Mothers' Work and Children's Lives

Low-income Families After Welfare Reform


Author: Rucker C. Johnson,Ariel Kalil,Rachel Elizabeth Dunifon

Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute

ISBN: 0880993561

Category: Political Science

Page: 147

View: 9126

This book examines the effects of work requirements imposed by welfare reform on low-income women and their families. The authors pay particular attention to the nature of work, whether it is stable or unstable, the number of hours worked in a week, and regularity and flexibility of work schedules. They also show how these factors make it more difficult for low-income women to balance work and family requirements.

Mothers at Work

Effects on Children's Well-Being


Author: Lois Norma Wladis Hoffman,Lisa Youngblade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521668965

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 338

View: 8574

There is perhaps no greater controversy resulting from womens' increasing autonomy than the debate over the effects of a mother's employment on family life and children's well-being. This important volume starts with a thorough review of previous research on this topic and then reports the results of a study designed to answer the key questions that emerge. The study focuses on 448 families with an elementary school child, living in an industrialized city in the Midwest. They include both one-parent and two-parent families, African Americans and Whites, and a broad range of economic circumstances. Extensive data have been obtained from mothers, fathers, children, teachers, classroom peers, and school records. The analysis reported reveals how the mother's employment status affects the father's role, the mother's sense of well-being, and child rearing patterns and how these, in turn, affect the child. The book provides an intimate picture of urban life and how families cope with mothers' employment.

Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives


Author: Toby Lee Parcel,Elizabeth G. Menaghan

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202367743

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 214

View: 7662

Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives considers the effects of parental working conditions on children's cognition and social development. It also investigates how parental work affects the home environments that parents create for their children, and how these home environments influence the children directly. The theoretical underpinnings of the book draw from both sociology and economics; in addition, the authors make use of literature derived from developmental psychology. Theoretically eclectic, they rely on the personality and social structure framework developed by Melvin Kohn and his colleagues, on arguments regarding the importance of family social capital developed by James Coleman, as well as on ideas from Gary Becker's "new home economics" as guides to model specification. The empirical basis for Parcel and Menaghan's study is a series of multivariate analyses using data drawn from the 1986 and 1988 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey's Child-Mother data set. This data set matches longitudinal data on mothers, derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, with data on the children of these mothers born as of 1986. Children aged 3 to 6 were given age-appropriate developmental assessments every two years in order to assess the influence of parental work on short-term changes in their cognition and social behavior. The authors also devote considerable attention to the effects of fathers' work and family structure on the well-being of their children. Parcel and Menaghan's work brings evidence to bear on both the theoretical perspectives guiding the analyses and on current policy debates regarding the nexus of work and family.

Modern Motherhood

An American History


Author: Jodi Vandenberg-Daves

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813573130

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 3026

How did mothers transform from parents of secondary importance in the colonies to having their multiple and complex roles connected to the well-being of the nation? In the first comprehensive history of motherhood in the United States, Jodi Vandenberg-Daves explores how tensions over the maternal role have been part and parcel of the development of American society. Modern Motherhood travels through redefinitions of motherhood over time, as mothers encountered a growing cadre of medical and psychological experts, increased their labor force participation, gained the right to vote, agitated for more resources to perform their maternal duties, and demonstrated their vast resourcefulness in providing for and nurturing their families. Navigating rigid gender role prescriptions and a crescendo of mother-blame by the middle of the twentieth century, mothers continued to innovate new ways to combine labor force participation and domestic responsibilities. By the 1960s, they were poised to challenge male expertise, in areas ranging from welfare and abortion rights to childbirth practices and the confinement of women to maternal roles. In the twenty-first century, Americans continue to struggle with maternal contradictions, as we pit an idealized role for mothers in children’s development against the social and economic realities of privatized caregiving, a paltry public policy structure, and mothers’ extensive employment outside the home. Building on decades of scholarship and spanning a wide range of topics, Vandenberg-Daves tells an inclusive tale of African American, Native American, Asian American, working class, rural, and other hitherto ignored families, exploring sources ranging from sermons, medical advice, diaries and letters to the speeches of impassioned maternal activists. Chapter topics include: inventing a new role for mothers; contradictions of moral motherhood; medicalizing the maternal body; science, expertise, and advice to mothers; uplifting and controlling mothers; modern reproduction; mothers’ resilience and adaptation; the middle-class wife and mother; mother power and mother angst; and mothers’ changing lives and continuous caregiving. While the discussion has been part of all eras of American history, the discussion of the meaning of modern motherhood is far from over.

