In Defence of Organisation Theory

A Reply to the Critics

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Author: Lex Donaldson

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521315395

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 196

View: 2432

This book provides a concise, clear survey and defence of organizational theory. That theory and its associated research has in recent years become subject to strong criticism. Rival perspectives on organizations have been put forward. One of these stresses that organizations need to be understood as made up of individual people. Another asserts the need to see organizations as part of the conflicts and radical struggles in society. These alternative views have led to a host of critiques of conventional organization studies. It is attacked as being tautological, philosophically naive, ideological, and managerially biased. To date there has been no substantial reply to these criticisms by a protagonist of organization theory. This volume uniquely fills that gap. In part one the author examines and rebuts each of the major lines of criticism. In part two the rival approaches suggested by the critics are themselves subjected to an analysis of their limitations. The book concludes with a new model of organizational design which provides a synthesis of previous research.

Neue soziale Bewegungen

Impulse, Bilanzen und Perspektiven

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Author: Ansgar Klein,Hans-Josef Legrand,Thomas Leif

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322906981

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 1135

Im Zentrum der Beiträge stehen diejenigen sozialen Bewegungen, die in der europäischen Diskussion der 80er Jahre als neue soziale Bewegungen bezeichnet worden sind. Erörtert werden in einem ersten Abschnitt die Impulse der neuen sozialen Bewegungen für Politik und Gesellschaft aus gesellschaftstheoretischer, politikwissenschaftlicher und sozialphilosophischer Sicht. Ein zweiter Abschnitt thematisiert Bilanzen und Perspektiven der Bewegungsforschung, europäisch wie international. Die Rolle sozialer Bewegungen in demokratischen Transformationsprozessen wie auch die aktuelle Kontroverse um die Bewertung der ostdeutschen Bürgerbewegungen sind Gegenstand des dritten Kapitels. In einem vierten Abschnitt wird in Konzentration auf den bundesrepublikanischen Kontext die Entwicklung wichtiger Einzelbewegungen betrachtet. Ein fünfter Abschnitt analysiert die Auswirkungen des Globalisierungsprozesses auf die neuen sozialen Bewegungen. Als Mitarbeiter konnten die namhaftesten deutschsprachigen Repräsentantinnen und Repräsentanten der Bewegungsforschung gewonnen werden.

Structure, Content and Meaning of Organizational Networks

Extending Network Thinking

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Author: Stephen P. Borgatti

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1787144348

Category:

Page: 220

View: 4749

This volume explores recent advances in network research, strengthening theorizing on social structures and meaning in and between organizational networks. The volume will interest researchers seeking to explain organizational phenomena through the analysis of communications and information from archival/secondary electronic sources.

Social Enterprises

An Organizational Perspective

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Author: B. Gidron,Y. Hasenfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137035307

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 273

View: 7888

Presents an organizational perspective of social enterprises, which allows us to analyze issues such as their governing structure, their modes of operation and their marketing strategies, and to begin to formulate some theoretical constructs on how these entities can survive and thrive.

The Political Uses of Expert Knowledge

Immigration Policy and Social Research

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Author: Christina Boswell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139477611

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 7894

Why do politicians and civil servants commission research and what use do they make of it in policymaking? The received wisdom is that research contributes to improving government policy. Christina Boswell challenges this view, arguing that policymakers are just as likely to value expert knowledge for two alternative reasons: as a way of lending authority to their preferences; or to signal their capacity to make sound decisions. Boswell develops a compelling new theory of the role of knowledge in policy, showing how policymakers use research to establish authority in contentious and risky areas of policy. She illustrates her argument with an analysis of European immigration policies, charting the ways in which expertise becomes a resource for lending credibility to controversial claims, underpinning high-risk decisions or bolstering the credibility of government agencies.

