In Defence of Organisation Theory

A Reply to the Critics

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Author: Lex Donaldson

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521315395

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 196

View: 4457

This book provides a concise, clear survey and defence of organizational theory. That theory and its associated research has in recent years become subject to strong criticism. Rival perspectives on organizations have been put forward. One of these stresses that organizations need to be understood as made up of individual people. Another asserts the need to see organizations as part of the conflicts and radical struggles in society. These alternative views have led to a host of critiques of conventional organization studies. It is attacked as being tautological, philosophically naive, ideological, and managerially biased. To date there has been no substantial reply to these criticisms by a protagonist of organization theory. This volume uniquely fills that gap. In part one the author examines and rebuts each of the major lines of criticism. In part two the rival approaches suggested by the critics are themselves subjected to an analysis of their limitations. The book concludes with a new model of organizational design which provides a synthesis of previous research.

Institutions and Ideology

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Author: Peter Walgenbach

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 184855866X

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 5423

Contributes to the literature on the sociology of organizations and management, especially to sociological institutionalism. This title covers the empirical areas that range from technology and software development, the brewing industry, custodial facilities to the organization of birthing.

Hierarchy and Organisation

Toward a General Theory of Hierarchical Social Systems

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Author: Thomas Diefenbach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135013403

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 282

View: 783

Most people take the conditions they work and live in as a given, believing it to be normal that societies are stratified and that organisations are hierarchical. Many even think that this is the way it should be - and are neither willing nor able to think that it could be otherwise. This book raises the awareness of hierarchy, its complexity and longevity. It focuses on a single but fundamental problem of social systems such as dyads, groups, organisations and whole societies: Why and how does hierarchical social order persist over time? In order to investigate the question, author Thomas Diefenbach develops a general theory of the persistence of hierarchical social order. This theory interrogates the problem of the persistence of hierarchical social order from very different angles, in multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary ways. Even more crucially, it traces the very causes of the phenomenon, the reasons and interests behind hierarchy as well as the various mechanisms which keep it going. This is the first time such a theory is attempted. With the help of the theory developed in this book, it is possible to interrogate systematically, comprehensively and in detail how mindsets and behaviours as well as societal and organisational structures enable the continuation of hierarchy

Neue soziale Bewegungen

Impulse, Bilanzen und Perspektiven

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Author: Ansgar Klein,Hans-Josef Legrand,Thomas Leif

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322906981

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 4934

Im Zentrum der Beiträge stehen diejenigen sozialen Bewegungen, die in der europäischen Diskussion der 80er Jahre als neue soziale Bewegungen bezeichnet worden sind. Erörtert werden in einem ersten Abschnitt die Impulse der neuen sozialen Bewegungen für Politik und Gesellschaft aus gesellschaftstheoretischer, politikwissenschaftlicher und sozialphilosophischer Sicht. Ein zweiter Abschnitt thematisiert Bilanzen und Perspektiven der Bewegungsforschung, europäisch wie international. Die Rolle sozialer Bewegungen in demokratischen Transformationsprozessen wie auch die aktuelle Kontroverse um die Bewertung der ostdeutschen Bürgerbewegungen sind Gegenstand des dritten Kapitels. In einem vierten Abschnitt wird in Konzentration auf den bundesrepublikanischen Kontext die Entwicklung wichtiger Einzelbewegungen betrachtet. Ein fünfter Abschnitt analysiert die Auswirkungen des Globalisierungsprozesses auf die neuen sozialen Bewegungen. Als Mitarbeiter konnten die namhaftesten deutschsprachigen Repräsentantinnen und Repräsentanten der Bewegungsforschung gewonnen werden.

The Oxford Handbook of Sociology, Social Theory, and Organization Studies

Contemporary Currents

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Author: Paul S. Adler,Paul Du Gay,Glenn Morgan,Michael Reed

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199671087

Category: Organizational behavior

Page: 752

View: 8536

This title examines how contemporary currents in sociology and social theory have influenced the field of organisation studies. It aims to combat the tendency towards myopia in the organisation studies field, which encourages reliance on resources and references drawn from within the field and discourages scholars from going beyond these boundaries to find inspiration and ideas. The contributing authors show how sociologists and sociological concepts from the US and Europe have provided new insights into the functioning of organisations.

Social Enterprises

An Organizational Perspective

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Author: B. Gidron,Y. Hasenfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137035307

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 273

View: 7102

Presents an organizational perspective of social enterprises, which allows us to analyze issues such as their governing structure, their modes of operation and their marketing strategies, and to begin to formulate some theoretical constructs on how these entities can survive and thrive.

Contemporary Research in the Sociology of Education

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Author: John Eggleston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415500737

Category: Education

Page: 388

View: 7489

The subject matter of this book – what happens in schools, the effects of curriculum change, the reasons why some children are successful and others are not – explains just why the sociology of education is one of the most important areas to achieve political importance. There are five sections to the book covering: Educational Achievement; Educational Provision; The Organization of the School; Roles in the School and Values and Learning. The editor discusses the implications of the material presented (much of which was available for the first time when this book was originally published).

