MERRIAM-wEBSTER'S Advanced Learner's English Dictionary, Stephen J. Perrault, 2008

MERRIAM-wEBSTER'S Advanced Learner's English Dictionary,

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Author: Merriam-Webster, Inc

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 2032

View: 8037

Preface Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is not only an entirely new dictionary created by the editorial staff of America[1]s oldest dictionary publisher it also marks the beginning of a new kind of publishing for this company. Over the past 160 years, Merriam-Webster has produced hundreds of dictionaries and other reference books, and many of those books have been useful to learners of English as a second or foreign language, but this dictionary is the first one that we have produced specifically to meet the needs of those learners. The creation of this dictionary reflects the reality that English has become an international language, and that American English, in particular, is now being used and studied every day by millions of people around the world. We believe that we have a unique opportunity to help students of English in the U.S. and elsewhere to understand our language and to use it more clearly and effectively. This dictionary provides coverage of both American and British English. Its coverage of British English is current and comprehensive. Its coverage of American English is, we believe, unparalleled. The thousands of entries, senses, phrases, forms, and examples that are labeled US in this dictionary will provide learners with a clearer and more precise description of idiomatic American usage than has ever before been available in a dictionary of this kind. The approximately 100,000 entries in this dictionary include a broad selection of words from all major areas of interest, including popular culture, business, sports, science, and technology, among others. Our main focus in choosing entries has been to include the language that people are most likely to need and encounter in their daily lives. The evidence used to make decisions about which words and senses to include was drawn, first of all, from our continually growing database of citation text, now numbering more than 100 million words. That evidence was augmented in essential ways by the resources that are available to us over the Internet, and in particular by the enormous databases of Lexis-Nexis, which provided editors with ready access to vast amounts of material from both American and British sources. Not so long ago dictionary editors had to rely entirely on evidence that had been painstakingly collected over a period of years by a program of reading. That program continues at Merriam-Webster, providing the basis of our citation database, and we continue to find great value in the traditional methods of evidence-gathering, but we also have fully embraced the power of the electronic tools that have become available in recent decades. The use of computers now makes it possible for dictionary editors to examine and describe language at a level of detail that was never before imaginable. The definitions in this dictionary are written in simple language. In many cases, a single use of a word will be given more than one definition. Very often a word will be defined by a quite simple definition, followed by a definition that is perhaps somewhat less simple or that shows how the defined word is related to another word. For example, the verb pioneer is defined both as to help create or develop new ideas, methods, etc. and as to be a pioneer in the development of something . The first definition can certainly stand alone, but the second definition enhances it by underscoring the close connection between the verb pioneer and the noun pioneer a connection that native speakers are unconsciously aware of, but that learners may not sense so strongly. The inclusion of multiple definitions thus helps learners both to expand their vocabularies and to gain a fuller picture of a word[1]s meaning by approaching it from a slightly different direction. Notes of various kinds are also used abundantly throughout the dictionary to clarify and emphasize aspects of usage that cannot be easily captured or expressed in a definition. True fluency in any language, of course, is not acquired by memorizing dictionary definitions, but by hearing and seeing how words are used in combination with each other to express meaning. In writing this book we have devoted a great deal of care and attention to creating simple and accurate definitions, but our feeling throughout has been that the real heart of the dictionary is its examples. We know from experience that dictionary users, whether native speakers or learners, want more examples. They want examples for common words, and they want examples for difficult words. Although not every entry in this dictionary includes an example there is usually very little value in providing an example for, say, a noun like microchip or monoplane the great majority of the entries do, and a large percentage of them include more than one. There are more than 160,000 usage examples in this dictionary. A few of them are quotations taken from well-known works of American and British literature, but most are made-up examples, based on evidence of real English, that have been carefully written to show words being used in appropriate contexts which accurately reflect their uses in actual speech and writing. A large number of the examples in this dictio- 7a JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 2 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface nary do not simply illustrate usage, they also explain it and expand upon it in other ways. Many examples include synonymous words or phrases shown within brackets, thus allowing the reader either to learn a new word or to have the connection between the meanings of words reinforced. Examples also often include glosses, so that phrases and compound terms whose meanings are not obvious can be explained clearly and simply. And we have very frequently explained the meaning of entire phrases and sentences by restating them with other, simpler words. Many examples also show how the same word can be used in slightly different ways[1]or how related words can be used in different ways[1]to say the same thing. We believe that such examples are of great value to the learner they are the next best thing to having a native speaker available by your side to help clarify what you are seeing and hearing. Any comprehensive dictionary contains an enormous amount of information, and dictionary editors have typically been required to use a variety of abbreviations and other shortcuts to fit all that information into the limited space available between the covers of a book. Two of our main goals in creating the entries for this dictionary were to keep the use of such shortcuts to a minimum and to employ conventions that are readily understandable. We set out to create a dictionary that could be easily used without frequent reference to explanatory materials. To achieve that, we have minimized the use of abbreviations and symbols although we were not able to eliminate them entirely and we have tried to use labels and notes whose meanings are immediately clear. We have also made every effort to organize