Mineral Dust

A Key Player in the Earth System

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Author: Peter Knippertz,Jan-Berend W. Stuut

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401789789

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 2818

This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions. Scientific observations and results are presented, along with numerous illustrations. This work has an interdisciplinary appeal and will engage scholars in geology, geography, chemistry, meteorology and physics, amongst others with an interest in the Earth system and environmental change. body>

Meteorology of Tropical West Africa

The Forecasters' Handbook

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Author: Douglas J. Parker,Mariane Diop-Kane

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118391276

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 9769

Meteorology of tropical West Africa: the Forecasters’ Handbook presents the science and practice of weather forecasting for an important region of the tropics. Connecting basic theory with forecasting practice, the book provides a unique training volume for operational weather forecasters, and is also suitable for students of tropical meteorology. The West African region contains a number of archetypal climatic zones, meaning that the science of its weather and climate applies to many other tropical regions. West Africa also exhibits some of the world’s most remarkable weather systems, making it an inspiring region for students to investigate. The weather of West Africa affects human livelihoods on a daily basis, and can contribute to hardship, poverty and mortality. Therefore, the ability to understand and predict the weather has the potential to deliver significant benefits to both society and economies. The book includes comprehensive background material alongside documentation of weather forecasting methods. Many examples taken from observations of West African weather systems are included and online case-studies are referenced widely.

Introduction to GIS Programming and Fundamentals with Python and ArcGIS®

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Author: Chaowei Yang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466510102

Category: Computers

Page: 328

View: 9925

Combining GIS concepts and fundamental spatial thinking methodology with real programming examples, this book introduces popular Python-based tools and their application to solving real-world problems. A powerful programming language with high-level toolkits, Python is well suited to handling geo-spatial data. Teaching the fundamental programming constructs of Python, this book demonstrates Python’s integration with ArcGIS Theory and offers practical, hands-on computer exercises allowing readers to build their own mini-GIS. Comprehensive and engaging commentary, robust contents, accompanying datasets, and classroom tested exercises; this book promotes increased interactivity between instructor and student.

Loess and Loess Geohazards in China

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Author: Yanrong Li,Jingui Zhao,Bin Li

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351709933

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 9875

Loess is a product of aeolian deposition during the Quaternary glaciation cycles and covers approximately 6% of the Earth’s land. The Loess Plateau of China, which is home to a population of nearly three hundred million, has the thickest and most complete loess strata, where loess geohazards occur most frequently due to the weak geoenvironment and dense human activities. In recent years, the engineering geological characteristics of loess and geohazards in loess areas have gradually received increasing attention from academic researchers. This book reviews an informative collection of up-to-date literature in this field. It presents the unique features of loess and loess geohazards, and provides a strong foundation for future study via eight systematically structured chapters, e.g., origin and spatial distribution, loess landforms, microstructure, physical properties, permeability, shear strength, tensile strength, and loess geohazard. It can serve as a principal reference for researchers, practical engineers and technicians who are engaged in loess geology and surface processes, and is suitable especially for undergraduate and postgraduate students in the field of loess engineering geology.

Global Biogeochemical Cycles in the Climate System

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Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze,Martin Heimann,Sandy Harrison,Elisabeth Holland,Jonathan Lloyd,Ian Colin Prentice,David S. Schimel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080507408

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 2773

The interactions of biogeochemical cycles influence and maintain our climate system. Land use and fossil fuel emissions are currently impacting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur on land, in the atmosphere, and in the oceans. This edited volume brings together 27 scholarly contributions on the state of our knowledge of earth system interactions among the oceans, land, and atmosphere. A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic and paleobiotic context for investigating these complex interrelationships. * Eight-page colour insert to highlight the latest research * A unique feature of this treatment is the focus on the paleoclimatic context for investigating these complex interrelationships.

A World From Dust

How the Periodic Table Shaped Life

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Author: Ben McFarland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190275022

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 7478

A World From Dust describes how a set of chemical rules combined with the principles of evolution in order to create an environment in which life as we know it could unfold. Beginning with simple mathematics, these predictable rules led to the advent of the planet itself, as well as cells, organs and organelles, ecosystems, and increasingly complex life forms. McFarland provides an accessible discussion of a geological history as well, describing how the inorganic matter on Earth underwent chemical reactions with air and water, allowing for life to emerge from the world's first rocks. He traces the history of life all the way to modern neuroscience, and shows how the bioelectric signals that make up the human brain were formed. Most popular science books on the topic present either the physics of how the universe formed, or the biology of how complex life came about; this book's approach would be novel in that it condenses in an engaging way the chemistry that links the two fields. This book is an accessible and multidisciplinary look at how life on our planet came to be, and how it continues to develop and change even today. This book includes 40 illustrations by Gala Bent, print artist and studio faculty member at Cornish College of the Arts, and Mary Anderson, medical illustrator.

