popper and Wittgenstein. Here he describes their philosophical relationship as he experienced it.Munz argues that the later Wittgenstein and Popper ought to be seen as complementing one another. Popper believed that when truth is discovered meaning will take care of itself. However, since, in Popper's view, we can never verify a general proposition, we can never be certain of its truth. There must therefore be a way of understanding what it means even though we cannot be sure of its truth. The post-Tractatus Wittgenstein enables us to see how propositions are meaningful regardless of whether we can ascertain their truth and thus fills a gap in Popper's philosophy.At the same time, Popper was able to make up a deficiency in Wittgenstein's later philosophy. While Wittgenstein had had it that meaningful propositions can be generated in any social order, Popper showed that if propositions are to be true as well as have meaning, the socio-political order in which they are put forward, has to be free and open.Popper and Wittgenstein were barking up the same tree. Though they had much to learn from each other, their personalities stood in the way. Munz imaginatively reconstructs a dialogue to show how the conversation ought to have gone on that famous evening at the Moral Sciences Club in Cambridge in 1946 and then sets out in detail the philosophy that would result from a synthesis of these two great men.

Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction

Implications for Reform

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Author: Lorna Idol,Beau Fly Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135434700

Category: Education

Page: 482

View: 4131

This volume is a comprehensive guide to state-of-the-art research on thinking, cognitive instruction, social values, and reform. Cognitive instruction for at-risk students is discussed in great detail along with a thorough examination of the teaching of thinking skills from the viewpoint of educational values and school culture. The issues of thinking, learning, and cognitive instruction are linked to the educational reform movement from numerous perspectives. Specifically, the reader can better anticipate which aspects of research on thinking will conflict with existing paradigms and which aspects of schooling will be most resistant to change.

Paradigms for Language Theory and Other Essays

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Author: Jaakko Hintikka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401725314

Category: Philosophy

Page: 310

View: 3895

Several of the basic ideas of current language theory are subjected to critical scrutiny and found wanting, including the concept of scope, the hegemony of generative syntax, the Frege-Russell claim that verbs like `is' are ambiguous, and the assumptions underlying the so-called New Theory of Reference. In their stead, new constructive ideas are proposed.

From Indo-European to Latin

The evolution of a morphosyntactic type

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Author: Helena Kurzová

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027277079

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 259

View: 7728

This study aims to describe the typological characteristics of the original Indo-European structure, called the derivative-flectional stage (or (sub)type), and to trace its developments to the paradigmatically organized structure of the individual Indo-European languages, called the paradigmatic-flectional stage (or (sub)type). This development is demonstrated in Latin, a language characterized by highy developed inflection, which attests, especially by its verbal system, an alternative way of paradigmatizing the original structure, differing from Old Indian and Greek on which traditional reconstruction was based. The notion of derivative-flectional type is used to try to penetrate to the original form and historical sources of the IE flectional type without presupposing radical typological change between Proto-IE and IE. The author's view differs from the traditional theory of prehistoric change in IE structure (from isolation to flection via agglutination) in that she assumes the origins of flection lie in lexico-derivative categorization. The book is divided into three parts: 1. The Origins and Evolution of the Indo-European Flectional Type 2. The Basic Principles and Origins of the Nominal System and Inflections 3. The Indo-European Origins of the Latin Verbal System

Hilbert’s Program

An Essay on Mathematical Instrumentalism

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Author: M. Detlefsen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401577315