entries in a way that allows users to find the information they want quickly. The most obvious convention we have adopted for this purpose is the use of blue text for examples. The blue text not only highlights the examples, it also makes it much easier to identify the other elements of an entry[1]the definitions, usages notes, and so on[1]and to navigate through long entries to find the particular information that you need. It can sometimes be easy to forget that a large dictionary like this one has to be written word by word and line by line. Each definition, each example, each note that appears in this dictionary is the product of careful and strenuous thought by at least one person, and often by many people, since the nature of the writing and editing process is such that multiple stages of review are required before the work is truly finished. The names of the many people who worked on this book are listed in the following paragraphs. The length of this project has meant that some of the people who were with us when it began had moved on to other parts of their lives by the time it ended. The Merriam-Webster editors credited here include both current and former staff members. Former Director of Defining E. Ward Gilman and former Editor in Chief Frederick C. Mish, both now retired, provided helpful suggestions when the project was in its initial planning stages, as did consultant Robert Ilson. President and Publisher John M. Morse was also involved in the initial planning of the project and provided support and encouragement throughout it. The editors who had the first crack at creating entries included, in no particular order, Karen L. Wilkinson, Susan L. Brady, Thomas F. Pitoniak, Kathleen M. Doherty, Emily A. Brewster, G. James Kossuth, Emily B. Arsenault, Penny L. Couillard-Dix, Emily A. Vezina, Benjamin T. Korzec, Ilya A. Davidovich, Judy Yeh, Rose Martino Bigelow, Kory L. Stamper, Peter A. Sokolowski, Neil S. Serven, Deanna Stathis, Anne Eason, Joanne M. Despres, Rebecca Bryer-Charette, and myself. Dr. Ilson undertook a complete review of the work that was done at that early stage, and he made many valuable corrections and additions. He was particularly helpful in providing good examples and in augmenting our coverage of British English by identifying distinctions often very subtle ones between American and British usage. The pronunciations throughout the dictionary were provided by Joshua S. Guenter. The essential task of checking and re-checking cross-references was handled by Maria Sansalone, Donna L. Rickerby, and Adrienne M. Scholz. The work of copyediting the entries that had been created by the definers was done by editors Wilkinson, Brady, Brewster, Couillard-Dix, Korzec, Yeh, Stamper, Sokolowski, Serven, Eason, Despres, Bryer- Charette, and me. The complexity of this project was such that an additional reviewing stage was added following copyediting. That work was done by editors Bryer-Charette, Korzec, Brewster, Stamper, Brady, Couillard-Dix, Wilkinson, and Madeline L. Novak. The responsibility for final review of the manuscript fell to me. The proofreading of the galleys and page proofs was done by many of the editors mentioned above and by Anne P. Bello and Paul S. Wood. The primary proofreader for the in-house keying of revisions was Kathleen M. Doherty. Specialized editing assistance was provided by editors Wood and Doherty. Most of the illustrations that appear throughout were newly created for this book. The new black-and-white illustrations were drawn by Tim Phelps of Johns Hopkins Univ., and the color illustrations were researched and drawn by Merriam-Webster editor Diane Caswell Christian. Mark A. Stevens oversaw the creation of the new illustrations and planned the black-and-white illustrations along with Lynn Stowe Tomb, who also coordinated work with Mr. Phelps and converted the drawings to electronic form for typesetting. Freelancer Loree Hany and editors Jennifer N. Cislo and Joan I. Narmontas assisted in art research. The selection of the 3,000 entry words that are highlighted as being most important for learners to know was based in large part on initial recommendations provided by James G. Lowe and Madeline L. Novak. Additional research was carried out and final selections were made by John M. Morse. The Geographical Names section was prepared by Daniel J. Hopkins. The other back matter sections were prepared by Mark A. Stevens, C. Roger Davis, and outside contributor Orin Hargraves. Robert D. Copeland arranged for 8a Preface JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 3 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface Content Data Solutions, Inc., to convert the dictionary data files to a suitable format before typesetting them. The converted files were checked by Donna L. Rickerby. Daniel B. Brandon keyed revisions into the converted data files and contributed other technical help. Thomas F. Pitoniak directed the book through its typesetting stages. Project coordination and scheduling were handled by Madeline L. Novak, who was also chiefly responsible for the book[1]s typography and page design. Our notions about what this book could and should be continued to develop as we progressed through the different stages of editing, and many of the people named above made useful suggestions that led to changes, both minor and major, in the book[1]s style and content. Further changes were implemented thanks to comments and suggestions from a group of consultants who reviewed a selection of entries at a fairly late stage in the project. We gratefully acknowledge the important contributions of those consultants, whose names are listed below. We want first of all to express our thanks to Jerome C. Su, President of the Taiwan Association of Translation and Interpretation and Chair of Bookman Books, Taipei, Taiwan, for all of his advice and good suggestions at the reviewing stage and throughout the project. Our other consultants, all of whom provided us with carefully considered and valuable feedback, were Virginia G. Allen, author and educator, Ohio State Univ. James H. Miller, ESL teacher Elizabeth Niergarth, ESL instructor consultant, Harvard Univ. Susan Despres Prior, ESL teacher Caroline Wilcox Reul, lexicographer and ESL teacher Maggie Sokolik, Director, Technical Communication Program, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley Yukio Takahashi, English teacher, Sendai Shirayuri Gakuen High School, Sendai, Japan Gregory Trzebiatowski, Headmaster, Thomas Jefferson School, Concepción, Chile and his students Felipe Opazo, Paula Reyes, and Carolina Sanhueza and Rob Waring, author and educator, Notre Dame Seishin Univ., Okayama, Japan. All of the editors who worked on this book have of course had the experience of studying a foreign language, with varying degrees of success. This project has given us renewed opportunities to understand what it is like to approach Englishwith all its complexities, subtleties, and apparent inconsistenciesas a learner rather than as a native speaker, and that experience has reminded us again of just how challenging the task of learning a new language truly is. We hope and believe that Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is a resource that will make that task easier for students of English. Stephen J. Perrault Editor