Combining Self-employment and Family Life


Author: Bell, Alice,La Valle, Ivana

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 186134533X

Category: Medical

Page: 56

View: 4993

Despite the increasing policy interest in work-life balance issues, relatively little research has been carried out into the links between self-employment and family life. This report considers, for the first time, the extent to which new family-friendly initiatives and legislation provide adequate support for self-employed parents. Drawing on an analysis of survey material from 10,000 families with children, the report explores topical issues such as: whether self-employment offers working parents greater flexibility than other forms of employment the price of flexibility difficulties in relation to childcare differences between the experiences of self-employed mothers and fathers

Faith of Our Mothers

Inspirational Stories of Church of God Women


Author: Donald S. Aultman

Publisher: Pathway Press

ISBN: 1596848146


Page: 478

View: 5268

Dr. Donald Aultman brings together in one volume leaders from the Church of God to reveal the Faith of Our Mothers - stories of faithful women who valued, nourished, and trained their children, sometimes against all odds. These are women of virtue and godly character whose faith, patience, sacrifice, and humor forever shaped the sons and daughters now walking in their footsteps. In a culture where Christianity is increasingly marginalized and children are pulled away from a world that's cold, raw, and a society built on high achievement, self-serving goals, and shortsighted pursuits...may God continue to raise up women of faith who will minister the Word of God, love their families, and show us the way home. -Mark L. Williams Church of God Overseer

Lives on the Edge

Single Mothers and Their Children in the Other America


Author: Valerie Polakow

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226671840

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 232

View: 4231

One out of five children, and one out of two single mothers, lives in destitution in America today. The feminization and "infantilization" of poverty have made the United States one of the most dangerous democracies for poor mothers and their children to inhabit. Why then, Valerie Polakow asks, is poverty seen as a private issue, and how can public policy fail to take responsibility for the consequences of our politics of distribution? Written by a committed child advocate, Lives on the Edge draws on social, historical, feminist, and public policy perspectives to develop an informed, wide-ranging critique of American educational and social policy. Stark, penetrating, and unflinching in its first-hand portraits of single mothers in America today, this work challenges basic myths about justice and democracy.

Fathers and Mothers: Dilemmas of the Work-Life Balance

A Comparative Study in Four European Countries


Author: Margret Fine-Davis,Jeanne Fagnani,Dino Giovannini,Lis Højgaard,Hilary Clarke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402025386

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 7246

At the risk of sounding frivolous, there is a good case to be made for the argument that women constitute the revolutionary force behind contemporary social and economic transformation. It is in large part the changing role of women that explains the new household structure, our altered demographic behaviour, the growth of the service economy and, as a consequence, the new dilemmas that the advanced societies face. Most European countries have failed to adapt adequately to the novel challenges and the result is an increasingly serious disequilibrium. Women explicitly desire economic independence and the societal collective, too, needs to maximise female employment. And yet, this runs up against severe incompatibility problems that then result in very low birth rates. Our aging societies need more kids, yet fertility levels are often only half of what citizens define as their desired number of children. No matter what happens in the next decade, we are doomed to have exceedingly small cohorts that, in turn, must shoulder the massive burden of supporting a retired baby-boom generation. Hence it is tantamount that tomorrow’s adults be maximally productive and, yet, the typical EU member state invests very little in its children and families.

Children, Changing Families and Welfare States


Author: Jane Lewis

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1847204368

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 5383

As welfare states grow up, they begin to think more carefully about their future. Jane Lewis is showing them how best to do so. This stellar collection of articles by top European scholars combines creative thinking about the new social investment state with impressive empirical research on specific forms of public support for family work. Nancy Folbre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, US The nature of the relationship between children, parents and the state has been central to the growth of the modern welfare state and has long been a problem for western liberal democracies. Welfare states have undergone profound restructuring over the past two decades and families also have changed, in terms of their form and the nature of the contributions that men and women make to them. More attention is being paid to children by policymakers, but often because of their importance as future citizen workers . The book explores the implications of changes to the welfare state for children in a range of countries. Children, Changing Families and Welfare States: examines the implications of social policies for children sets the discussion in the broader context of both family change and welfare state change, exploring the nature of the policy debate that has allowed the welfare of the child to come to the fore tackles policies to do with both the care and financial support of children looks at the household level and how children fare when both adult men and women must seek to combine paid and unpaid work, and what support is offered by welfare states endeavours to provide a comparative perspective on these issues. The contributors have written a book that will be warmly welcomed by scholars and researchers of social policy, social work and sociology and students at both the advanced undergraduate and post-graduate level.