The Organization of European Security Governance

Internal and External Security in Transition

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Author: Ursula C. Schroeder

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113674522X

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4135

The Organization of European Security Governance investigates what impact the changing nature of security challenges has had on the organization of security governance in Europe. As the most pervasive security challenges today are difficult to classify as either internal or external, the traditional divide between domestic and international security has become blurred. In response, European leaders have emphasized the need to develop comprehensive and horizontal approaches to security in the European Union. But has the European Union been able to deliver a coherent response to this new security environment? In a detailed comparative study of two crucial policy fields - EU counter-terrorism and post-conflict crisis management – the book outlines the scope of the ongoing transformation of Europe's security order, examines its challenges and explains its defects. This important volume will be of interest to students and scholars of Security Studies and European Politics.

The Oxford Handbook of Process Philosophy and Organization Studies

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Author: Jenny Helin,Tor Hernes,Daniel Hjorth,Robin Holt

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191648108

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 4411

Process approaches to organization studies focus on flow, activities, and evolution, understanding organizations and organizing as processes in the making. They stand in contrast to positivist approaches that see organizations and phenomena as fixed, static, and measurable. Process approaches draw on a range of ideas and philosophies. The Handbook examines 34 philosophers and social theorists, both those commonly linked to process thinking, such as Whitehead, Bergson and James, and those that are not as often addressed from a process perspective such as Dilthey and Tarde. Each chapter addresses the background and context of this thinker, their work (with a focus on the processual elements), and the potential contribution to organization and management research. For students and scholars in the field of Organization Studies this book is an entry point into the work of philosophical thinkers and social theorists for whom the world is far from being a solid place.

Gender, Interaction, and Inequality

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Author: Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475721994

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 4293

Causal explanations are essential for theory building. In focusing on causal mechanisms rather than descriptive effects, the goal of this volume is to increase our theoretical understanding of the way gender operates in interaction. Theoretical analyses of gender's effects in interaction, in turn, are necessary to understand how such effects might be implicated with individual-level and social structural-level processes in the larger system of gender inequality. Despite other differences, the contributors to this book all take what might be loosely called a "microstructural" approach to gender and interaction. All agree that individuals come to interaction with certain common, socially created beliefs, cultural meanings, experiences, and social rules. These include stereotypes about gendered activities and skills, beliefs about the status value of gender, rules for interacting in certain settings, and so on. However, as individuals apply these beliefs and rules to the specific contingent events of interaction, they combine and reshape their implications in distinctive ways that are particular to the encounter. As a result, individuals actively construct their social relations in the encounter through their interaction. The patterns of relations that develop are not completely determined or scripted in advance by the beliefs and rules of the larger society. Consequently, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between constructed patterns of interaction and larger social structural forms. The constructed patterns of social relations among a set of interactants can be thought of as micro-level social structures or, more simply, "microstructures.

Intelligence and Government in Britain and the United States: A Comparative Perspective [2 volumes]

A Comparative Perspective

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Author: Philip H.J. Davies

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440802815

Category: Political Science

Page: 826

View: 445

Bringing a dose of reality to the stuff of literary thrillers, this masterful study is the first closely detailed, comparative analysis of the evolution of the modern British and American intelligence communities. • U.S. and U.K. case studies that draw on archival and published sources and on interviews with practitioners • Parallel timelines for principal national intelligence coordinating bodies in the United States and United Kingdom • Organization charts for the United States Intelligence Board and the U.K. Joint Intelligence Organisation, both from the early 1960s • An extensive glossary of terms and abbreviations used in the British and American intelligence communities • An extensive bibliography

Rethinking the Knowledge Controversy in Organization Studies

A Generative Uncertainty Perspective

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Author: Walter R. Nord,Ann F. Connell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136843027

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 277

View: 5675

Recently the field of organization studies has been plagued by intense, disruptive controversy about what counts as knowledge. This book, written by the major researchers and voices in the field of organization studies, attempts to respond to this controversy by offering the topic of "generative uncertainty" as the primary vehicle for rethinking about this issue.

