Operational Research and the Social Sciences

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Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 7480

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.

Local Government and Strategic Choice

An Operational Research Approach to the Processes of Public Planning

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Author: J.K. Friend,W.N. Jessop

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483136434

Category: Social Science

Page: 330

View: 2959

Local Government and Strategic Choice, Second Edition is the result of a study of policy-formation in the City Council of Coventry during a four-year period. This edition is a reappraisal of the earlier edition, with an emphasis on ""connective planning."" Part I describes the planning strategies made in an urban setting. This part explains the City and the City Council, organization of the local authority, decision-making mechanisms, developmental planning including land use, school system planning, and cross-departmental planning. Part II is a study of city planning as a process of strategic choice that has been altered in many different ways depending on the purpose. This part also discusses the problems encountered in the planning process such as the existence of organization boundaries in the government sector. Part III deals with a fictional case that relates the uncertainties and political realities of decision-making in an urban setting. The case studies cover land allocation and development, tax, and traffic issues. Part IV discusses organizational challenge and also touches in some way on the future organizational structure of local governments. This text then explains the need for ""connective planning"" of how individuals build flexible networks among decision-making agencies to serve the various interests of both the private and government sectors. This book is suitable for sociologists, city administrators and officials, local government officials, heads of government agencies, and heads of planning and engineering departments of local government units.

Community-Based Operations Research

Decision Modeling for Local Impact and Diverse Populations

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Author: Michael P. Johnson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461408062

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 340

View: 771

This edited volume is an introduction to diverse methods and applications in operations research focused on local populations and community-based organizations that have the potential to improve the lives of individuals and communities in tangible ways. The book's themes include: space, place and community; disadvantaged, underrepresented or underserved populations; international and transnational applications; multimethod, cross-disciplinary and comparative approaches and appropriate technology; and analytics. The book is comprised of eleven original submissions, a re-print of a 2007 article by Johnson and Smilowitz that introduces CBOR, and an introductory chapter that provides policy motivation, antecedents to CBOR in OR/MS, a theory of CBOR and a comprehensive review of the chapters. It is hoped that this book will provide a resource to academics and practitioners who seek to develop methods and applications that bridge the divide between traditional OR/MS rooted in mathematical models and newer streams in 'soft OR' that emphasize problem structuring methods, critical approaches to OR/MS and community engagement and capacity-building.

Science of Coercion

Communication Research & Psychological Warfare, 1945–1960

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Author: Christopher Simpson

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497672708

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 4169

A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era, now with a new introduction by Robert W. McChesney and a new preface by the author Since the mid-twentieth century, the great advances in our knowledge about the most effective methods of mass communication and persuasion have been visible in a wide range of professional fields, including journalism, marketing, public relations, interrogation, and public opinion studies. However, the birth of the modern science of mass communication had surprising and somewhat troubling midwives: the military and covert intelligence arms of the US government. In this fascinating study, author Christopher Simpson uses long-classified documents from the Pentagon, the CIA, and other national security agencies to demonstrate how this seemingly benign social science grew directly out of secret government-funded research into psychological warfare. It reveals that many of the most respected pioneers in the field of communication science were knowingly complicit in America’s Cold War efforts, regardless of their personal politics or individual moralities, and that their findings on mass communication were eventually employed for the purposes of propaganda, subversion, intimidation, and counterinsurgency. An important, thought-provoking work, Science of Coercion shines a blazing light into a hitherto remote and shadowy corner of Cold War history.

Konzerncontrolling

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Author: Stefan Behringer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642131565

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 225

View: 537

Controlling leistet wichtige Unterstützung beim Management von Konzernen. Die besonderen Herausforderungen des Konzerncontrollings im Vergleich zum Controlling in Einzelunternehmen stellt der Autor systematisch und anhand von Fallstudien dar. Ausgehend von den Grundlagen der Konzernrechnungslegung diskutiert er die geeigneten Kennzahlen und erörtert die Grundlagen der Planung und Kontrolle. Weitere Themen sind die Leistungsbeziehungen zwischen konzernzugehörigen Unternehmen und die Besonderheiten, die in internationalen Konzernen zu beachten sind.

Behavioral Operational Research

Theory, Methodology and Practice

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Author: Martin Kunc,Jonathan Malpass,Leroy White

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137535512

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 395

View: 9693

Behavioral research is making a significant impact on many academic disciplines. Its status as the source of some of the most profound research in the social sciences is unparalleled. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in Behavior and Operational Research (OR) is burgeoning, even though understanding the relationship between knowledge, behavior and action has been an academic preoccupation in OR since the beginning of the discipline. This book introduces the idea of Behavioral OR, where the theoretical and empirical developments in the behavioral field are making an impression on OR academics and practitioners alike. The book provides a much needed overview that connects together theory, methodology and practice and offers the “state of the art” on Behavioral Operational Research theory and practice. The book not only includes chapters by leading academics, but also includes rich and insightful real-life case studies by practitioners.