Women, Television and Everyday Life in Korea

Journeys of Hope


Author: Youna Kim

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134224664

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 9161

Fusing audience research and ethnography, the book presents a compelling account of women’s changing lives and identities in relation to the impact of the most popular media culture in everyday life: television. Within the historically-specific social conditions of Korean modernity, Youna Kim analyzes how Korean women of varying age and class group cope with the new environment of changing economical structure and social relations. The book argues that television is an important resource for women, stimulating them to research their own lives and identities. Youna Kim reveals Korean women as creative, energetic and critical audiences in their responses to evolving modernity and the impact of the West. Based on original empirical research, the book explores the hopes, aspirations, frustrations and dilemmas of Korean women as they try to cope with life beyond traditional grounds. Going beyond the traditional Anglo-American view of media and culture, this text will appeal to students and scholars of both Korean area studies and media and communications studies.

Working Mothers and the Welfare State

Religion and the Politics of Work-family Policies in Western Europe and the United States


Author: Kimberly J. Morgan

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804754149

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 2783

This book explains why countries have adopted different policies for working parents through a comparative historical study of four nations: France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States.

Single Mothers in Contemporary Japan

Motherhood, Class, and Reproductive Practice


Author: Aya Ezawa

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1498529976

Category: Social Science

Page: 162

View: 8249

Based on life history interviews of single mothers in Japan, this detailed study examines the socioeconomic consequences of becoming a single mother and pursuing a lifestyle outside of the married mother and housewife norm in contemporary Japan.

What Children Need


Author: Jane Waldfogel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674044784

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 288

View: 8498

What do children need to grow and develop? And how can their needs be met when parents work? Emphasizing the importance of parental choice, quality of care, and work opportunities, economist Jane Waldfogel guides readers through the maze of social science research evidence to offer comprehensive answers and a vision for change. Drawing on the evidence, Waldfogel proposes a bold new plan to better meet the needs of children in working families, from birth through adolescence, while respecting the core values of choice, quality, and work: Allow parents more flexibility to take time off work for family responsibilities; Break the link between employment and essential family benefits; Give mothers and fathers more options to stay home in the first year of life; Improve quality of care from infancy through the preschool years; Increase access to high-quality out-of-school programs for school-aged children and teenagers.

Children in the Information Society

The Case of Finland


Author: Juha Suoranta,Hanna Lehtimäki

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9780820468297

Category: Social Science

Page: 151

View: 1362

Finland is known worldwide as a laboratory of the information society. The Finnish model combines information technology know-how with welfare state structures where equality seems to prevail. Can we take this picture at face value, or is it too optimistic? In this book we approach the case of Finland from children's perspectives by exploring what ICTs (information and communication technology) and media they use, how they use them, and what their thoughts are concerning this use? How does media become a part of children's everyday lives? The book is based on a nationally representative child survey supplemented by interviews where eight- to ten-year old Finnish children have been the key informants.

Connecting Children

Care and Family Life in Later Childhood


Author: Julia Brannen,Ellen Heptinstall,Kalwant Bhopal

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415230940

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 232

View: 1070

Based upon empirical research, it portrays the lives of children aged 11-12 and shows how families connect children in different ways both in the household but also in their wider kinship networks.