Sweetbitter

Roman

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Author: Stephanie Danler

Publisher: Aufbau Digital

ISBN: 3841212883

Category: Fiction

Page: 384

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„Eine rohe, schnörkellose, beißende, wilde Liebesgeschichte.“ Marie Claire. Eigentlich wollte Tess nicht Kellnerin werden, sondern ihrer provinziellen Heimat entkommen, in die Großstadt eintauchen und endlich herausfinden, was sie will vom Leben. Durch Zufall landet sie in einem edlen New Yorker Restaurant mit seinen ganz eigenen Regeln, Allianzen, Intrigen, Affären und Freundschaften. Um nicht unterzugehen, muss sie hart arbeiten und vor allem schnell lernen, was in der Gourmet-Welt wichtig ist. Und dann verliebt sie sich in den unnahbaren Barmann Jake. Sweetbitter ist ein großer Roman über den Genuss und die Obsession – darüber, dass man manchmal besessen sein muss, um wirklich genießen zu können. „Ein Roman als Sinnesrausch.“ Brigitte Woman.

Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary

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Author: Daniel J. Hopkins,MERRIAM-WEBSTER STAFF,편집부

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877795469

Category: Travel

Page: 1387

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Offers 48,000 entries on countries, states, cities, natural landforms, and bodies of water, with information on history, population, and location

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary

Eleventh Edition

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Author: Merriam-Webster

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877798095

Category: Reference

Page: 1623

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Presents concise definitions, pronunciations, abbreviations, some illustrations, usage examples, and synonyms with ten thousand new words and meanings.

The Future of Translation Technology

Towards a World without Babel

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Author: Chan Sin-wai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131755325X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 316

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Technology has revolutionized the field of translation, bringing drastic changes to the way translation is studied and done. To an average user, technology is simply about clicking buttons and storing data. What we need to do is to look beyond a system’s interface to see what is at work and what should be done to make it work more efficiently. This book is both macroscopic and microscopic in approach: macroscopic as it adopts a holistic orientation when outlining the development of translation technology in the last forty years, organizing concepts in a coherent and logical way with a theoretical framework, and predicting what is to come in the years ahead; microscopic as it examines in detail the five stages of technology-oriented translation procedure and the strengths and weaknesses of the free and paid systems available to users. The Future of Translation Technology studies, among other issues: The Development of Translation Technology Major Concepts in Computer-aided Translation Functions in Computer-aided Translation Systems A Theoretical Framework for Computer-Aided Translation Studies The Future of Translation Technology This book is an essential read for scholars and researchers of translational studies and computational linguistics, and a guide to system users and professionals.