New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences

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Author: Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309219248

Category: Science

Page: 132

View: 6503

The 2001 National Research Council (NRC) report Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science (BROES) described how basic research in the Earth sciences serves five national imperatives: (1) discovery, use, and conservation of natural resources; (2) characterization and mitigation of natural hazards; (3) geotechnical support of commercial and infrastructure development; (4) stewardship of the environment; and (5) terrestrial surveillance for global security and national defense. This perspective is even more pressing today, and will persist into the future, with ever-growing emphasis. Today's world-with headlines dominated by issues involving fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami disasters claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and causing hundreds of billions of dollars in damages, profound environmental changes associated with the evolving climate system, and nuclear weapons proliferation and testing-has many urgent societal issues that need to be informed by sound understanding of the Earth sciences. A national strategy to sustain basic research and training of expertise across the full spectrum of the Earth sciences is motivated by these national imperatives. New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences identifies new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The report also identifies key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities. The report describes opportunities for increased cooperation in these new and emerging areas between EAR and other government agency programs, industry, and international programs, and suggests new ways that EAR can help train the next generation of Earth scientists, support young investigators, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in the field.

Understanding Multiple Environmental Stresses

Report of a Workshop

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Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Earth-Atmosphere Interactions: Understanding and Responding to Multiple Environmental Stresses

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309179263

Category: Science

Page: 154

View: 459

The research of the last decade has demonstrated that ecosystems and human systems are influenced by multiple factors, including climate, land use, and the by-products of resource use. Understanding the net impact of a suite of simultaneously occurring environmental changes is essential for developing effective response strategies. Using case studies on drought and a wide range of atmosphere-ecosystem interactions, a workshop was held in September 2005 to gather different perspectives on multiple stress scenarios. The overarching lesson of the workshop is that society will require new and improved strategies for coping with multiple stresses and their impacts on natural socioeconomic systems. Improved communication among stakeholders; increased observations (especially at regional scales); improved model and information systems; and increased infrastructure to provide better environmental monitoring, vulnerability assessment, and response analysis are all important parts of moving toward better understanding of and response to situations involving multiple stresses. During the workshop, seven near-term opportunities for research and infrastructure that could help advance understanding of multiple stresses were also identified.

Earth

Evolution of a Habitable World

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Author: Jonathan I. Lunine

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107328160

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8208

Fully updated throughout, including revised illustrations and new images from NASA missions, this new edition provides an overview of Earth's history from a planetary science perspective for Earth science undergraduates. Earth's evolution is described in the context of what we know about other planets and the cosmos at large, from the origin of the cosmos to the processes that shape planetary environments and from the origins of life to the inner workings of cells. Astronomy, Earth science, planetary science and astrobiology are integrated to give students the whole picture of how the Earth has come to its present state and an understanding of the relationship between key ideas in different fields. The book presents concepts in nontechnical language and mathematical treatments are avoided where possible. New end-of-chapter summaries and questions allow students to check their understanding and critical thinking is emphasized to encourage students to explore ideas scientifically for themselves.

Earth Wars

The Battle for Global Resources

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Author: Geoff Hiscock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118152883

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 286

View: 4129

An international business journalist, exploring the problems, potential solutions and inevitable tensions as the global competition for scarce natural resources heats up, takes a forward-looking approach to this pressing issue that goes beyond "big power" politics.

Global Change and the Earth System

A Planet Under Pressure

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Author: Will Steffen,Regina Angelina Sanderson,Peter D. Tyson,Jill Jäger,Pamela A. Matson,Berrien Moore III,Frank Oldfield,Katherine Richardson,Hans Joachim Schellnhuber,Billie L. Turner,Robert J. Wasson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540266070

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6810

Global Change and the Earth System describes what is known about the Earth system and the impact of changes caused by humans. It considers the consequences of these changes with respect to the stability of the Earth system and the well-being of humankind; as well as exploring future paths towards Earth-system science in support of global sustainability. The results presented here are based on 10 years of research on global change by many of the world's most eminent scholars. This valuable volume achieves a new level of integration and interdisciplinarity in treating global change.

Sand

The Never-Ending Story

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Author: Michael Welland

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520265971

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 9370

Describes the geological history of sand, examining the science behind the material as well as the human context of sand and how it has played important roles in history, commerce, and imagination.

