Operational Research and the Social Sciences

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Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 4131

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.

Local Government and Strategic Choice

An Operational Research Approach to the Processes of Public Planning

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Author: J.K. Friend,W.N. Jessop

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483153339

Category: Political Science

Page: 330

View: 6861

Local Government and Strategic Choice, Second Edition discusses decision-making in local government, in particular, to those more strategic levels of choice which tend to be linked with the terms 'planning' and 'policy-making.' This book is organized into four parts. Part I centers on an appraisal of planning in a major local authority. Part II details the nature of the planning process in any governmental setting and the characteristic types of operational and organizational problem to which it gives rise. Parts III and IV use the medium of case examples to suggest how the planning process can be made more effective, first through the development of an appropriate technology of choice, and secondly through the adaptation of organizational forms to allow the technology to become a workable instrument of democratic control.

Community-Based Operations Research

Decision Modeling for Local Impact and Diverse Populations

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Author: Michael P. Johnson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461408062

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 340

View: 3873

This edited volume is an introduction to diverse methods and applications in operations research focused on local populations and community-based organizations that have the potential to improve the lives of individuals and communities in tangible ways. The book's themes include: space, place and community; disadvantaged, underrepresented or underserved populations; international and transnational applications; multimethod, cross-disciplinary and comparative approaches and appropriate technology; and analytics. The book is comprised of eleven original submissions, a re-print of a 2007 article by Johnson and Smilowitz that introduces CBOR, and an introductory chapter that provides policy motivation, antecedents to CBOR in OR/MS, a theory of CBOR and a comprehensive review of the chapters. It is hoped that this book will provide a resource to academics and practitioners who seek to develop methods and applications that bridge the divide between traditional OR/MS rooted in mathematical models and newer streams in 'soft OR' that emphasize problem structuring methods, critical approaches to OR/MS and community engagement and capacity-building.

Science of Coercion

Communication Research & Psychological Warfare, 1945–1960

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Author: Christopher Simpson

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497672708

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 8755

A provocative and eye-opening study of the essential role the US military and the Central Intelligence Agency played in the advancement of communication studies during the Cold War era, now with a new introduction by Robert W. McChesney and a new preface by the author Since the mid-twentieth century, the great advances in our knowledge about the most effective methods of mass communication and persuasion have been visible in a wide range of professional fields, including journalism, marketing, public relations, interrogation, and public opinion studies. However, the birth of the modern science of mass communication had surprising and somewhat troubling midwives: the military and covert intelligence arms of the US government. In this fascinating study, author Christopher Simpson uses long-classified documents from the Pentagon, the CIA, and other national security agencies to demonstrate how this seemingly benign social science grew directly out of secret government-funded research into psychological warfare. It reveals that many of the most respected pioneers in the field of communication science were knowingly complicit in America’s Cold War efforts, regardless of their personal politics or individual moralities, and that their findings on mass communication were eventually employed for the purposes of propaganda, subversion, intimidation, and counterinsurgency. An important, thought-provoking work, Science of Coercion shines a blazing light into a hitherto remote and shadowy corner of Cold War history.

Konzerncontrolling

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Author: Stefan Behringer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642131565

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 225

View: 2467

Controlling leistet wichtige Unterstützung beim Management von Konzernen. Die besonderen Herausforderungen des Konzerncontrollings im Vergleich zum Controlling in Einzelunternehmen stellt der Autor systematisch und anhand von Fallstudien dar. Ausgehend von den Grundlagen der Konzernrechnungslegung diskutiert er die geeigneten Kennzahlen und erörtert die Grundlagen der Planung und Kontrolle. Weitere Themen sind die Leistungsbeziehungen zwischen konzernzugehörigen Unternehmen und die Besonderheiten, die in internationalen Konzernen zu beachten sind.

