National Colors

Racial Classification and the State in Latin America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Mara Loveman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199337373

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 929

The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity on the national census. Most observers approvingly highlight the historic novelty of these reforms, but National Colors shows that official racial classification of citizens has a long history in Latin America. Through a comprehensive analysis of the politics and practice of official ethnoracial classification in the censuses of nineteen Latin American states across nearly two centuries, this book explains why most Latin American states classified their citizens by race on early national censuses, why they stopped the practice of official racial classification around mid-twentieth century, and why they reintroduced ethnoracial classification on national censuses at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Beyond domestic political struggles, the analysis reveals that the ways that Latin American states classified their populations from the mid-nineteenth century onward responded to changes in international criteria for how to construct a modern nation and promote national development. As prevailing international understandings of what made a political and cultural community a modern nation changed, so too did the ways that Latin American census officials depicted diversity within national populations. The way census officials described populations in official statistics, in turn, shaped how policymakers viewed national populations and informed their prescriptions for national development--with consequences that still reverberate in contemporary political struggles for recognition, rights, and redress for ethnoracially marginalized populations in today's Latin America.

Race in Another America

The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Edward Eric Telles

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691118666

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 2720

This is the most comprehensive and up-to-date book on the increasingly important and controversial subject of race relations in Brazil. North American scholars of race relations frequently turn to Brazil for comparisons, since its history has many key similarities to that of the United States. Brazilians have commonly compared themselves with North Americans, and have traditionally argued that race relations in Brazil are far more harmonious because the country encourages race mixture rather than formal or informal segregation. More recently, however, scholars have challenged this national myth, seeking to show that race relations are characterized by exclusion, not inclusion, and that fair-skinned Brazilians continue to be privileged and hold a disproportionate share of wealth and power. In this sociological and demographic study, Edward Telles seeks to understand the reality of race in Brazil and how well it squares with these traditional and revisionist views of race relations. He shows that both schools have it partly right--that there is far more miscegenation in Brazil than in the United States--but that exclusion remains a serious problem. He blends his demographic analysis with ethnographic fieldwork, history, and political theory to try to "understand" the enigma of Brazilian race relations--how inclusiveness can coexist with exclusiveness. The book also seeks to understand some of the political pathologies of buying too readily into unexamined ideas about race relations. In the end, Telles contends, the traditional myth that Brazil had harmonious race relations compared with the United States encouraged the government to do almost nothing to address its shortcomings.

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Michelle Alexander

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 3956141598

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 6432

Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.

Hulk 2

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Greg Pak

Publisher: Marvel Entertainment

ISBN: 3736728506

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3090

The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870-1940

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard Graham,Thomas E. Skidmore,Aline Helg,Alan Knight

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9780292738577

Category: History

Page: 135

View: 1424

From the mid-nineteenth century until the 1930s, many Latin American leaders faced a difficult dilemma regarding the idea of race. On the one hand, they aspired to an ever-closer connection to Europe and North America, where, during much of this period, "scientific" thought condemned nonwhite races to an inferior category. Yet, with the heterogeneous racial makeup of their societies clearly before them and a growing sense of national identity impelling consideration of national futures, Latin American leaders hesitated. What to do? Whom to believe? Latin American political and intellectual leaders' sometimes anguished responses to these dilemmas form the subject of The Idea of Race in Latin America. Thomas Skidmore, Aline Helg, and Alan Knight have each contributed chapters that succinctly explore various aspects of the story in Brazil, Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. While keenly alert to the social and economic differences that distinguish one Latin American society from another, each author has also addressed common issues that Richard Graham ably draws together in a brief introduction. Written in a style that will make it accessible to the undergraduate, this book will appeal as well to the sophisticated scholar.

Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard T. Schaefer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412926947

Category: Social Science

Page: 1622

View: 4316

This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area

Die Politik der großen Zahlen

Eine Geschichte der statistischen Denkweise

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Alain Desrosières

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540270116

Category: Mathematics

Page: 434

View: 8914

Statistik ("Staatenkunde"), Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und die Philosophie der Wahrscheinlichkeit sind auch als "siamesische Drillinge" bekannt. Das Buch analysiert den Werdegang der Statistik und zeigt Verbindungen zwischen der internalistischen Geschichte der Formalismen und Werkzeuge sowie der externalistisch orientierten Geschichte der Institutionen auf. Der Spannungsbogen erstreckt sich vom Vorabend der Französischen Revolution bis hin zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs, wobei Frankreich, Deutschland, England und die USA ausführlich behandelt werden. Was haben Richter und Astronomen gemeinsam? Wer waren die "politischen Arithmetiker"? Was ist ein "Durchschnittsmensch"? Wie ändert sich im Laufe der Zeit das, was man "Realismus" nennt? Kann man vom Teil auf das Ganze schließen? Und wenn ja, warum? Welche Rolle spielt der Franziskanerorden? Wir begegnen Adolphe Quetelet, Karl Pearson, Egon Pearson, Francis Galton, Emile Durkheim und vielen anderen. Glücksspiele, Zufall, Bayesscher Ansatz, das St. Petersburger Paradoxon, der Choleravibrio, Erblichkeit, das Galtonsche Brett, Taxonomie, Wahlprognosen, Arbeitslosigkeit und Ungleichheit, die Entstehung der Arten, die Ordnung der Dinge und die Dinge des Lebens – das sind die Themen des Buches.

