Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Scepticism

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Author: Sextus Empiricus,Julia Annas,Jonathan Barnes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521778091

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 8058

Outlines of Scepticism, by the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, is a work of major importance for the history of Greek philosophy. It is the fullest extant account of ancient scepticism, and it is also one of our most copious sources of information about the other Hellenistic philosophies. Its first part contains an elaborate exposition of the Pyrrhonian variety of scepticism; its second and third parts are critical and destructive, arguing against 'dogmatism' in logic, epistemology, science and ethics - an approach that revolutionized the study of philosophy when Sextus' works were rediscovered and published in the sixteenth century. This volume presents the accurate and readable translation which was first published in 1994, together with a substantial new historical and philosophical introduction by Jonathan Barnes.

Outlines of Pyrrhonism

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Author: Sextus Empiricus,Robert Gregg Bury

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780879755973

Category: Philosophy

Page: 283

View: 5037

Throughout history philosophers have sought to define, understand, and delineate concepts important to human well-being. One such concept is "knowledge." Many philosophers believed that absolute, certain knowledge, is possible—that the physical world and ideas formulated about it could be given solid foundation unaffected by the varieties of mere opinion. Sextus Empiricus stands as an example of the "skeptic" school of thought whose members believed that knowledge was either unattainable or, if a genuine possibility, the conditions necessary to achieve it were next to impossible to satisfy. In other words, in the absence of complete knowledge, one must make do with the information provided by an imperfect world and conveyed to the mind through sense impressions that can often deceive us. Throughout his life Sextus Empiricus entered into intellectual combat with those who confidently claimed to possess indubitable knowledge. For skeptics, the best one can hope to achieve is a reasonable suspension of judgment—remaining ever mindful that claims to knowledge require careful scrutiny, thoughtful analysis, and critical review if we are to prevent ourselves and others from plunging headlong into mistaken notions.

The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism

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Author: Barry Stroud

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198247613

Category: Architecture

Page: 277

View: 9736

He author argues that the sceptical thesis is motivated by a persistent philosophical problem that calls the very possibility of knowledge about the external world into question, and that the sceptical thesis is the only acceptable answer to this problem as traditionally posed.

The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism

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Author: Richard Arnot Home Bett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521874769

Category: History

Page: 380

View: 438

A comprehensive survey of the main periods, schools and individual proponents of scepticism in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians

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Author: Sextus (Empiricus.)

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521531955

Category: Philosophy

Page: 207

View: 2151

Sextus Empiricus' Against the Logicians is by far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of the areas of epistemology and logic. It critically examines the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. It is therefore a fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at work. It also provides a mine of information about the ideas of other Greek thinkers, ideas that are in many cases poorly preserved in other sources. This volume presents Against the Logicians in a new and accurate translation, together with a detailed introduction that sets the work in its philosophical context.

Pyrrhonism

How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism

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Author: Adrian Kuzminski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780739125069

Category: Philosophy

Page: 155

View: 4792

Adrian Kuzminski argues that Pyrrhonism, an ancient Greek philosophy, can best be understood as a Western form of Buddhism. Not only is its founder, Pyrrho, reported to have traveled to India and been influenced by contacts with Indian sages, but a close comparison of ancient Buddhist and Pyrrhonian texts suggests a common philosophical practice, seeking liberation through suspension of judgment with regard to beliefs about non-evident things.

Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy

From Thales to Aristotle

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Author: S. Marc Cohen,Patricia Curd,C. D. C. Reeve

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1624665349

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

View: 2140

Soon after its publication, Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy was hailed as the favorite to become "the 'standard' text for survey courses in ancient philosophy."* More than twenty years later that prediction has been borne out: Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy still stands as the leading anthology of its kind. It is now stronger than ever: The Fifth Edition of Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy features a completely revised Aristotle unit, with new translations, as well as a newly revised glossary. The Plato unit offers new translations of the Meno and Republic. In the latter, indirect dialogue is cast into direct dialogue for greater readability. The Presocratics unit has been re-edited and streamlined, and the pages of every unit have been completely reset. * APA Newsletter for Teaching Philosophy

Scepticism and Animal Faith

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Author: George Santayana

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486158322

Category: Philosophy

Page: 314

View: 6838

Detailed presentation of American philosopher's pragmatic concept of epistemology, isolation of realms of existents and subsistents. Chapters include "There is No First Principle of Criticism," "Dogma and Doubt," and "The Discovery of Essence."

