Operational Research and the Social Sciences

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Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 3512

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.

Operations Research Methods

As Applied to Political Science and the Legal Process

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Author: Stuart S. Nagel,Marian Neef

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 76

View: 2432

Discusses basic concepts and methods associated with the application of operations research toward arriving at an optimum mix, level, or choice.

Behavioral Operational Research

Theory, Methodology and Practice

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Author: Martin Kunc,Jonathan Malpass,Leroy White

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137535512

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 395

View: 6635

Behavioral research is making a significant impact on many academic disciplines. Its status as the source of some of the most profound research in the social sciences is unparalleled. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in Behavior and Operational Research (OR) is burgeoning, even though understanding the relationship between knowledge, behavior and action has been an academic preoccupation in OR since the beginning of the discipline. This book introduces the idea of Behavioral OR, where the theoretical and empirical developments in the behavioral field are making an impression on OR academics and practitioners alike. The book provides a much needed overview that connects together theory, methodology and practice and offers the “state of the art” on Behavioral Operational Research theory and practice. The book not only includes chapters by leading academics, but also includes rich and insightful real-life case studies by practitioners.

Local Government and Strategic Choice

An Operational Research Approach to the Processes of Public Planning

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Author: J.K. Friend,W.N. Jessop

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483136434

Category: Social Science

Page: 330

View: 2841

Local Government and Strategic Choice, Second Edition is the result of a study of policy-formation in the City Council of Coventry during a four-year period. This edition is a reappraisal of the earlier edition, with an emphasis on ""connective planning."" Part I describes the planning strategies made in an urban setting. This part explains the City and the City Council, organization of the local authority, decision-making mechanisms, developmental planning including land use, school system planning, and cross-departmental planning. Part II is a study of city planning as a process of strategic choice that has been altered in many different ways depending on the purpose. This part also discusses the problems encountered in the planning process such as the existence of organization boundaries in the government sector. Part III deals with a fictional case that relates the uncertainties and political realities of decision-making in an urban setting. The case studies cover land allocation and development, tax, and traffic issues. Part IV discusses organizational challenge and also touches in some way on the future organizational structure of local governments. This text then explains the need for ""connective planning"" of how individuals build flexible networks among decision-making agencies to serve the various interests of both the private and government sectors. This book is suitable for sociologists, city administrators and officials, local government officials, heads of government agencies, and heads of planning and engineering departments of local government units.

Operations Research Methods

As Applied to Political Science and the Legal Process

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Author: Stuart S. Nagel,Marian Neef

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 76

View: 2625

Discusses basic concepts and methods associated with the application of operations research toward arriving at an optimum mix, level, or choice.

Community-Based Operations Research

Decision Modeling for Local Impact and Diverse Populations

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Author: Michael P. Johnson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461408062

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 340

View: 4314

This edited volume is an introduction to diverse methods and applications in operations research focused on local populations and community-based organizations that have the potential to improve the lives of individuals and communities in tangible ways. The book's themes include: space, place and community; disadvantaged, underrepresented or underserved populations; international and transnational applications; multimethod, cross-disciplinary and comparative approaches and appropriate technology; and analytics. The book is comprised of eleven original submissions, a re-print of a 2007 article by Johnson and Smilowitz that introduces CBOR, and an introductory chapter that provides policy motivation, antecedents to CBOR in OR/MS, a theory of CBOR and a comprehensive review of the chapters. It is hoped that this book will provide a resource to academics and practitioners who seek to develop methods and applications that bridge the divide between traditional OR/MS rooted in mathematical models and newer streams in 'soft OR' that emphasize problem structuring methods, critical approaches to OR/MS and community engagement and capacity-building.

Science of Coercion

Communication Research & Psychological Warfare, 1945–1960

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Author: Christopher Simpson

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497672708

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 2766

A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era, now with a new introduction by Robert W. McChesney and a new preface by the author Since the mid-twentieth century, the great advances in our knowledge about the most effective methods of mass communication and persuasion have been visible in a wide range of professional fields, including journalism, marketing, public relations, interrogation, and public opinion studies. However, the birth of the modern science of mass communication had surprising and somewhat troubling midwives: the military and covert intelligence arms of the US government. In this fascinating study, author Christopher Simpson uses long-classified documents from the Pentagon, the CIA, and other national security agencies to demonstrate how this seemingly benign social science grew directly out of secret government-funded research into psychological warfare. It reveals that many of the most respected pioneers in the field of communication science were knowingly complicit in America’s Cold War efforts, regardless of their personal politics or individual moralities, and that their findings on mass communication were eventually employed for the purposes of propaganda, subversion, intimidation, and counterinsurgency. An important, thought-provoking work, Science of Coercion shines a blazing light into a hitherto remote and shadowy corner of Cold War history.