Category: Philosophy

Page: 186

View: 3948

Hilbert's Program was founded on a concern for the phenomenon of paradox in mathematics. To Hilbert, the paradoxes, which are at once both absurd and irresistible, revealed a deep philosophical truth: namely, that there is a discrepancy between the laws accord ing to which the mind of homo mathematicus works, and the laws governing objective mathematical fact. Mathematical epistemology is, therefore, to be seen as a struggle between a mind that naturally works in one way and a reality that works in another. Knowledge occurs when the two cooperate. Conceived in this way, there are two basic alternatives for mathematical epistemology: a skeptical position which maintains either that mind and reality seldom or never come to agreement, or that we have no very reliable way of telling when they do; and a non-skeptical position which holds that there is significant agree ment between mind and reality, and that their potential discrepan cies can be detected, avoided, and thus kept in check. Of these two, Hilbert clearly embraced the latter, and proposed a program designed to vindicate the epistemological riches represented by our natural, if non-literal, ways of thinking. Brouwer, on the other hand, opted for a position closer (in Hilbert's opinion) to that of the skeptic. Having decided that epistemological purity could come only through sacrifice, he turned his back on his classical heritage to accept a higher calling.

Medicine & Philosophy

A Twenty-First Century Introduction

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Author: Ingvar Johansson,Niels Lynøe

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311032136X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 475

View: 1031

This textbook introduces the reader to basic problems in the philosophy of science and ethics, mainly by means of examples from medicine. It is based on the conviction that philosophy, medical science, medical informatics, and medical ethics are overlapping disciplines. It claims that the philosophical lessons to learn from the twentieth century are not that nature is a ‘social construction’ and that ‘anything goes’ with respect to methodological and moral rules. Instead, it claims that there is scientific knowledge, but that it is never completely secure; that there are norms, but that they are situation-bound; and that, therefore, it makes good sense to search for scientific truths and try to act in a morally decent way. Using philosophical catchwords, the authors advocate ‘fallibilism’ and ‘particularism’; a combination that might be called ‘pragmatic realism’.

Paradigms and Barriers

How Habits of Mind Govern Scientific Beliefs

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Author: Howard Margolis

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226505237

Category: Science

Page: 267

View: 7831

In Paradigms and Barriers Howard Margolis offers an innovative interpretation of Thomas S. Kuhn's landmark idea of "paradigm shifts," applying insights from cognitive psychology to the history and philosophy of science. Building upon the arguments in his acclaimed Patterns, Thinking, and Cognition, Margolis suggests that the breaking down of particular habits of mind—of critical "barriers"—is key to understanding the processes through which one model or concept is supplanted by another. Margolis focuses on those revolutionary paradigm shifts— such as the switch from a Ptolemaic to a Copernican worldview—where challenges to entrenched habits of mind are marked by incomprehension or indifference to a new paradigm. Margolis argues that the critical problem for a revolutionary shift in thinking lies in the robustness of the habits of mind that reject the new ideas, relative to the habits of mind that accept the new ideas. Margolis applies his theory to famous cases in the history of science, offering detailed explanations for the transition from Ptolemaic to cosmological astronomy, the emergence of probability, the overthrow of phlogiston, and the emergence of the central role of experiment in the seventeenth century. He in turn uses these historical examples to address larger issues, especially the nature of belief formation and contemporary debates about the nature of science and the evolution of scientific ideas. Howard Margolis is a professor in the Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies and in the College at the University of Chicago. He is the author of Selfishness, Altruism, and Rationality and Patterns, Thinking, and Cognition, both published by the University of Chicago Press.

Social Work Research in Practice

Ethical and Political Contexts

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Author: Heather D'Cruz,Martyn Jones

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 144628722X

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 4252

This new edition of Social Work Research in Practice: Ethical and Political Contexts explores the intrinsic connection between knowledge, research and practice in social work. The authors argue that through a better appreciation of research, the highest standards of social work can be achieved. The second edition investigates contemporary approaches which impact on the discourses of social work research, including: - Evidence-based practice - User-led research - Anti-oppressive practice - Practice-based research Each chapter has been fully updated with a rich range of case examples and references. Further reading is also included, so that readers can expand their knowledge. This book is a valuable resource for both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as practitioners working in the field of social work. Heather D'Cruz works as a Consultant: Research and Professional Education. Martyn Jones is Associate Dean at RMIT University.