Medieval Towns

The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting

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Author: John Schofield,A. G. Vince

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826460028

Category: Social Science

Page: 335

View: 1612

"Though the book is primarily about medieval towns in Britain, many parallels are drawn with contemporary towns and cities all over Europe, from Ireland to Russia and from Scandinavia to Italy. It is written in the belief that medieval urban archaeology should be a Europe-wide study, as are the fields of architecture and urban history."--BOOK JACKET.

Lords and Towns in Medieval Europe

The European Historic Towns Atlas Project

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Author: Howard B. Clarke,Anngret Simms

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351921282

Category: History

Page: 574

View: 8795

This volume is based on possibly the biggest single Europe-wide project in urban history. In 1955 the International Commission for the History of Towns established the European historic towns atlas project in accordance with a common scheme in order to encourage comparative urban studies. Although advances in urban archaeology since the 1960s have highlighted the problematic relationship between the oldest extant town plan and the actual origins of a town, the large-scale cadastral maps as they have been made available by the European historic towns atlas project are still necessary if we want to understand the evolution of the physical form of our towns. By 2014 the project consisted of over 500 individual publications from over 18 different countries across Europe. Each atlas comprises at least a core-map at the scale of 1:2500, analytical maps and an explanatory text. The time has come to use this enormous database that has been compiled over the last 40 years. This volume, itself based on a conference related to this topic that was held in the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin in 2006, takes up this challenge. The focus of the volume is on the question of how seigneurial power influenced the creation of towns in medieval Europe and of how this process in turn influenced urban form. Part I of the volume addresses two major issues: the history of the use of town plans in urban research and the methodological challenges of comparative urban history. Parts II and III constitute the core of the book focusing on the dynamic relationship between lordship and town planning in the core area of medieval Europe and on the periphery. In Part IV the symbolic meaning of town plans for medieval people is discussed. Part V consists of critical contributions by an archaeologist, an art historian and an historical geographer. By presenting case studies by leading researchers from different European countries, this volume combines findings that were hitherto not available in English. A comparison of the English and German bibliographies, attached to this volume, reveals some interesting insights as to how the focus of research shifted over time. The book also shows how work on urban topography integrates the approaches of the historian, archaeologist and historical geographer. The narrative of medieval urbanization becomes enriched and the volume is a genuine contribution to European studies.

The Oxford Handbook of Later Medieval Archaeology in Britain

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Author: Christopher Gerrard,Alejandra Gutiérrez

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062111

Category: Social Science

Page: 968

View: 5980

The Middle Ages are all around us in Britain. The Tower of London and the castles of Scotland and Wales are mainstays of cultural tourism and an inspiring cross-section of later medieval finds can now be seen on display in museums across England, Scotland, and Wales. Medieval institutions from Parliament and monarchy to universities are familiar to us and we come into contact with the later Middle Ages every day when we drive through a village or town, look up at the castle on the hill, visit a local church or wonder about the earthworks in the fields we see from the window of a train. The Oxford Handbook of Later Medieval Archaeology in Britain provides an overview of the archaeology of the later Middle Ages in Britain between AD 1066 and 1550. 61 entries, divided into 10 thematic sections, cover topics ranging from later medieval objects, human remains, archaeological science, standing buildings, and sites such as castles and monasteries, to the well-preserved relict landscapes which still survive. This is a rich and exciting period of the past and most of what we have learnt about the material culture of our medieval past has been discovered in the past two generations. This volume provides comprehensive coverage of the latest research and describes the major projects and concepts that are changing our understanding of our medieval heritage.

The Rise of Cities in North-West Europe

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Author: Adriaan Verhulst

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521469098

Category: History

Page: 174

View: 9308

A concise study of large time frame (fourth-twelfth centuries) charting the growth and development of cities in north-west Europe.

Castles and Landscapes

Power, Community and Fortification in Medieval England

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Author: O. H. Creighton

Publisher: Equinox Publishing Ltd.