The Political Uses of Expert Knowledge

Immigration Policy and Social Research

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Author: Christina Boswell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139477611

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 830

Why do politicians and civil servants commission research and what use do they make of it in policymaking? The received wisdom is that research contributes to improving government policy. Christina Boswell challenges this view, arguing that policymakers are just as likely to value expert knowledge for two alternative reasons: as a way of lending authority to their preferences; or to signal their capacity to make sound decisions. Boswell develops a compelling new theory of the role of knowledge in policy, showing how policymakers use research to establish authority in contentious and risky areas of policy. She illustrates her argument with an analysis of European immigration policies, charting the ways in which expertise becomes a resource for lending credibility to controversial claims, underpinning high-risk decisions or bolstering the credibility of government agencies.

The Oxford Handbook of Process Philosophy and Organization Studies

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Author: Jenny Helin,Tor Hernes,Daniel Hjorth,Robin Holt

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191648108

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 5625

Process approaches to organization studies focus on flow, activities, and evolution, understanding organizations and organizing as processes in the making. They stand in contrast to positivist approaches that see organizations and phenomena as fixed, static, and measurable. Process approaches draw on a range of ideas and philosophies. The Handbook examines 34 philosophers and social theorists, both those commonly linked to process thinking, such as Whitehead, Bergson and James, and those that are not as often addressed from a process perspective such as Dilthey and Tarde. Each chapter addresses the background and context of this thinker, their work (with a focus on the processual elements), and the potential contribution to organization and management research. For students and scholars in the field of Organization Studies this book is an entry point into the work of philosophical thinkers and social theorists for whom the world is far from being a solid place.

The Organization of European Security Governance

Internal and External Security in Transition

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Author: Ursula C. Schroeder

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113674522X

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4405

The Organization of European Security Governance investigates what impact the changing nature of security challenges has had on the organization of security governance in Europe. As the most pervasive security challenges today are difficult to classify as either internal or external, the traditional divide between domestic and international security has become blurred. In response, European leaders have emphasized the need to develop comprehensive and horizontal approaches to security in the European Union. But has the European Union been able to deliver a coherent response to this new security environment? In a detailed comparative study of two crucial policy fields - EU counter-terrorism and post-conflict crisis management – the book outlines the scope of the ongoing transformation of Europe's security order, examines its challenges and explains its defects. This important volume will be of interest to students and scholars of Security Studies and European Politics.

Gender, Interaction, and Inequality

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Author: Cecilia L. Ridgeway

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475721994

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 9758

Causal explanations are essential for theory building. In focusing on causal mechanisms rather than descriptive effects, the goal of this volume is to increase our theoretical understanding of the way gender operates in interaction. Theoretical analyses of gender's effects in interaction, in turn, are necessary to understand how such effects might be implicated with individual-level and social structural-level processes in the larger system of gender inequality. Despite other differences, the contributors to this book all take what might be loosely called a "microstructural" approach to gender and interaction. All agree that individuals come to interaction with certain common, socially created beliefs, cultural meanings, experiences, and social rules. These include stereotypes about gendered activities and skills, beliefs about the status value of gender, rules for interacting in certain settings, and so on. However, as individuals apply these beliefs and rules to the specific contingent events of interaction, they combine and reshape their implications in distinctive ways that are particular to the encounter. As a result, individuals actively construct their social relations in the encounter through their interaction. The patterns of relations that develop are not completely determined or scripted in advance by the beliefs and rules of the larger society. Consequently, there is a reciprocal causal relationship between constructed patterns of interaction and larger social structural forms. The constructed patterns of social relations among a set of interactants can be thought of as micro-level social structures or, more simply, "microstructures.

Intelligence and Government in Britain and the United States: A Comparative Perspective [2 volumes]

A Comparative Perspective

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Author: Philip H.J. Davies

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440802815

Category: Political Science

Page: 826

View: 3176

Bringing a dose of reality to the stuff of literary thrillers, this masterful study is the first closely detailed, comparative analysis of the evolution of the modern British and American intelligence communities. • U.S. and U.K. case studies that draw on archival and published sources and on interviews with practitioners • Parallel timelines for principal national intelligence coordinating bodies in the United States and United Kingdom • Organization charts for the United States Intelligence Board and the U.K. Joint Intelligence Organisation, both from the early 1960s • An extensive glossary of terms and abbreviations used in the British and American intelligence communities • An extensive bibliography

Rethinking the Knowledge Controversy in Organization Studies

A Generative Uncertainty Perspective

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Author: Walter R. Nord,Ann F. Connell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136843027

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 277

View: 5020

Recently the field of organization studies has been plagued by intense, disruptive controversy about what counts as knowledge. This book, written by the major researchers and voices in the field of organization studies, attempts to respond to this controversy by offering the topic of "generative uncertainty" as the primary vehicle for rethinking about this issue.