Operations Research Methods

As Applied to Political Science and the Legal Process

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Author: Stuart S. Nagel,Marian Neef

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 76

View: 6438

Discusses basic concepts and methods associated with the application of operations research toward arriving at an optimum mix, level, or choice.

Kontrolle und Unternehmungsführung

Entscheidungs- und organisationstheoretische Grundfragen

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Author: Erich Frese

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663026337

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 170

View: 6535

Review of Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee to Review Northeast Fishery Stock Assessments

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309060303

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 8147

The collapse of cod, flounder, and haddock fish stocks in the Northeast United States has caused widespread concern among managers and fishers in the United States and Canada. The diminishing stocks have forced managers to take strict regulatory measures. Numerous questions have been raised about the adequacy of stock assessment science used to evaluate the status of these stocks and the appropriateness of the management measures taken. Based on these concerns, Congress mandated that a scientific review of the methodology and data used to evaluate these stocks be conducted. In this volume, the committee concludes that although there are improvements to be made in data collection, modeling uncertainty, and communicating between fishers, managers, and scientists, the scientific methods used in the Northeast stock assessments are sound. Recommendations are made on how the stock assessment process can be improved.

Organized Worlds

Explorations in Technology and Organization with Robert Cooper

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Author: Robert Chia

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134797680

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

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Organized Worlds locates the study of organization within the wider area of social theory. It explores in detail the intricate relationships that exist between technology, representation and organization. The collection includes a chapter from the leading expert in the field, Robert Cooper, as well as an interview with him. Other contributors build upon and extend the findings of Cooper. This is a companion volume to In the Realm of Organization.

Optimization Theory, Decision Making, and Operations Research Applications

Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

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Author: Athanasios Migdalas,Angelo Sifaleras,Christos K Georgiadis,Jason Papathanasiou,Emmanouil Stiakakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461451345

Category: Mathematics

Page: 362

View: 6250

These proceedings consist of 30 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research (BALCOR 2011) held in Thessaloniki, Greece, September 22-24, 2011. BALCOR is an established biennial conference attended by a large number of faculty, researchers and students from the Balkan countries but also from other European and Mediterranean countries as well. Over the past decade, the BALCOR conference has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation. The carefully selected and refereed papers present important recent developments and modern applications and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers and practitioners in these disciplines. ​

Ultra-Low Fertility in Pacific Asia

Trends, Causes and Policy Issues

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Author: Paulin Straughan,Angelique Chan,Gavin Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134032102

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 6514

Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and Hong Kong SAR are among the very lowest-fertility countries in the whole world, and even China has reached fertility levels lower than those in many European countries. If these levels continue over long periods East Asia will soon face accelerating population decline in addition the changes in age distributions in such populations raise major new questions for planning of economic and social welfare. This book brings together work by noted experts on the low fertility countries of East Asia with an up-to-date analysis of trends in fertility, what we know about their determinants and consequences, the policy issues and how these are being addressed in the various countries. Its role in bringing together information on policy trends and initiatives of a pro-natalist kind adopted over recent years in these countries is extremely important, as is the fact that the discussion of these pro-natalist policies is set in the context of a thorough analysis of what has driven fertility so low in these countries. Ultra-Low Fertility in Pacific Asia is invaluable to students and scholars of East Asian public and social policy, as well as fertility studies more generally.

Improved Operational Testing and Evaluation and Methods of Combining Test Information for the Stryker Family of Vehicles and Related Army Systems

Phase II Report

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309091020

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 228

View: 3287

The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) is responsible for the operational testing and evaluation of Army systems in development. ATEC requested that the National Research Council form the Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle (Stryker). The charge to this panel was to explore three issues concerning the IOT plans for the Stryker/SBCT. First, the panel was asked to examine the measures selected to assess the performance and effectiveness of the Stryker/SBCT in comparison both to requirements and to the baseline system. Second, the panel was asked to review the test design for the Stryker/SBCT initial operational test to see whether it is consistent with best practices. Third, the panel was asked to identify the advantages and disadvantages of techniques for combining operational test data with data from other sources and types of use. In a previous report (appended to the current report) the panel presented findings, conclusions, and recommendations pertaining to the first two issues: measures of performance and effectiveness, and test design. In the current report, the panel discusses techniques for combining information.

Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Transportation

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Author: Cynthia Barnhart,Gilbert Laporte

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080467436

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 796

View: 6167

This book contains eleven chapters describing some of the most recent methodological operations research developments in transportation. It is structured around the main transportation modes, and each chapter is written by a group of well-recognized researchers. Because of the major impact of operations research methods in the field of air transportation over the past forty years, it is befitting to open the book with a chapter on airline operations management. This book will prove useful to researchers, students, and practitioners in transportation and will stimulate further research in this rich and fascinating area. Volume 14 examines transport and its relationship with operations and management science 11 chapters cover the most recent research developments in transportation Focuses on main transportation modes-air travel, automobile, public transit, maritime transport, and more

Improved Operational Testing and Evaluation

Better Measurement and Test Design for the Interim Brigade Combat Team with Stryker Vehicles: Phase I Report

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309089360

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 124

View: 7588

The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) is responsible for the operational testing and evaluation of Army systems in development. ATEC requested that the National Research Council form the Panel on Operational Test Design and Evaluation of the Interim Armored Vehicle (Stryker) to explore three issues concerning the initial operation test plans for the Stryker/Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT). First, the panel was asked to examine the measures selected to assess the performance and effectiveness of the Stryker/IBCT in comparison both to requirements and to the baseline system. Second, the panel was asked to review the test design for the Stryker/IBCT initial operational test to see whether it is consistent with best practices. Third, the panel was asked to identify the advantages and disadvantages of techniques for combining operational test data with data from other sources and types of use. In this report the panel presents findings, conclusions, and recommendations pertaining to the first two issues: measures of performance and effectiveness, and test design. The panel intends to prepare a second report that discusses techniques for combining information.

Operations Research in Progress

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Author: Gustav Feichtinger,P. Kall

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027714640

Category: Social Science

Page: 520

View: 7147

Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the Austrian and Swiss Operations Research Societies, Vienna, September 22-24, 1980

Change and the 2020 Census

Not Whether But How

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel to Review the 2010 Census

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309211212

Category: Social Science

Page: 60

View: 7461

Sponsored by the Census Bureau and charged to evaluate the 2010 U.S. census with an eye toward suggesting research and development for the 2020 census, the Panel to Review the 2010 Census uses this first interim report to suggest general priorities for 2020 research. Although the Census Bureau has taken some useful organizational and administrative steps to prepare for 2020, the panel offers three core recommendations, and suggests the Census Bureau take and assertive, aggressive approach to 2020 planning rather than casting possibilities purely as hypothetical. The first recommendation on research and development suggests four broad topic areas for research early in the decade. Second, the report suggest that the Bureau take an aggressive, assertive posture toward research in these priority areas. Third, it identifies the setting of bold goals as essential to underscoring the need for serious reengineering and building commitment to change.

Behavioral Operational Research

Theory, Methodology and Practice

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Author: Martin Kunc,Jonathan Malpass,Leroy White

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137535512

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 395

View: 7249

Behavioral research is making a significant impact on many academic disciplines. Its status as the source of some of the most profound research in the social sciences is unparalleled. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in Behavior and Operational Research (OR) is burgeoning, even though understanding the relationship between knowledge, behavior and action has been an academic preoccupation in OR since the beginning of the discipline. This book introduces the idea of Behavioral OR, where the theoretical and empirical developments in the behavioral field are making an impression on OR academics and practitioners alike. The book provides a much needed overview that connects together theory, methodology and practice and offers the “state of the art” on Behavioral Operational Research theory and practice. The book not only includes chapters by leading academics, but also includes rich and insightful real-life case studies by practitioners.