ISBN: 9781904768678

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 5227

Castles were among the most dominant features of the medieval landscape and many remain impressive structures to the present day. This paperback edition of a book first published in hardback in 2002 is a fascinating and provocative study which looks at castles in a new light, using the theories and methods of landscape studies. For the first time castles are examined not as an isolated phenomenon, but in relation to their surrounding human as well as physical landscapes. Taking a thematic approach, the study examines a broad range of evidence - archaeological, documentary and topographical - to put castles back into the medieval landscape and assess their contribution to its evolution. Far more than simply a book about castles, this is a study of the impact of power and authority on the landscape. O.H. Creighton is Lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Exeter. He is the author (with R.A. Higham) of Medieval Castles (Shire, 2003).

The Archaeology of the 11th Century

Continuities and Transformations

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Author: Dawn M Hadley,Christopher Dyer

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315312921

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 1672

The Archaeology of the 11th Century addresses many key questions surrounding this formative period of English history and considers conditions before 1066 and how these changed. The impact of the Conquest of England by the Normans is the central focus of the book, which not only assesses the destruction and upheaval caused by the invading forces, but also examines how the Normans contributed to local culture, religion, and society. The volume explores a range of topics including food culture, funerary practices, the development of castles and their impact, and how both urban and rural life evolved during the 11th century. Through its nuanced approach to the complex relationships and regional identities which characterised the period, this collection stimulates renewed debate and challenges some of the long-standing myths surrounding the Conquest. Presenting new discoveries and fresh ideas in a readable style with numerous illustrations, this interdisciplinary book is an invaluable resource for those interested in the archaeology, history, geography, art, and literature of the 11th century.

Segregation – Integration – Assimilation

Religious and Ethnic Groups in the Medieval Towns of Central and Eastern Europe

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Author: Balázs Nagy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351901303

Category: History

Page: 282

View: 1578

There is a widespread concern today with the role and experiences of ethnic and religious minorities, and their potential for conflict and harmony with 'host communities' and with each other, especially in towns. Interest in historical aspects of these phenomena is growing rapidly, not least in studies of the long and complex history of the towns of Central and Eastern Europe. Most such studies focus on particular places or on particular groups, but this volume offers a broader view covering the period from the tenth to the sixteenth century and regions from Germany to Dalmatia and from Epirus to Livonia, with an emphasis on the territory of medieval Hungary. The focus is on the changing nature of identity, perception and legal status of groups, on relations within and between them, and on the ways in which these elements were affected by the external political regimes and ideologies to which the towns were subjected. Many of the places examined were notable for the complexity of their ethnic and religious composition, and for their exposure to a wide range of external influences, including long-distance trade and tensions between settled and semi-nomadic ways of life. Overall the volume illustrates the variety of ways in which minorities found a place in towns - as citizens, outsiders, or in some other role - and how that could vary according to local circumstances and over time. Dealing with the formative period for modern European towns, this volume not only reveals much about medieval society and urban history, but poses questions still relevant today.

London, 1100-1600

The Archaeology of a Capital City

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Author: John Schofield

Publisher: Equinox

ISBN: 9781908049728

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 8875

Since the early 1970s the increasingly effective conduct of archaeological work in the City of London and surrounding parts of the conurbation have revolutionised our view of the development and European importance of London between 1100 and 1600. There have been hundreds of archaeological excavations of every type of site, from the cathedral to chapels, palaces to outhouses, bridges, wharves, streams, fields, kilns, roads and lanes. The study of the material culture of Londoners over these five centuries has begun in earnest, based on thousands of accurately dated artefacts, especially found along the waterfront. Work by documentary historians has complemented and filled out the new picture. This book, written by an archaeologist who has been at the centre of this study since 1974, will summarise the main findings and new suggestions about the development of the City, its ups and downs through the Black Death and the Dissolution of the Monasteries; its place in Europe as a capital city with great architecture and relations with many other parts of Europe, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean. London has been the most intensively studied medieval city in Europe by archaeologists, due to the pace of development especially since the 1970s. Thus although this will be a study of a single medieval city, it will be a major contribution to the Archaeology of Europe, 1100-1600. The book is endorsed by the Museum of London, the City of London Archaeological Trust and the City of London Corporation whose logos will appear on the back cover.