Government and Rural Development in East Africa

Essays on Political Penetration

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Author: L. Cliffe,J.S. Coleman,M.R. Doornbos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401010307

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 6581

The gestation period of this collection has been lengthy even by academic stan dards. Some of our long-suffering contributors prepared their original drafts for a workshop held in Nairobi in 1967, and although they have all up-dated their contributions they are still essentially reporting on research conducted in the late 1960s. However, we feel that their various findings and analyses of the issues they respectively treat have a continuing validity in our comprehension of the problem of rural development. Other contributions reporting on more recent work have been incorporated at different times since, most of them not commissioned especially for this symposium but all adding something to our understanding of the problem. The slow accumulation of material which makes up this fmal collection parallels an evolution in our own collective thinking, if indeed not that of most students of 'development' over the past decade. The progression has not been towards fmal clarification of the complex and changing East African realities, nor towards formulation of an accepted model for their analysis; rather, it has been marked by the questioning of the initial, somewhat simplistic assumptions with which some of us started out and a continuing debate and widening polar ization of views about the significance of that process of government 'pene tration' of the rural areas which is our focus, about the positive or negative value of 'development' policies in East Africa and, indeed, about the appropri ate theoretical approaches to the study of 'development' in general.

Self-Reinforcing Processes in and among Organizations

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Author: J. Sydow,G. Schreyögg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230392830

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 5235

Management and organization research has rediscovered individual agency, innovation and entrepreneurship. As such, there is a risk of overlooking the power of self-reinforcing processes in and among organizations. This volume redirects attention to these processes, including: escalating commitment, organizational imprinting and path dependence.

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology

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Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355074

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 8549

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars

Biotech

The Countercultural Origins of an Industry

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Author: Eric J. Vettel

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812203623

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 1304

The seemingly unlimited reach of powerful biotechnologies and the attendant growth of the multibillion-dollar industry have raised difficult questions about the scientific discoveries, political assumptions, and cultural patterns that gave rise to for-profit biological research. Given such extraordinary stakes, a history of the commercial biotechnology industry must inquire far beyond the predictable attention to scientists, discovery, and corporate sales. It must pursue how something so complex as the biotechnology industry was born, poised to become both a vanguard for contemporary world capitalism and a focal point for polemic ethical debate. In Biotech, Eric J. Vettel chronicles the story behind genetic engineering, recombinant DNA, cloning, and stem-cell research. It is a story about the meteoric rise of government support for scientific research during the Cold War, about activists and student protesters in the Vietnam era pressing for a new purpose in science, about politicians creating policy that alters the course of science, and also about the release of powerful entrepreneurial energies in universities and in venture capital that few realized existed. Most of all, it is a story about people—not just biologists but also followers and opponents who knew nothing about the biological sciences yet cared deeply about how biological research was done and how the resulting knowledge was used. Vettel weaves together these stories to illustrate how the biotechnology industry was born in the San Francisco Bay area, examining the anomalies, ironies, and paradoxes that contributed to its rise. Culled from oral histories, university records, and private corporate archives, including Cetus, the world's first biotechnology company, this compelling history shows how a cultural and political revolution in the 1960s resulted in a new scientific order: the practical application of biological knowledge supported by private investors expecting profitable returns eclipsed basic research supported by government agencies.

Critical Concepts in Management and Organization Studies

Key Terms and Concepts

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Author: Peter Stokes

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 0230344313

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 7952

Critical Concepts in Management and Organization Studies provides an accessible introduction to the key themes of critical management studies. An ideal companion for students studying critical management and organizations, it breaks down the complex language, concepts and philosophical underpinnings defining critical management studies.

Institutions and Organizations

Ideas and Interests

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Author: W. Richard Scott

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412950902

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 1405

A bestseller since its First Edition, Institutions and Organizations remains the key source for a comprehensive overview of the institutionalist approach to organization theory. W. Richard Scott presents a historical overview of the theoretical literature, an integrative analysis of current institutional approaches, and a review of empirical research related to institutions and organizations. He offers an extensive review and critique of institutional analysis in sociology, political science, and economics as it relates to recent theory and research on organizations.

The Political Agenda of Organizations

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Author: Yitzhak Samuel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351322389

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 237

View: 2018

Individualism and collectivism, egoism and altruism, are interwoven threads that make up the social fabric of all organizations. In consequence, political behavior is an integral part of organizational life. These two interconnected characteristics of human behavior--conformism and opportunism--account for most of the actions and interactions that take place in organizations every day. This volume examines all kinds of organizations from a political perspective, analyzing them in terms of social power and politics. It presents several theories of power and compares them as it scrutinizes the political layout of organizations. For ease of understanding, the book applies the language of political games to describe organizational politics in terms borrowed from the realm of sports, such as contesters, playgrounds, encounters, rules of the game, strategies and tactics, scores, and victories and defeats. It thoroughly analyzes the concepts of social power and social influence from various points of view. Samuel outlines the variety of political games that are played in the realm of organizations, listing nine types of games in which individual level politics, group level politics, and organizational level politics take place. While scrutinizing the political layout of organizations, he also demonstrates how major issues dealt with through processes of decision-making turn into political agendas within organizations. He addresses the issue of managerial politics, drawing upon research that shows how managers influence their subordinates, and how executives conduct power struggles and political maneuvers to defend their lucrative positions. The Political Agenda of Organizations is an enlightening analysis of the power and influence in business organizations and will be of interest to sociologists and other social scientists as well as students of management and business administration.