Star WarsTM Phasma

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Author: Delilah S. Dawson

Publisher: Blanvalet Taschenbuch Verlag

ISBN: 3641222729

Category: Fiction

Page: 512

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Es war einmal vor langer Zeit, in einer weit, weit entfernten Galaxis ... Phasma, eine der klügsten und gnadenlosesten Sturmtruppen-Anführerinnen der Ersten Ordnung, genießt die Gunst ihrer Vorgesetzten, den Respekt ihrer Kollegen und die Angst ihrer Feinde. Doch trotz ihres Rufes ist sie genauso undurchsichtig wie ihr glänzender Chromhelm. Nun ist ausgerechnet einer ihrer erbittertsten Gegner fest entschlossen, hinter ihre tiefsten Abgründe zu kommen – und ein Geheimnis ans Licht zu bringen, das Phasma schonungslos und ohne Rücksicht auf Verluste zu verteidigen bereit ist ...

Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms

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Author: Merriam-Webster, Inc

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877793410

Category: Reference

Page: 940

View: 9533

"The ideal guide to choosing the right word. Entries go beyond the word lists of a thesaurus, explaining important differences between synonyms. Provides over 17,000 usage examples. Lists antonyms and related words."

Die Amerikanische Sprache

Das Englisch der Vereinigten Staaten

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Author: H. L. Mencken,Heinrich Spies

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663161374

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 180

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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Sentimental Education in Chinese History

An Interdisciplinary Textual Research on Ming and Qing Sources

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Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004123601

Category: Social Science

Page: 606

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A pionering inquiry on the role, perception and representation of emotional sphere in traditional Chinese culture provides a fascinating contribution on a key anthropological problem, in order to understand not only pre-modern private history, but also contemporary Chinese society. The importance of this work goes beyond Chinese studies.

Seelenlos

Roman

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Author: Dean Koontz

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641078512

Category: Fiction

Page: 384

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Der zweite Roman um Odd Thomas Als sein kranker Freund entführt wird, macht sich Odd Thomas fieberhaft auf die Suche nach ihm. Die Spur führt Odd in ein ausgebranntes Indianercasino in der kalifornischen Wüste. Eine mörderische Falle, wie sich bald herausstellt. Denn dort erwartet ihn Dattura, die selbst ernannte Schamanin eines Kultes, der Odd das Blut in den Adern gefrieren lässt.

Wir erzählen uns Geschichten, um zu leben

Mit einem Nachwort von Antje Ravic Strubel

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Author: Joan Didion

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843711305

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 304

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Joan Didion erzählt von den Leitfiguren des American Dream wie Howard Hughes, Joan Baez oder John Wayne, vom Glanz Hollywoods und der Einsamkeit von Alcatraz, von der Aufbruchsstimmung der sechziger Jahre und der Ernüchterung, die ihr folgte. Dabei gelingt es ihr, die amerikanische Wirklichkeit in unvergessliche Bilder zu fassen.

The New York Public Library Book of how and where to Look it Up

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Author: Sherwood Harris

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 382

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Explains how to find and retrieve information, and lists the best book, periodical, electronic, public, government, and private sources

American Reference Books Annual 2000

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Author: Bohdan S. Wynar,Susan D. Strickland,Shannon M. Graff

Publisher: Libraries Unltd Incorporated

ISBN: 9781563088377

Category: Reference

Page: 804

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Thorough and in-depth coverage of reference materials is at your fingertips with American Reference Books Annual. With nearly 1600 descriptive and evaluative entries, it continues its tradition as a comprehensive review source for reference works published or distributed in the United States. It encompasses the entire subject spectrum, covering such areas as general reference, history, education, literature, urban studies, economics and business, and science and technology. Some CD-ROMs and Canadian reference publications are covered.