Medieval Towns

A Reader

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Author: Maryanne Kowaleski

Publisher: Utp Higher Education

ISBN: 9781442600911

Category: History

Page: 405

View: 546

"Medieval Towns will become a standard sourcebook." - Martha Howell, Miriam Champion Professor of History, Columbia University

Medieval Archaeology

Understanding Traditions and Contemporary Approaches

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Author: Chris Gerrard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134566050

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 3525

The archaeology of the later Middle Ages is a comparatively new field of study in Britain. At a time when archaeoloy generally is experiencing a surge of popularity, our understanding of medieval settlement, artefacts, environment, buildings and landscapes has been revolutionised. Medieval archaeology is now taught widely throughout Europe and has secured a place in higer education's teaching across many disciplines. In this book Gerrard examines the long and rich intellectual heritage of later medieval archaeology in England, Scotland and Wales and summarises its current position. Written in three parts, the author first discusses the origins of antiquarian, Victorian and later studies and explores the pervasive influence of the Romantic Movement and the Gothic Revival. The ideas and achievements of the 1930s are singled out as a springboard for later methodological and conceptual developments. Part II examines the emergence of medieval archaeology as a more coherent academic subject in the post-war years, appraising major projects and explaining the impact of processual archaeology and the rescue movement in the period up to the mid-1980s. Finally the book shows the extent to which the philosophies of preservation and post-processual theoretical advances have begun to make themselves felt. Recent developments in key areas such as finds, settlements and buildings are all considered as well as practice, funding and institutional roles. Medieval Archaeology is a crucial work for students of medieval archaeology to read and will be of interest to archaeologists, historians and all who study or visit the monuments of the Middle Ages.

The Jews in Medieval Britain

Historical, Literary, and Archaeological Perspectives

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Author: Patricia Skinner

Publisher: Boydell Press

ISBN: 9780851159317

Category: History

Page: 175

View: 7632

Britain's medieval Jewish community arrived with the Normans in 1066 and was expelled from the country in 1290. This is the first time in many years that its life has been comprehensively examined for a student and general readership. Beginning with an introduction setting the medieval British experience into its European context, the book continues with three chapters outlining the history of the Jews' presence and a discussion of where they settled. Further chapters then explore themes such as their relationship with the Christian church, Jewish women's lives, the major types of evidence used by historians, the latest evidence emerging from archaeological exploration, and new approaches from literary studies. The book closes with a reappraisal of one of the best-known communities, that at York. Drawing together the work of experts in the field, and supported by an extensive bibliographical guide, this is a valuable and revealing account of medieval Jewish history in Britain. Patricia Skinner is a Wellcome Research Fellow in the College of Arts and Humanities, Swansea University. Contributors: ANTHONY BALE, SUZANNE BARTLETT, PAUL BRAND, BARRIE DOBSON, JOHN EDWARDS, JOSEPH HILLABY, D.A. HINTON, ROBIN MUNDILL, ROBERT C. STACEY.

Urban Growth and the Medieval Church

Gloucester and Worcester

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Author: Nigel Baker,Richard Holt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135187652X

Category: History

Page: 450

View: 738

It has long been recognised that the Church played a major role in the development of towns and cities from the earliest times, a fact attested to by the prominence and number of ecclesiastical buildings that still dominate many urban areas. Yet despite this physical evidence, and the work of archaeologists and historians, many important aspects of the early stages of urbanization in England are still poorly understood. Not least, there are many unanswered questions concerning the processes by which the larger towns emerged as planned settlements during the pre-Conquest centuries. Whilst the commitment of the Wessex kings is recognized, questions remain concerning the participation of the Church in this process. Likewise, our understanding of the Church's influence in the later development of towns is not yet fully developed. Many intriguing questions remain concerning such issues as the founding of parish churches and their boundaries, and the extent to which the Church, as a major landowner, helped shape the evolving identity of towns and their suburbs. It is questions such as these that this volume sets out to answer. Employing a wealth of historical and archaeological evidence, two key towns - Gloucester and Worcester - are closely examined in order to build up a picture of their respective developments throughout the medieval period. Through this multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, a picture begins to emerge the Church's role in helping to shape not only the spiritual, but also the social, economic and cultural development of the urban environment.