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

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Author: C.P. Marshall,Rhodes W. Fairbridge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0412755009

Category: Science

Page: 714

View: 5613

This is a complete and authoritative reference text on an evolving field. Over 200 international scientists have written over 340 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including organics, trace elements, isotopes, high and low temperature geochemistry, and ore deposits, to name just a few.

Atmospheric Aerosols

Life Cycles and Effects on Air Quality and Climate

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Author: Claudio Tomasi,Sandro Fuzzi,Alexander Kokhanovsky

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527336451

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 2329

The book describes the morphological, physical and chemical properties of aerosols from various natural and anthropogenic sources to help the reader better understand the direct role of aerosol particles in scattering and absorbing short- and long-wave radiation.

The Wretched of the Earth

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Author: Frantz Fanon

Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.

ISBN: 9780802198853

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 487

Frantz Fanon was one of the twentieth century’s most important theorists of revolution, colonialism, and racial difference, and this, his masterwork, is a classic alongside Orientalism and The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The Wretched of the Earth is a brilliant analysis of the psychology of the colonized and their path to liberation. Bearing singular insight into the rage of colonized peoples and the role of violence in historical change, the book also incisively attacks postindependence disenfranchisement of the masses by the elite on one hand, and intertribal and interfaith animosities on the other. A veritable handbook of social reorganization for leaders of emerging nations, The Wretched of the Earth has had a major impact on civil rights, anticolonialism, and black-consciousness movements around the world. This new translation updates its language for a new generation of readers and its lessons are more vital now than ever.

In Search of Stardust

Amazing Micrometeorites and Their Terrestrial Imposters

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Author: Jon Larsen

Publisher: Voyageur Press (MN)

ISBN: 076035264X

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 6931

Tiny pieces of space rock called micrometeorites are everywhere on Earth. In Search of Stardust shows you how to find them! The solar system is a dusty place. Every day approximately 100 metric tons of cosmic dust collides with Earth, mainly in the form of micrometeorites. Most of these mineral particles (iron, nickel, etc.) are smaller than grains of sand, and they are falling down on us all the time and all over the globe. Still, little is known about these exotic extraterrestrials. In Search of Stardust is the first comprehensive popular science book about micrometeorites. It's also a photo documentary comprising more than 1,500 previously unpublished images: the first atlas of micrometeorites, hundreds of which are depicted here in high-resolution color microscopic photography and in scanning electron microscope imagery. Author Jon Larsen shows readers how and where to look for micrometeorites, explains the history of micrometeoritics, and offers chapters about micrometeorite formation, classification, and analysis. Thanks to Larsen's work, for the first time it is now possible for anyone to find these amazing tiny stones from space. For more than a century it was believed these incredible space objects could be found only in pristine, unsullied environs like Antarctica and ocean floors. Larsen became the first to break the code and find micrometeorites in populated areas -- in fact, they can be found in the nearest rain gutter. In the book Larsen explains how anyone with a bit of inexpensive equipment can find their own micrometeorites. It was recently discovered that King Tut's dagger was forged from a chunk of a meteorite. What else is made of extraterrestrial rock? Join the hunt!

Magic of Minerals and Rocks

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Author: Dirk Siersma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642186955

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 698

Features 135 splendid color photographs, ranges from vast rock-landscapes recorded in Europe, America, Australia, and Iceland right down to finely detailed images of a few square millimeters. Close-ups of crystals, gems, and fossils are alternated with micro-images of the minute textures and patterns that emerge from thin, translucent sections of rocks and minerals. Literally, as well as figuratively Dirk Wiersma, the photographer, ́zooms in` on the subject matter, leading the reader deeper into various spaces of surprising new forms and perspectives, at times abstract, at other times (pseudo)realistic. Brief accompanying texts are written in a style that is accessible and appealing to a general audience, while also providing the necessary factual information.

Mine Water

Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation

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Author: Paul L. Younger,S.A. Banwart,Robert S. Hedin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401006105

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 1434

Nowhere is the conflict between economic progress and environmental quality more apparent than in the mineral extraction industries. The latter half of the 20th century saw major advances in the reclamation technologies. However, mine water pollution problems have not been addressed. In many cases, polluted mine water long outlives the life of the mining operation. As the true cost of long-term water treatment responsibilities has become apparent, interest has grown in the technologies that would decrease the production of contaminated water and make its treatment less costly. This is the first book to address the mine water issue head-on. The authors explain the complexities of mine water pollution by reviewing the hydrogeological context of its formation, and provide an up-to-date presentation of prevention and treatment technologies. The book will be a valuable reference for all professionals who encounter polluted mine water on a regular or occasional basis.

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

Principles and Fundamental Concepts for the Exploration Geologist

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Author: Franco Pirajno

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642756719

Category: Science

Page: 709

View: 6705

This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.