Principles and Practice of Research

Strategies for Surgical Investigators

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Author: H. Troidl,W.O. Spitzer,B. McPeek,D.S. Mulder,Martin F. Bach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642969429

Category: Medical

Page: 381

View: 8055

emerging on the surgical scene to challenge or For some readers, the title of this book will im thodoxy. Although these innovations are often mediately raise the question, what exactly is greeted with great optimism, a factual basis for meant by surgical research? In the very broadest that enthusiasm is sometimes far from secure sense the term can be taken to include all en and much further work is frequently required to deavors, however elementary or limited in discover whether we are dealing with genuine scope, to advance surgical knowledge. Ideally, advances or not. it refers to well-organized attempts to establish The most exciting and attractive scenario for on a proper scientific basis, i. e. , to place beyond surgical research is unquestionably one that de reasonable doubt, the truth or otherwise of any picts a successful attempt by a researcher to es concepts, old or new, within the ambit of sur gery, and, of course, anaesthesia. tablish the accuracy of some bold innovation for which he himself is responsible. Joseph Lister, The methods used to achieve that end vary demonstrating by clinical trial that wound sup enormously, depending on the issue being in vestigated.

Futures we are in

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Author: F. Emery

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468484885

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 4515

After explicating the analytical framework I will proceed to develop scenarios as follows: I. General scenarios -maladaptive and adaptive. 2. The future for the Western group of societies. Within this will seek to identify the main changes in the natures of work, leisure, family organisation, education and life styles. 3. The future for the major Asian powers, China, Japan and India. 4. A world scenario centred about the first two scenarios but also aimed to locate within this pattern the most probable future for sets of the smaller societies and under-developed countries. The scenarios will be developed in that order, for good reasons. Sociological forecasting has to deal, in the first instance, with sets of societies that are closely interdependent, each with the other. A scenario for Western societies generally is required before one can hope to write one for the individual countries, e.g. France, Australia, because they are not evolving independently. The widespread upsurge of student revolts in 1967-68 well illustrates this interdependence. Some writers, like Stevens (1970) have taken the U.S.A. as the model of the future for the other smaller Western societies. There is some justifi cation for this as the U.S. has certainly been the 'leading part' in the West for some decades. However, there is danger in assuming that that will persist. A change in the near future in the problems that commonly confront Western societies may make the U.S. example 'depasee', old hat, if not down-right misleading.

Kontrolle und Unternehmungsführung

Entscheidungs- und organisationstheoretische Grundfragen

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Author: Erich Frese

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663026337

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 170

View: 9174

Review of Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee to Review Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309060303

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 6411

The collapse of cod, flounder, and haddock fish stocks in the Northeast United States has caused widespread concern among managers and fishers in the United States and Canada. The diminishing stocks have forced managers to take strict regulatory measures. Numerous questions have been raised about the adequacy of stock assessment science used to evaluate the status of these stocks and the appropriateness of the management measures taken. Based on these concerns, Congress mandated that a scientific review of the methodology and data used to evaluate these stocks be conducted. In this volume, the committee concludes that although there are improvements to be made in data collection, modeling uncertainty, and communicating between fishers, managers, and scientists, the scientific methods used in the Northeast stock assessments are sound. Recommendations are made on how the stock assessment process can be improved.

AIDS Education

Interventions in Multi-Cultural Societies

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Author: G. Sabar-Friedman,I.I. Schenker,F.S. Sy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475791224

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 8843

Sixteen years into the AIDS epidemic, our understandings of the virus, its transmis sion, modes of controlling blood banks and testing are relatively well established. In the last decade, we have also experienced an astonishing amount ofnew social science research ena bling us to better understand concepts like risk taking, gender-related prevention, women's health, and youth psychology,just to mention a few. In almost every country in the world, efforts have been made to respond affirmatively to the challenge of stopping the further spread of HIVI AIDS. Educational interventions have ranged from re-inventing the wheel to innovative programs, using a variety of health educa tion methods. The field of evaluation research now provides us a better understanding of what works and what does not work. Issues relating to human rights, the relationship be tween the affected and the healthlmedical professional communities, and to the inequality in the delivery ofpreventive and educational services are becoming an important part ofthe de bates and discussions in the concerned societies.