Arabisch für Dummies

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Author: Amine Bouchentouf

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 352770521X

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 369

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"Arabisch fr Dummies" bietet einen leichten Einstieg in die arabische Sprache. Los geht's mit einer Einfhrung in die Besonderheiten der arabischen Sprache, in die Betonung sowie in die Grammatik. Dann wird es auch schon praktisch: Jedes Kapitel beschftigt sich mit einer Alltagssituation: Sie lernen, wie Sie sich auf Arabisch vorstellen, etwas beschreiben, telefonieren oder ein Hotelzimmer reservieren. Dabei lernen Sie die wichtigsten Stze, Umschreibungen und Begriffe und bekommen nebenbei viele Informationen zum Alltag und zur Kultur im Orient. Am Ende jedes Kapitels gibt es eine kleine bung, mit der Sie Ihre erworbenen Sprachkenntnisse prfen knnen. Im Anhang des Buches finden Sie Verb-Tabellen und ein kleines Arabisch-Deutsch-/Deutsch-Arabisch-Wrterbuch. Auf der beiliegenden CD gibt es die Sprachbungen aus dem Buch zum Anhren und Nachsprechen.

Das kleine Buch der Mode

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Author: Christian Dior

Publisher: Edel:Books

ISBN: 3944296788

Category: Design

Page: 128

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Christian Diors zeitloses ModeABC – nach über 50 Jahren erstmals wieder in deutscher Sprache erhältlich! 1954 veröffentlichte Christian Dior erstmals sein persönliches Mode-Handbuch. Von A bis Z werden darin alle wichtigen Stichworte aus dem Bereich der Mode abgehandelt, über die jede stilbewusste Frau Bescheid wissen sollte – seien es Schnitte, Farben oder Materialien. Auch heute, 60 Jahre später, hat Diors Modebibel nichts von ihrer Gültigkeit verloren. Der klassische Look, der Dior berühmt machte, überzeugt durch seine zeitlose Eleganz und liegt nach wie vor voll im Trend. Das liebevoll gestaltete Büchlein mit Vintage-Charme ist daher ein Muss für alle Frauen, die sich für Mode interessieren.

Historisches und kritisches Wörterbuch II

Zweiter Teil der Auswahl

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Author: Pierre Bayle

Publisher: Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787320148

Category: Philosophy

Page: 250

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Pierre Bayles "Dictionnaire historique et critique" (1. Aufl. 1697) ist als die "Bibel" oder, in den Worten Wilhelm Diltheys, als die "Rüstkammer der Aufklärung" bezeichnet worden. Die Attraktion, die es nicht nur auf die zeitgenössischen Leser ausübte, beruht in erster Linie auf dem Geist nüchterner, vorurteilsfreier Prüfung, der das ganze Werk durchzieht. Diese Grundhaltung traf den Nerv und das Lebensgefühl des 18. Jahrhunderts, das sich nach Kants Worten nur dem verpflichtet fühlte, was vor dem "Richterstuhl der Vernunft" legitimiert worden war. Bayle steht am Anfang dieser Entwicklung und pocht unbeirrbar auf die Rechte der Vernunft, die sich für ihn in einer schonungslosen Prüfung des überlieferten Wissenstandes manifestieren. Im Jahr 2003 haben die Herausgeber aus den mehr als 2000 Artikeln des Wörterbuchs einen ersten Band mit einer Auswahl von gut 30 Artikeln sowie mit den vier "Klarstellungen" Bayles in neuer Übersetzung innerhalb der Philosophischen Bibliothek (PhB 542) vorgelegt. Infolge der positiven Resonanz erscheint anläßlich des 300. Todestages Bayles jetzt der zweite und abschließende Teil der Auswahlausgabe. Der Schwerpunkt liegt wiederum auf den philosophischen Artikeln des 'Dictionnaire'. Zusammen mit den bereits vorliegenden Texten vermitteln die hier präsentierten gut 30 weiteren Artikel einen Eindruck von Bayles philosophischem Denken.

The Multimedia and CD-ROM Directory 1998

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Author: Connectsoft-U S

Publisher: Waterlow Pub Limited

ISBN: 9780333711699

Category: Computers

Page: 1050

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Now in its 19th edition, this comprehensive directory details companies active in multimedia, which continues to evolve alongside the industry that it tracks. The text contains details of approximately 16,000 companies. Entries include company descriptions and classifications by activity, sector, platform, product type, size, turnover and more. The database section is indexed. This year articles from industry leaders and shapers, as well as interviews with heads of trend-setting companies and a round-up of statistics, should make this a useful item for professionals in the industry, and those who purchase multimedia professionally.

The Oxford-Duden German Dictionary

German-English, English-German

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Author: Clark Thyen,Oxford,ed Clark,John Bradbury Sykes,Dudenredaktion (Bibliographisches Institut),Oxford University Press

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198602484

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 1728

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This new edition provides an up-to-date and complete picture of contemporary German, including spelling changes ratified in 1996. Featured are more than 260,000 words, sample sentences, and maps. Thumb-indexed.