Farbe in der Kunst

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Michael Juul Holm

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783832193058

Category: Color in art

Page: 239

View: 4694

Summary: Farbe in der Kunst, Farbe in der Literatur, Farbe im Design, Farbe in der Architektur - das vorliegende Buch versammelt Texte bester Farbkenner zu diesen Themen. Ihre Aufsätze verbinden sich mit Meisterwerken des 20. Jahrhunderts aus den beiden grossartigen Sammlungen von Werner Merzbacher und dem Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, die im besten Sinne die einzigartige Qualität von Farbe in der Kunst vor Augen führen. Ein wunderschöner und sehr informativer Bildband zur herrlichsten Form des Lichts: der Farbe.

Rhythms of Race

Cuban Musicians and the Making of Latino New York City and Miami, 1940-1960

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Christina D. Abreu

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469620855

Category: Social Science

Page: 322

View: 7552

Among the nearly 90,000 Cubans who settled in New York City and Miami in the 1940s and 1950s were numerous musicians and entertainers, black and white, who did more than fill dance halls with the rhythms of the rumba, mambo, and cha cha cha. In her history of music and race in midcentury America, Christina D. Abreu argues that these musicians, through their work in music festivals, nightclubs, social clubs, and television and film productions, played central roles in the development of Cuban, Afro-Cuban, Latino, and Afro-Latino identities and communities. Abreu draws from previously untapped oral histories, cultural materials, and Spanish-language media to uncover the lives and broader social and cultural significance of these vibrant performers. Keeping in view the wider context of the domestic and international entertainment industries, Abreu underscores how the racially diverse musicians in her study were also migrants and laborers. Her focus on the Cuban presence in New York City and Miami before the Cuban Revolution of 1959 offers a much needed critique of the post-1959 bias in Cuban American studies as well as insights into important connections between Cuban migration and other twentieth-century Latino migrations.

Latinos in American Society

Families and Communities in Transition

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Ruth Enid Zambrana

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461521

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 6960

It is well known that Latinos in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of low educational attainment, high residential segregation, and low visibility in the national political landscape. In Latinos in American Society, Ruth Enid Zambrana brings together the latest research on Latinos in the United States to demonstrate how national origin, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education affect the well-being of families and individuals. By mapping out how these factors result in economic, social, and political disadvantage, Zambrana challenges the widespread negative perceptions of Latinos in America and the single story of Latinos in the United States as a monolithic group. Synthesizing an increasingly substantial body of social science research-much of it emerging from the interdisciplinary fields of Chicano studies, U.S. Latino studies, critical race studies, and family studies-the author adopts an intersectional "social inequality lens" as a means for understanding the broader sociopolitical dynamics of the Latino family, considering ethnic subgroup diversity, community context, institutional practices, and their intersections with family processes and well-being. Zambrana, a leading expert on Latino populations in America, demonstrates the value of this approach for capturing the contemporary complexity of and transitions within diverse U.S. Latino families and communities. This book offers the most up-to-date portrait we have of Latinos in America today.

Blacks, Coloureds and National Identity in Nineteenth-century Latin America

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Nancy Priscilla Naro

Publisher: Institute of Latin American Studies

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 162

View: 5067

This volume examines the political, cultural, and social role of the population with African background in the shaping of national identity in various Latin American countries. Slavery survived well into the nineteenth century in countries such as Brazil and Cuba; first its existence and then the dismantling of the institution strongly affected the definition of citizenship in the emerging nation-states. However, not all blacks were slaves, and a significant number of slaves gained their freedom during periods of war and other central events in the process of state formation. In addition to their direct participation in struggles of national significance, blacks also wrote on social, political, and cultural issues. Their involvement in politics —in elections, civil wars and revolutions, and in office —as well as in religious activities, family institutions, and civil associations, is considered in terms of the broader significance to the forging of citizenship and national identity.Contributors include Carmen Bernand (University of Paris X), Jonathan Curry-Machado (London Metropolitan University), Lauren Derby (University of Chicago), David Geggus (University of Florida), Franklin W. Knight (Johns Hopkins University), and Jean Stubbs (London Metropolitan University).

Die Gene sind es nicht ...

Biologie, Ideologie und menschliche Natur

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Richard C. Lewontin,Leon J. Kamin,Steven P. R. Rose

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783621270366

Category:

Page: 264

View: 7025