Making It Work

Low-Wage Employment, Family Life, and Child Development


Author: Hirokazu Yoshikawa,Thomas S. Weisner,Edward D. Lowe

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610445651

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 448

View: 9636

Low-skilled women in the 1990s took widely different paths in trying to support their children. Some held good jobs with growth potential, some cycled in and out of low-paying jobs, some worked part time, and others stayed out of the labor force entirely. Scholars have closely analyzed the economic consequences of these varied trajectories, but little research has focused on the consequences of a mother's career path on her children's development. Making It Work, edited by Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Thomas Weisner, and Edward Lowe, looks past the economic statistics to illustrate how different employment trajectories affect the social and emotional lives of poor women and their children. Making It Work examines Milwaukee's New Hope program, an experiment testing the effectiveness of an anti-poverty initiative that provided health and child care subsidies, wage supplements, and other services to full-time low-wage workers. Employing parent surveys, teacher reports, child assessment measures, ethnographic studies, and state administrative records, Making It Work provides a detailed picture of how a mother's work trajectory affects her, her family, and her children's school performance, social behavior, and expectations for the future. Rashmita Mistry and Edward D. Lowe find that increases in a mother's income were linked to higher school performance in her children. Without large financial worries, mothers gained extra confidence in their ability to parent, which translated into better test scores and higher teacher appraisals for their children. JoAnn Hsueh finds that the children of women with erratic work schedules and non-standard hours—conditions endemic to the low-skilled labor market—exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Noemi Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Vonnie McLoyd discover that better job quality predicted lower levels of acting-out and withdrawal among children. Perhaps most surprisingly, Anna Gassman-Pines, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, and Sandra Nay note that as wages for these workers rose, so did their marriage rates, suggesting that those worried about family values should also be concerned with alleviating poverty in America. It is too simplistic to say that parental work is either "good" or "bad" for children. Making It Work gives a nuanced view of how job quality, flexibility, and wages are of the utmost importance for the well-being of low-income parents and children.

Caring and Counting

The Impact of Mothers' Employment on Family Relationships


Author: Tracey Reynolds,Claire Callender,Rosalind Edwards

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1861345348

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 70

View: 977

Argues that the the interactions of mothers in the workplace are as important as the interactions within the home.

Continuity and Change in the American Family


Author: Lynne M. Casper,Suzanne M. Bianchi

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9780761920083

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 370

View: 7606

This book provides readers with a comprehensive description of the social demography of the American family. Looking at family continuity and change in the latter half of the 20th century, this book explores such topics as the growth in cohabitation and changes in childbearing and how these trends affect family life. Other topics include the changing lives of single mothers, fathers, and grandparents and increasing economic disparities among families; childcare and child well being; and combining paid work and family.

Australian Economy and Society, 2001

Education, Work, and Welfare


Author: M. D. R. Evans,Jonathan Kelley

Publisher: Federation Press

ISBN: 9781862873889

Category: Australia

Page: 330

View: 1021

Special schools only price $40.00 See all titles in the Series This book considers education, work, and welfare in Australia over the last decades of the 20th century. The authors provide thoughtful analysis and authoritative data on the attitudes of Australians, and to absorbing questions of opportunity. The findings are clear, concise, and often surprising. The strongest bastion of trade-union support is not among factory workers, but among upper-level governmental employees. Australians may feel considerable sympathy for sufferers of life-style related diseases, but hold them responsible for their suffering. Large numbers of Australians find strong attractions in mutually contradictory industrial relations arrangements - often both valuing centralised bargaining and seeing important attractions in local negotiations and individualised contracts. Conflict over unemployment increases more in periods of high economic growth rather than in times of increased unemployment. Parents' participation in literary culture confers distinctive advantages on their children, above and beyond those stemming from the parents' education, wealth, and status. Government attacks on union power in the past decade have been accompanied by a parallel decline in union unpopularity. Australians would not support any further reduction in union power. A worker in a secure job would be as contented earning $10 an hour as a worker in an insecure job earning $14 an hour. Australians are hugely in favour of equal opportunities but strongly polarised over the desirability of equal outcomes. The book is a major work on contemporary Australia, which should be part of the reference collection in all libraries.

Twenty-first Century Motherhood

Experience, Identity, Policy, Agency


Author: Andrea O'Reilly

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520476

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 3299

A pioneer of modern motherhood studies, Andrea O'Reilly explores motherhood's current representation and practice, considering developments that were unimaginable decades ago: the Internet, interracial surrogacy, raising transchildren, male mothering, intensive mothering, queer parenting, the applications of new biotechnologies, and mothering in the post-9/11 era. Her work pulls together a range of disciplines and themes in motherhood studies. She confronts the effects of globalization, HIV/AIDS, welfare reform, politicians as mothers, third wave feminism, and the evolving motherhood movement, and she incorporates Chicana, African-American, Canadian, Muslim, queer, low-income, trans, and lesbian perspectives.