Government and Rural Development in East Africa

Essays on Political Penetration

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Author: L. Cliffe,J.S. Coleman,M.R. Doornbos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401010307

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 6595

The gestation period of this collection has been lengthy even by academic stan dards. Some of our long-suffering contributors prepared their original drafts for a workshop held in Nairobi in 1967, and although they have all up-dated their contributions they are still essentially reporting on research conducted in the late 1960s. However, we feel that their various findings and analyses of the issues they respectively treat have a continuing validity in our comprehension of the problem of rural development. Other contributions reporting on more recent work have been incorporated at different times since, most of them not commissioned especially for this symposium but all adding something to our understanding of the problem. The slow accumulation of material which makes up this fmal collection parallels an evolution in our own collective thinking, if indeed not that of most students of 'development' over the past decade. The progression has not been towards fmal clarification of the complex and changing East African realities, nor towards formulation of an accepted model for their analysis; rather, it has been marked by the questioning of the initial, somewhat simplistic assumptions with which some of us started out and a continuing debate and widening polar ization of views about the significance of that process of government 'pene tration' of the rural areas which is our focus, about the positive or negative value of 'development' policies in East Africa and, indeed, about the appropri ate theoretical approaches to the study of 'development' in general.

Self-Reinforcing Processes in and among Organizations

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Author: J. Sydow,G. Schreyögg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230392830

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 3731

Management and organization research has rediscovered individual agency, innovation and entrepreneurship. As such, there is a risk of overlooking the power of self-reinforcing processes in and among organizations. This volume redirects attention to these processes, including: escalating commitment, organizational imprinting and path dependence.

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology

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Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355074

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 1909

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars

Biotech

The Countercultural Origins of an Industry

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Author: Eric J. Vettel

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812203623

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 1737

The seemingly unlimited reach of powerful biotechnologies and the attendant growth of the multibillion-dollar industry have raised difficult questions about the scientific discoveries, political assumptions, and cultural patterns that gave rise to for-profit biological research. Given such extraordinary stakes, a history of the commercial biotechnology industry must inquire far beyond the predictable attention to scientists, discovery, and corporate sales. It must pursue how something so complex as the biotechnology industry was born, poised to become both a vanguard for contemporary world capitalism and a focal point for polemic ethical debate. In Biotech, Eric J. Vettel chronicles the story behind genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, cloning, and stem-cell research. It is a story about the meteoric rise of government support for scientific research during the Cold War, about activists and student protesters in the Vietnam era pressing for a new purpose in science, about politicians creating policy that alters the course of science, and also about the release of powerful entrepreneurial energies in universities and in venture capital that few realized existed. Most of all, it is a story about people—not just biologists but also followers and opponents who knew nothing about the biological sciences yet cared deeply about how biological research was done and how the resulting knowledge was used. Vettel weaves together these stories to illustrate how the biotechnology industry was born in the San Francisco Bay area, examining the anomalies, ironies, and paradoxes that contributed to its rise. Culled from oral histories, university records, and private corporate archives, including Cetus, the world's first biotechnology company, this compelling history shows how a cultural and political revolution in the 1960s resulted in a new scientific order: the practical application of biological knowledge supported by private investors expecting profitable returns eclipsed basic research supported by government agencies.

Critical Concepts in Management and Organization Studies

Key Terms and Concepts

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Author: Peter Stokes

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 0230344313

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 2657

Critical Concepts in Management and Organization Studies provides an accessible introduction to the key themes of critical management studies. An ideal companion for students studying critical management and organizations, it breaks down the complex language, concepts and philosophical underpinnings defining critical management studies.

Thinking Politics

Intellectuals and Democracy in Chile, 1973-1988

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Author: Jeffrey Puryear

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801848414

Category: Political Science

Page: 206

View: 9016

Because of Latin America's long history of military juntas, analysts who have studied regime change in the region have focused on political and military elites. In the recent case of Chile, however, the success of democratic transition can be credited in large part to the remarkable influence of intellectuals involved in public affairs. In Thinking Politics Jeffrey Puryear examines this unprecedented role played by intellectuals inChile's return to democracy. "Thinking Politics provides thorough coverage of an important but neglected topic by a uniquely qualified observer. Through his work with the Ford Foundation, Jeffrey Puryear had an unparalleled opportunity for an outside agent to witness the development of the social scientists of Chile and their impact on democratization. He tells the story well, he analyzes it in a way that could be relevant to other cases, and he presents the policy implications for support of the social sciences in less developed countries in a convincing manner." -- Paul W. Drake, University of California, San Diego "This first-rate work is accurate, original, and compelling. It addresses an important topic -- the relationship between ideas and politics -- that has seldom been analyzed in Latin America." -- JosA(c) JoaquA-n Brunner Ried, Facultad Latina Americana de Ciencias Sociales, Santiago, Chile.