The Skeptic Way

Sextus Empiricus's Outlines of Pyrrhonism

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Author: Sextus (Empiricus.),Benson Mates

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195092134

Category: Philosophy

Page: 335

View: 1662

The Outlines of Pyrrhonism by the 2nd century A.D. Greek physician Sextus Empiricus was immensely influential in the history of Western philosophy. The rediscovery and publication of this work in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led directly to the skepticism of Montaigne, Gassendi, Bayle, Descartes, Berkeley, Hume, and others, and eventually to the preoccupation of modern philosophy with attempts to refute or otherwise combat philosophical skepticism. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that Pyrrhonism--the form of skepticism professed by Sextus--is in several important respects quite different from the modern forms of skepticism to which the writings of Sextus have given rise. Some of these differences are of particular philosophic interest because they seem to render the ancient form immune to many of the standard responses to skepticism that are made today. In this book, which incorporates a new translation of the Outlines in their entirety, Benson Mates presents Pyrrhonism not as a mere historical curiosity, as has often been done, but as a philosophical position eminently worthy of serious philosophical consideration here and now. His thorough introduction sets the stage by explaining what Pyrrhonism is and what it is not, and by contrasting it in the relevant respects with modern skepticism. He gives particular attention to explicating a number of quasi-technical terms that occur frequently in the Outlines and have decisive bearing on the philosophical content. By rendering these terms more accurately and uniformly in his translation, he seeks to make the essential feautres of Sextus's Pyrrhonism more evident to the reader. The latter part of the book consists of a detailed Commentary, which endeavors to discuss and explain the work, section by section, from a philosophical (as contrasted with a philological) point of view.

The Sceptics

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Author: R. J. Hankinson

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415184465

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

View: 1001

The Sceptics is the first comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of Greek scepticism, from the beginnings of epistemology with Xenophanes, to the final full development of Pyrrhonism as presented in the work of Sextus Empiricus. Tracing the evolution of scepticism from 500 B.C to A.D 200, this clear and rigorous analysis presents the arguments of the Greek sceptics in their historical context and provides an in-depth study of the various strands of the sceptical tradition.

Scepticism Comes Alive

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Author: Bryan Frances

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199282137

Category: Philosophy

Page: 209

View: 7542

In epistemology the nagging voice of the sceptic has always been present. Over the last thirty years or so philosophers have thought of several promising ways to counter the radical sceptic: for instance, facts about the reliability of our cognitive processes, principles determining which possibilities must be ruled out in order to have knowledge, and principles regarding the context-sensitivity of knowledge attributions. In this entertaining and provocative book, Bryan Frances presents a new argument template for generating new kinds of radical scepticism, ones that hold even if all the clever anti-sceptical fixes defeat the traditional sceptic. Not only is the argument schema novel, but the sceptical consequences are entirely unexpected. Although the new sceptic concludes that we don't know that fire engines are red, that we sometimes have pains in our knees, or even that we believe that fire engines are red or that knees sometimes throb, he admits that we know millions of exotic truths such as the fact that black holes exist. You can know about the existence of black holes, but not about the colour of your shirt or even about what you believe regarding the colour of your shirt. The new sceptical arguments proceed in the usual way (here's a sceptical hypothesis; you can't neutralize it, you have to be able to neutralize it to know P; so you don't know P), but the sceptical hypotheses plugged into it are 'real live' scientific-philosophical hypotheses often thought to be actually true, such as error theories about belief, colour, pain location, and character traits. Frances investigates the questions, 'Under what conditions do we need to rule out these error theories in order to know things inconsistent with them?' and 'Can we rule them out?' Particular attention is paid to recent methods used to counter the traditional sceptic. Sharp, witty, and fun to read, Scepticism Comes Alive will be highly provocative for anyone interested in knowledge and its limits.

Against the Ethicists

(Adversus Mathematicos XI)

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Author: Sextus (Empiricus.),Sextus Empiricus

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198236207

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 302

View: 2675

About SextusSextus Empiricus is one of the most important ancient philosophical writers after Plato and Aristotle. His writings are our main source for the doctrines and arguments of Scepticism. He probably lived in the second century AD. Eleven books of his writings have survived, covering logic, physics,ethics, and numerous more specialized fields.About Against the EthicistsIn this unjustly neglected and misunderstood work Sextus sets out a distinctive Sceptic position in ethics. He discusses the concepts good and bad, and puts forward the sceptical argument that nothing is either good or bad by nature or intrinsically or invariably, but only relatively to personsand/or to circumstances. He then argues that the sceptic is better off than the non-sceptic. In the latter part of the book, Sextus attacks the Stoic view that there is such a thing as a `skill for life'.About this editionThis volume contains a translation of Against the Ethicists in clear modern English, together with an introduction and a detailed commentary. Those who have discussed this work in the past have tended to underestimate it, often regarding its main position as essentially the same as that of Sextus'better-known Outlines of Pyrrhonism. Richard Bett shows that Against the Ethicists represents quite a distinct and coherent philosophical outlook, associated with a phase of Scepticism earlier than Sextus himself, an outlook of which little other evidence survives.