Economics and Operational Research

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Author: M. H. Beilby

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483268748

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 2575

Economics and Operational Research explores the possible connections of the organization of human and material resources by concentrating on the interpretations of management decisions at various levels in the economy. This book discusses economics and mathematics as an analytical tool. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how consumers manage their own budgets and how manufacturers select their production processes. This text then described generally how consumers and producers react to each other. Other chapters consider the problem of the transportation of goods through busy road networks and the efficiency attained through central planning. This book discusses as well the control of congestion that arises through decentralization and the construction of an overall planning model. The final chapter discusses the important aspects of national planning, wherein the collection of all consumers and producers makes up one large economic system. This book is a valuable resource for management and engineering personnel.

Spatial Analysis for the Social Sciences

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Author: David Darmofal

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521888263

Category: Political Science

Page: 258

View: 3173

This book shows how to model the spatial interactions between actors that are at the heart of the social sciences.

Principles and Practice of Research

Strategies for Surgical Investigators

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Author: H. Troidl,W.O. Spitzer,B. McPeek,david mulder,Martin F. Bach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642969429

Category: Medical

Page: 381

View: 5127

emerging on the surgical scene to challenge or For some readers, the title of this book will im thodoxy. Although these innovations are often mediately raise the question, what exactly is greeted with great optimism, a factual basis for meant by surgical research? In the very broadest that enthusiasm is sometimes far from secure sense the term can be taken to include all en and much further work is frequently required to deavors, however elementary or limited in discover whether we are dealing with genuine scope, to advance surgical knowledge. Ideally, advances or not. it refers to well-organized attempts to establish The most exciting and attractive scenario for on a proper scientific basis, i. e. , to place beyond surgical research is unquestionably one that de reasonable doubt, the truth or otherwise of any picts a successful attempt by a researcher to es concepts, old or new, within the ambit of sur gery, and, of course, anaesthesia. tablish the accuracy of some bold innovation for which he himself is responsible. Joseph Lister, The methods used to achieve that end vary demonstrating by clinical trial that wound sup enormously, depending on the issue being in vestigated.

The Role of Systems Methodology in Social Science Research

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Author: R. Cavallo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940099236X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 202

View: 9077

While general systems research has had a considerable impact on research in the social sciences, this impact has been mainly conceptual and has not served to provide the operational and methodological aids for research which are possible. In addition, many of those systems-oriented directions and results which do impact social science research have developed inde pendently and in piecemeal fashion in recent decades. The main develop ment of this book is a cohesive framework within which to integrate results of general systems research and which provides a means for the organiza tion of data and observations - and operational procedures by which to proceed - in the investigation and study of social and socio-technical systems. The book systematically develops in the first five chapters ail of the basic concepts and aspects which make up the framework, showing wherever possible the main sources of these concepts and placing them in historical perspective. The developments of the first five chapters are pulled together and integrated, in the last chapter, into a conceptual and operational general systems problem solving framework which extends the investiga tive capabilities of researchers of specific systems. The last chapter also contains an example of an overall investigation which utilizes the frame work and which proceeds from system definition through the derivation of explanatory knowledge regarding the object system and which illustrates in detail most of the concepts and elements of the framework.

Evolution, Explanation, Ethics and Aesthetics

Towards a Philosophy of Biology

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Author: Francisco J. Ayala

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128037318

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 4856

Evolution, Explanation, Ethics and Aesthetics: Towards a Philosophy of Biology focuses on the dominant biological topic of evolution. It deals with the prevailing philosophical themes of how to explain the adaptation of organisms, the interplay of chance and necessity, and the recurrent topics of emergence, reductionism, and progress. In addition, the extensively treated topic of how to explain human nature as a result of natural processes and the encompassed issues of the foundations of morality and the brain-to-mind transformation is discussed. The philosophy of biology is a rapidly expanding field, not more than half a century old at most, and to a large extent is replacing the interest in the philosophy of physics that prevailed in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century. Few texts available have the benefit of being written by an eminent biologist who happens to be also a philosopher, as in this work. This book is a useful resource for seminar courses and college courses on the philosophy of biology. Researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity will also be interested in this work, as will those in human biology and issues such as ethics, religion, and the human mind, along with professional philosophers of science and those concerned with such issues as whether evolution is compatible with religion and/or where morality comes from. Presents the unique perspective of a distinguished biologist with extensive experience in the field who has published much about the subject in a wide variety of journals and edited volumes Covers the philosophical issues related to evolution and biology in an approachable and readable style Includes the most up-to-date treatment of this burgeoning, exciting field within biology Provides the ideal guide for researchers, academics, and students in evolutionary biology, behavior, genetics, and biodiversity

Futures we are in

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Author: F. Emery

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468484885

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 7166

After explicating the analytical framework I will proceed to develop scenarios as follows: I. General scenarios -maladaptive and adaptive. 2. The future for the Western group of societies. Within this will seek to identify the main changes in the natures of work, leisure, family organisation, education and life styles. 3. The future for the major Asian powers, China, Japan and India. 4. A world scenario centred about the first two scenarios but also aimed to locate within this pattern the most probable future for sets of the smaller societies and under-developed countries. The scenarios will be developed in that order, for good reasons. Sociological forecasting has to deal, in the first instance, with sets of societies that are closely interdependent, each with the other. A scenario for Western societies generally is required before one can hope to write one for the individual countries, e.g. France, Australia, because they are not evolving independently. The widespread upsurge of student revolts in 1967-68 well illustrates this interdependence. Some writers, like Stevens (1970) have taken the U.S.A. as the model of the future for the other smaller Western societies. There is some justifi cation for this as the U.S. has certainly been the 'leading part' in the West for some decades. However, there is danger in assuming that that will persist. A change in the near future in the problems that commonly confront Western societies may make the U.S. example 'depasee', old hat, if not down-right misleading.