Groups at Work

Theory and Research

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Author: Marlene E. Turner

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1317779177

Category: Psychology

Page: 568

View: 7839

This book has two purposes. First, it is fundamentally about groups at work, both as they attempt to accomplish their goals and as they operate in organizational settings. Second, it draws together group researchers from social psychological and organizational studies. Each chapter focuses on a central issue regarding groups as they work and examines that issue by drawing from both social psychological and organizational research. Thus, this book centers on the convergence and divergence of these two fields.

Challenging Codes

Collective Action in the Information Age

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Author: Alberto Melucci

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521578431

Category: Political Science

Page: 441

View: 1110

Alberto Melucci brings an original perspective to research on collective action, emphasizing the role of culture and making telling connections with the experience of the individual in postmodern society. The focus is on the role of information in a world both fragmented and globalized, and topics addressed include political conflict, feminism, ecology, identity politics, power and inequality. The book builds on the author's Nomads of the Present (1989), and is a companion volume to The Playing Self (CUP, 1996).

The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations

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Author: Savita Kumra,Ruth Simpson,Ronald J. Burke

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191632759

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 752

View: 4567

The issue of gender in organizations has attracted much attention and debate over a number of years. The focus of examination is inequality of opportunity between the genders and the impact this has on organizations, individual men and women, and society as a whole. It is undoubtedly the case that progress has been made with women participating in organizational life in greater numbers and at more senior levels than has been historically the case, challenging notions that senior and/or influential organizational and political roles remain a masculine domain. The Oxford Handbook of Gender in Organizations is a comprehensive analysis of thinking and research on gender in organizations with original contributions from key international scholars in the field. The Handbook comprises four sections. The first looks at the theoretical roots and potential for theoretical development in respect of the topic of gender in organizations. The second section focuses on leadership and management and the gender issues arising in this field; contributors review the extensive literature and reflect on progress made as well as commenting on hurdles yet to be overcome. The third section considers the gendered nature of careers. Here the focus is on querying traditional approaches to career, surfacing embedded assumptions within traditional approaches, and assessing potential for alternative patterns to evolve, taking into account the nature of women's lives and the changing nature of organizations. In its final section the Handbook examines masculinity in organizations to assess the diversity of masculinities evident within organizations and the challenges posed to those outside the norm. In bringing together a broad range of research and thinking on gender in organizations across a number of disciplines, sub-disciplines, and conceptual perspectives, the Handbook provides a comprehensive view of both contemporary thinking and future research directions.

The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers (Cornell Studies in Money)

The IMF, the World Bank, and Their Borrowers

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Author: Ngaire Woods

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801456010

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 5644

"The IMF and the World Bank have integrated a large number of countries into the world economy by requiring governments to open up to global trade, investment, and capital. They have not done this out of pure economic zeal. Politics and their own rules and habits explain much of why they have presented globalization as a solution to challenges they have faced in the world economy."—from the Introduction The greatest success of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank has been as globalizers. But at whose cost? Would borrowing countries be better off without the IMF and World Bank? This book takes readers inside these institutions and the governments they work with. Ngaire Woods brilliantly decodes what they do and why they do it, using original research, extensive interviews carried out across many countries and institutions, and scholarship from the fields of economics, law, and politics. The Globalizers focuses on both the political context of IMF and World Bank actions and their impact on the countries in which they intervene. After describing the important debates between U.S. planners and the Allies in the 1944 foundation at Bretton Woods, she analyzes understandings of their missions over the last quarter century. She traces the impact of the Bank and the Fund in the recent economic history of Mexico, of post-Soviet Russia, and in the independent states of Africa. Woods concludes by proposing a range of reforms that would make the World Bank and the IMF more effective, equitable, and just.