Cooperative Agents

Applications in the Social Sciences

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Author: N.J. Saam,B. Schmidt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401711771

Category: Computers

Page: 216

View: 1694

Agent-based modelling on a computer appears to have a special role to play in the development of social science. It offers a means of discovering general and applicable social theory, and grounding it in precise assumptions and derivations, whilst addressing those elements of individual cognition that are central to human society. However, there are important questions to be asked and difficulties to overcome in achieving this potential. What differentiates agent-based modelling from traditional computer modelling? Which model types should be used under which circumstances? If it is appropriate to use a complex model, how can it be validated? Is social simulation research to adopt a realist epistemology, or can it operate within a social constructionist framework? What are the sociological concepts of norms and norm processing that could either be used for planned implementation or for identifying equivalents of social norms among co-operative agents? Can sustainability be achieved more easily in a hierarchical agent society than in a society of isolated agents? What examples are there of hybrid forms of interaction between humans and artificial agents? These are some of the sociological questions that are addressed.

Organized Worlds

Explorations in Technology and Organization with Robert Cooper

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Author: Robert Chia

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134797680

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 9788

Organized Worlds locates the study of organization within the wider area of social theory. It explores in detail the intricate relationships that exist between technology, representation and organization. The collection includes a chapter from the leading expert in the field, Robert Cooper, as well as an interview with him. Other contributors build upon and extend the findings of Cooper. This is a companion volume to In the Realm of Organization.

Tools and Tactics for Operations Managers (Collection)

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Author: Randal Wilson,Arthur V. Hill,Hillel Glazer

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 0133115135

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 953

View: 3226

A brand new collection of state-of-the-art operations management tools and tactics… 3 authoritative books, now in a convenient e-format, at a great price! 3 authoritative eBooks bring together today’s most valuable new operations management techniques and solutions! Apply today’s most innovative operations management techniques to improve performance and value in any organization -- even the most complex or constrained! In High Performance Operations, Hillel Glazer shows how to optimize business performance and profitability while maintaining strong governance and compliance. Glazer demonstrates how to integrate lean and systems thinking, and systematically incorporating compliance into planning for overall performance, value, and profitability, rather than viewing it as an end in itself. Learn how to clarify competing interests and implement pre-conditions for success; use systems thinking to promote operational excellence; eliminate single points of failure; establish proof-of-performance; scale your successes, and get more of "what went right"! The Encyclopedia of Operations Management is the perfect single-volume "field manual" for every OM or supply chain professional. Nearly 1,500 well-organized, up-to-date definitions cover every facet of supply chain design, planning, management, and optimization. For the first time, this remarkable reference brings together up-to-the-minute information about topics ranging from accounting and customer service to transportation and warehousing. Next, in The Operations Manager's Toolbox , Randal Wilson helps you use proven project management (PM) tools and techniques to supercharge efficiency, free up resources, eliminate unnecessary meetings, and get more done faster. Wilson shows how to apply PM to complete crucial "smaller" tasks that can deliver rapid and sizable improvements. You’ll learn how to plan, implement, and measure the success of high-impact changes, and organize key tasks so they actually get done. Discover specific techniques for eliminating waste in engineering, manufacturing, distribution, and inventory. Next, learn how to use PM to manage teams, schedules, budgets, and resources more effectively, and systematically predict and mitigate operational risks. Whatever your role in operations management, this unique eBook collection will help you perform far more effectively – in your organization, and in your career! From world-renowned operations management experts Hillel Glazer, Arthur V. Hill, and Randal Wilson

Evolution and Constitution

The Evolutionary Selfconstruction of Law

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Author: E.F. Oeser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401715025

Category: Philosophy

Page: 212

View: 4261

This work for the first time brings together case law and law based on norms. It offers the reader a survey and a new explanation of evolutionary emergence of social contracts and constitutions in the European history, and should help to build a bridge between 'two cultures', science and humanities. It is addressed to philosophers of law, historians of law, theorists of science and social scientists.

Systems Methodology in Social Science Research

Recent Developments

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Author: R. Cavallo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780898380446

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 194

View: 6679

From the beginning, the systems research movement has shown a high potential for offering a conceptual framework for the understanding of social systems. Much of this potential has been realized, but a major gap remains with regard to operational investigative aids. Developments of the last ten years with a method ological orientation and emphasis seem finally to be filling this gap. The purpose of this book is to describe the most advanced of these developments and to make them available to a wider audience. The emphasis is on developments that are primarily oriented toward interaction with expertise in the social sciences and that thus hold the most promise for social systems investigation. In particu lar, attempts have been made to provide substantiation and illustration of three main points: (1) the common motivation and essential integrability that systems research provides for developments and considerations along a very broad spec trum of interests; (2) the very diverse nature of the types and forms of considera tions that may be meaningfully integrated; and (3) the operational and usable nature that developments in systems methodology represent for research in the social sciences. The book is divided into three parts with a generally increasing degree of specificity. The first part (Chapters 1, 2, and 3) deals with foundational issues associated with modeling and methodology as areas worthy of study in their ix X PREFACE own right.