Review of Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

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Author: Committee to Review Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309060303

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 9594

The collapse of cod, flounder, and haddock fish stocks in the Northeast United States has caused widespread concern among managers and fishers in the United States and Canada. The diminishing stocks have forced managers to take strict regulatory measures. Numerous questions have been raised about the adequacy of stock assessment science used to evaluate the status of these stocks and the appropriateness of the management measures taken. Based on these concerns, Congress mandated that a scientific review of the methodology and data used to evaluate these stocks be conducted. In this volume, the committee concludes that although there are improvements to be made in data collection, modeling uncertainty, and communicating between fishers, managers, and scientists, the scientific methods used in the Northeast stock assessments are sound. Recommendations are made on how the stock assessment process can be improved.

Tools and Tactics for Operations Managers (Collection)

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Author: Randal Wilson,Arthur V. Hill,Hillel Glazer

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 0133115135

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 953

View: 5218

A brand new collection of state-of-the-art operations management tools and tactics… 3 authoritative books, now in a convenient e-format, at a great price! 3 authoritative eBooks bring together today’s most valuable new operations management techniques and solutions! Apply today’s most innovative operations management techniques to improve performance and value in any organization -- even the most complex or constrained! In High Performance Operations, Hillel Glazer shows how to optimize business performance and profitability while maintaining strong governance and compliance. Glazer demonstrates how to integrate lean and systems thinking, and systematically incorporating compliance into planning for overall performance, value, and profitability, rather than viewing it as an end in itself. Learn how to clarify competing interests and implement pre-conditions for success; use systems thinking to promote operational excellence; eliminate single points of failure; establish proof-of-performance; scale your successes, and get more of "what went right"! The Encyclopedia of Operations Management is the perfect single-volume "field manual" for every OM or supply chain professional. Nearly 1,500 well-organized, up-to-date definitions cover every facet of supply chain design, planning, management, and optimization. For the first time, this remarkable reference brings together up-to-the-minute information about topics ranging from accounting and customer service to transportation and warehousing. Next, in The Operations Manager's Toolbox , Randal Wilson helps you use proven project management (PM) tools and techniques to supercharge efficiency, free up resources, eliminate unnecessary meetings, and get more done faster. Wilson shows how to apply PM to complete crucial "smaller" tasks that can deliver rapid and sizable improvements. You’ll learn how to plan, implement, and measure the success of high-impact changes, and organize key tasks so they actually get done. Discover specific techniques for eliminating waste in engineering, manufacturing, distribution, and inventory. Next, learn how to use PM to manage teams, schedules, budgets, and resources more effectively, and systematically predict and mitigate operational risks. Whatever your role in operations management, this unique eBook collection will help you perform far more effectively – in your organization, and in your career! From world-renowned operations management experts Hillel Glazer, Arthur V. Hill, and Randal Wilson

The Use of Social Research in Federal Domestic Programs

A Staff Study

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Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Operations. Research and Technical Programs Subcommittee

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economic assistance, Domestic

Page: N.A

View: 4531

Evaluation in Planning

Facing the Challenge of Complexity

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Author: Nathaniel Lichfield,Angela Barbanente,Dino Borri,Abdul Khakee,Anna Prat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714959

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 5845

This book is the result of a three day workshop on "Evaluation in theory and practice in spatial planning" held in Ramsey Hall, University College London, in September 1996. Some 30 people from 8 different countries attended and 20 papers were presented. The majority of them now form the basis for this book. This occasion was the third on the topic, the two preceding having taken place in Umea in June 1992 and in Bari in 1994. Following these three meetings, we can now say that this small, industrious, international family really enjoy meeting up from time to time at each others places, in the presence of older members and new children, each one presenting his/her own recent experiences. It particularly enjoys exchanging views and arguing about the current state and the future of evaluation in spatial planning (all families have their vices ... ). It is also pleasing to see these experiences and discussions resulting in a book for those who could not attend and for the broader clan in the field. Not long time ago, but ages in the accelerated academic time scale, evaluation in planning established its own role and distinct features as an instrument for helping the decision-making process. Now this role and these features are exposed to major challenges. First, the evolution of planning theory has lead to the conception of new planning paradigms, based on theories of complexity and communicative rationality.