The Archaeology of Medieval Europe

Volume 1, Eighth to Twelfth Centuries Ad and Volume 2, Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries

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Author: Martin Carver,James Graham-Campbell,Jan Klapste,Magdalena Valor

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9788771240177

Category: History

Page: 1084

View: 2638

The two volumes of The Archaeology of Medieval Europe together comprise the first complete account of Medieval Archaeology across the continent. This ground-breaking set will enable readers to track the development of different cultures and regions over the 800 years that formed the Europe we have today. In addition to revealing the process of Europeanisation, within its shared intellectual and technical inheritance, the complete work provides an opportunity for demonstrating the differences that were inevitably present across the continent - from Iceland to Sicily and Portugal to Finland. Forty-one archaeologists from fifteen countries collaborated to produce Volume 1, which was published in 2007 and presented the period from the eighth to the twelfth century. Sixty-six archaeologists from eighteen countries have got together to create Volume 2, which surveys the scene from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries. In this second volume, the same broad scheme is followed. After introducing the method and theory of Medieval Archaeology, the focus is on Habitat (environment, rural life, housing and portable artefacts), followed by Power, where war, manufacture, trade and towns are the subjects for discussion. A third theme is the study of Spirituality, an often overwhelming force in medieval life, which archaeologists encounter in landscape, buildings and burial practice. As well as the expected emphasis on Christian Catholic practice, there are major sections showing the importance of Judaism and the Islamic presence in later Medieval Europe. Each volume is comprehensively illustrated throughout in colour and monochrome, with line drawings, tables and maps designed to guide the reader. The book is intended to show what archaeology can do, not only for the archaeologist, but for the historian, the art historian, the environmentalist, the zoologist and the general scientist - in fact, all those scholars, students and general readers, for whom the Middle Ages is a fundamental element in the foundations of modern Europe.

Northwest Europe in the Early Middle Ages, c.AD 600–1150

A Comparative Archaeology

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Author: Christopher Loveluck

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110747082X

Category: History

Page: 504

View: 6801

Christopher Loveluck's study explores the transformation of Northwest Europe (primarily Britain, France and Belgium) from the era of the first post-Roman 'European Union' under the Carolingian Frankish kings to the so-called 'feudal' age, between c. AD 600 and 1150. During these centuries radical changes occurred in the organisation of the rural world. Towns and complex communities of artisans and merchant-traders emerged and networks of contact between northern Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Middle and Far East were redefined, with long-lasting consequences into the present day. Loveluck provides the most comprehensive comparative analysis of the rural and urban archaeological remains in this area for twenty-five years. Supported by evidence from architecture, relics, manuscript illuminations and texts, this book explains how the power and intentions of elites were confronted by the aspirations and actions of the diverse rural peasantry, artisans and merchants, producing both intended and unforeseen social changes.

The Logic of Political Conflict in Medieval Cities

Italy and the Southern Low Countries, 1370-1440

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Author: Patrick Lantschner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191053848

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 4754

This volume traces the logic of urban political conflict in late medieval Europe's most heavily urbanized regions, Italy and the Southern Low Countries. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are often associated with the increasing consolidation of states, but at the same time they also saw high levels of political conflict and revolt in cities that themselves were a lasting heritage of this period. In often radically different ways, conflict constituted a crucial part of political life in the six cities studied for this book: Bologna, Florence, and Verona, as well as Liège, Lille, and Tournai. The Logic of Political Conflict in Medieval Cities argues that such conflicts, rather than subverting ordinary political life, were essential features of the political systems that developed in cities. Conflicts were embedded in a polycentric political order characterized by multiple political units and bases of organization, ranging from guilds to external agencies. In this multi-faceted and shifting context, late medieval city dwellers developed particular strategies of legitimating conflict, diverse modes of behaviour, and various forms of association through which conflict could be addressed. At the same time, different configurations of these political units gave rise to specific systems of conflict which varied from city to city. Across all these cities, conflict lay at the basis of a distinct form of political organization-and represents the nodal point around which this political and social history of cities is written.