The High Road to Pyrrhonism

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Author: Richard H. Popkin,Richard Henry Popkin,James E. Force

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 9780872202511

Category: Philosophy

Page: 385

View: 2645

In this sequel to his classic study The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes, Popkin examines the important role played by the revival and reformulation of classical scepticism in eighteenth-century philosophy.

Scepticism

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Author: Arne Naess

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317440285

Category: Philosophy

Page: 180

View: 3442

Originally published in 1968. Scepticism is generally regarded as a position which, if correct, would be disastrous for our everyday and scientific beliefs. According to this view, a sceptical argument is one that leads to the intuitively false conclusion that we cannot know anything. But there is another, much neglected and more radical form of scepticism, Pyrrhonism, which neither denies nor accepts the possibility of knowledge and is to be regarded not as a philosophical position so much as the expression of a philosophical way of life. Professor Naess argues that, given a sympathetic interpretation, Sextus Empiricus’s outline of Pyrrhonian scepticism provides the essentials of a genuine and rational sceptical point of view. He begins with a brief account of Pyrrhonism, then goes on to argue for the psychological possibility of this kind of scepticism, defending it against common objections, and examining some of its implications. The last two chapters provide detailed support for the rationality of Pyrrhonism, drawing mainly on certain methodological distinctions in semantics which both justify the Pyrrhonist’s failure to make assertions and restrict the scope of recent epistemological arguments against scepticism in such a way as to modify severely the conclusions based on them.

The Brain in a Vat

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Author: Sanford C. Goldberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110706967X

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 8738

This collection of new essays examines the brain-in-a-vat scenario and its implications. Reviewing the history and contributions of debates on this thought experiment, as well as discussing the impact of contemporary philosophical debates, the volume is a valuable resource for advanced students and readers in philosophy of mind and language, epistemology and metaphysics.

The Toils of Scepticism

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Author: Jonathan Barnes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521043878

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 7968

The topic of this book is the major argument-forms of the Greek sceptic, Sextus Empiricus, who lived and wrote in the second century AD. The author gives a lucid explanation and analysis of these forms, both as historically important phenomena and as philosophically significant arguments.

Pascal the Philosopher

An Introduction

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Author: Graeme Hunter

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442667001

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 1091

Blaise Pascal has always been appreciated as a literary giant and a religious guide, but has received only grudging recognition as a philosopher: philosophers have mistaken Pascal’s harsh criticism of their discipline as a rejection of it. But according to Graeme Hunter, Pascal’s critics have simply failed to grasp his lean, but powerful conception of philosophy. This accessibly written book provides the first introduction to Pascal’s philosophy as an organic whole. Hunter argues that Pascal’s aim is not merely to humble philosophy, but to save it from a kind of failure to which it is prone. He lays out Pascal’s development of a more promising and fruitful path for philosophical inquiry, one that responded to the scientific, religious, and political upheaval of his time. Finally, Hunter illuminates Pascal’s significance for contemporary readers, allowing him to emerge as the rare philosopher who is spiritual, literary, and rigorous all at once – both a brilliant controversialist and a thinker of substance.

What is Ancient Philosophy?

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Author: Pierre Hadot,Michael Chase

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674013735

Category: Philosophy

Page: 362

View: 2938

Pierre Hadot shows how the various schools, trends, and ideas of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy all strove to transform the individual s mode of perceiving and being in the world. For the ancients, philosophical theory and the philosophical way of life were inseparably linked. Hadot asks us to consider whether and how this connection might be reestablished today."

History of Western Philosophy

Collectors Edition

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Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135692912

Category: Philosophy

Page: 728

View: 2901

Now in a special gift edition, and featuring a brand new foreword by Anthony Gottlieb, this is a dazzlingly unique exploration of the works of significant philosophers throughout the ages and a definitive must-have title that deserves a revered place on every bookshelf.