Medieval Life

Archaeology and the Life Course

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Author: Roberta Gilchrist

Publisher: Boydell Press

ISBN: 1843837226

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 934

An examination of daily life in the Middle Ages which reveals the intimate relations between age groups, between the living and the dead, and between people and things.

Medieval Town Walls

An Archaeology and Social History of Urban Defence

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Author: Oliver Hamilton Creighton,Robert Higham

Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited

ISBN: 9780752414454

Category: Architecture

Page: 320

View: 3819

The study of urban town walls has, for too long, been in the shadow of more glamorous and photogenic architectural monuments such as castles, cathedrals and palaces. This book seeks to redress this by bringing town walls to the forefront of discussion. In looking at town walls in England and Wales from the Norman Conquest to the English Civil Wars, the authors explore the development of town walls, their function, social value and significance. Exploiting a wide range of sources, including archaeology, topography, cartography, documentary and pictorial evidence, the book discusses and describes the walls of both large and small towns, including those where much and little is preserved above ground: Canterbury, Chester, Southampton, York, Norwich, Brecon, Coventry, Ludlow and Nottingham. The book includes a gazetteer of survivng remains and lots of references to further reading for those wanting to do more detailed research.

Background to Archaeology

Britain in Its European Setting

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Author: Desmond Collins

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 116

View: 4375

A concise, clearly written introduction to the early past of Britain and Europe from the beginnings up to the twelfth century AD, which presents archaeological research in a readily understandable form. Written, and originally published in 1973, for readers with no specialist knowledge or the subject, a major virtue of this book is the way in which it brings into focus all the separate strands of evidence to present a coherent narrative development. The account starts with a brief survey of human evolution and a consideration of the evidence of tool-making in the Old Stone Age. It goes on to describe the origins and spread of farming and the subsequent development of metallurgy and full urban civilization and the contribution made by the urban civilization of Rome to the development of Europe. It looks at the Migration Period through to the reestablishment of urban culture in northern Europe concluding with a brief description of conditions in the twelfth century.

Animaltown

Beasts in Medieval Urban Space

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Author: Alice Mathea Choyke,Gerhard Jaritz

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Oxford Limited

ISBN: 9781407315720

Category: Social Science

Page: 209

View: 5490

" ... comprises peer-reviewed papers based on a conference held in 2008, 'Fauna and Medieval Urban Space', at the Medieval Studies Department of the Central European University and organized by the editors ..."--Page 1.

Vrbes Extinctae

Archaeologies of Abandoned Classical Towns

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Author: Andrea Augenti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351874128

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 4249

Core tourist sites for the classical world are the ruins of those many and scattered examples of 'lost' and abandoned towns - from Pompeii to Timgad to Ephesus and Petra. Usually studied for their peaks and growth, rarely are their ends explored in detail, to consider the processes of loss and also to trace their 'afterlives', when they were often robbed for materials even if still hosting remnant populations.This volume breaks new ground by examining the phenomenon of urban loss and abandonment from Roman to medieval times across the former Roman Empire. Through a series of case studies two main aspects are examined: firstly, the sequences and chronologies of loss of sites, roles, structures, people, identity; and secondly the methodologies of study of these sites - from early discoveries and exploitation of such sites to current archaeological and scientific approaches (notably excavation, urban survey, georadar and geophysics) to studying these crucial centres and their fates. How can we determine the causes of urban failure - whether economic, military, environmental, political or even religious? How drawn out was the process of urban decay and abandonment? What were the natures of the afterlives of these sites which archaeology is beginning to trace? How far does scrutiny of these 'extinct' sites help in discussion of archaeological trajectories of sites that persisted? The fourteen core chapters in this collection consider specific examples and case studies of such 'lost' classical cities from across the many Roman provinces in order to address these questions. Bringing together an array of archaeological and historical voices to share views on and findings from excavations and surveys of 'failed' towns, this volume offers much to scholars of Roman, late antique and early medieval and medieval archaeology and history.